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Loquat

Loquat
Eriobotrya japonica
Loquat leaves and fruits
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Rosids
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Genus: Eriobotrya
Species: E. japonica
Binomial name
Eriobotrya japonica
(Thunb.) Lindl.
Synonyms[1]
  • Crataegus bibas Lour.
  • Mespilus japonica Thunb.
  • Photinia japonica (Thunb.) Benth. & Hook. f. ex Asch. & Schweinf.

The loquat (Eriobotrya japonica) is a species of flowering plant in the family Rosaceae, native to south-central China.[2] It is a large evergreen shrub or small tree, grown commercially for its yellow fruit, and also cultivated as an ornamental plant.

Eriobotrya japonica was formerly thought to be closely related to the genus Mespilus, and is still sometimes known as the Japanese medlar. It is also known as Japanese plum[3] and Chinese plum.[4]

Contents

  • Description 1
    • Fruit 1.1
  • History 2
  • Cultivation 3
  • Culinary use 4
  • Alcoholic beverages 5
  • Nutrition 6
  • Medicinal 7
  • Cultural references 8
  • Etymology 9
  • See also 10
  • References 11
    • Works cited 11.1
  • External links 12

Description

Eriobotrya japonica is a large evergreen shrub or small tree, with a rounded crown, short trunk and woolly new twigs. The tree can grow to 5–10 metres (16–33 ft) tall, but is often smaller, about 3–4 metres (10–13 ft). The leaves are alternate, simple, 10–25 centimetres (4–10 in) long, dark green, tough and leathery in texture, with a serrated margin, and densely velvety-hairy below with thick yellow-brown pubescence; the young leaves are also densely pubescent above, but this soon rubs off.[5][6][7][8]

Fruit

Fruit structure

Loquats are unusual among fruit trees in that the flowers appear in the autumn or early winter, and the fruits are ripe in late winter or early spring. The flowers are 2 cm (1 in) in diameter, white, with five petals, and produced in stiff panicles of three to ten flowers. The flowers have a sweet, heady aroma that can be smelled from a distance.

Loquat fruits, growing in clusters, are oval, rounded or pear-shaped, 3–5 centimetres (1–2 in) long, with a smooth or downy, yellow or orange, sometimes red-blushed skin. The succulent, tangy flesh is white, yellow or orange and sweet to subacid or acid, depending on the cultivar.

Each fruit contains from one to ten ovules, with three to five being most common.[9] A variable number of the ovules mature into large brown seeds. The skin, though thin, can be peeled off manually if the fruit is ripe. In Egypt varieties with sweeter fruits and fewer seeds are often grafted on inferior quality specimens.

The fruits are the sweetest when soft and orange. The flavour is a mixture of peach, citrus and mild mango.

History

Loquats and a Mountain Bird, by an anonymous Chinese artist of the Southern Song Dynasty (1127–1279).

The loquat is originally from China, where related species can be found growing in the wild.[10][11][12][13] It was introduced into Japan and became

  • Loquat Fruit Facts from the California Rare Fruit Growers
  • Purdue University Center for New Crops & Plant Products Loquat webpage
  • Loquat Growing in the Florida Home Landscape, from the University of Florida IFAS Extension Website
  • Japanese "Biwa Cha" Loquat Tea: Benefits & Traditional Senjiru Brew Method
  • The Medicinal Benefits of Growing Your Own Remedy: Loquat Tree

External links

  • Staub, Jack (2008). 75 Remarkable Fruits For Your Garden. Gibbs Smith.  

Works cited

  • Botanical and Horticultural Information on the Loquat (Traditional Chinese).
  1. ^ "The Plant List: A Working List of All Plant Species". Retrieved 13 April 2014. 
  2. ^ "Flora of China". 
  3. ^ "Japanese Plum / Loquat". University of Florida, Nassau County Extension, Horticulture. Retrieved 20 March 2012. 
  4. ^ Linda M. Hunt, Nedal Hamdi Arar, and Laurie L. Akana (2000). "Herbs, Prayer, and Insulin Use of Medical and Alternative Treatments by a Group of Mexican American Diabetes Patients". The Journal of Family Practice 49 (3). 
  5. ^ Eriobotrya japonicaLindley, John. 1821. Transactions of the Linnean Society of London 13(1): 102,
  6. ^ Thunberg, Carl Peter. 1780. Nova Acta Regiae Societatis Scientiarum Upsaliensis 3: 208, Mespilus japonica
  7. ^ Ascherson, Paul Friedrich August & Schweinfurth, Georg August. 1887. Illustration de la Flore d'Égypte 73, Photinia japonica
  8. ^ Davidse, G., M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera. 2014. Saururaceae a Zygophyllaceae. 2(3): ined. In G. Davidse, M. Sousa Sánchez, S. Knapp & F. Chiang Cabrera (eds.) Flora Mesoamericana. Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, México D.F..
  9. ^ "Loquat". Hort.purdue.edu. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "Loquat, production and market." (PDF). First international symposium on loquat. Zaragoza : CIHEAM Options Méditerranéennes. 
  11. ^ Lin, S., Sharpe, R. H., and Janick, J. (1999). "Loquat: Botany and Horticulture." (PDF). Horticultural Reviews 23: 235–236. 
  12. ^ Li, G. F., Zhang, Z. K., and Lin, S. Q. "Origin and Evolution of Eriobotrya.". ISHS Acta Horticulturae 887: III International Symposium on Loquat. 
  13. ^ Zhang, H. Z., Peng, S. A., Cai, L. H., and Fang, D. Q. (1990). "The germplasm resources of the genus Eriobotrya with special reference on the origin of E. japonica Lindl." 17 (1 ed.). Acta Horticulturae Sinica. pp. 5–12. 
  14. ^ Soriano, J. M., Romero, C., Villanova, S., Llacer, G., and Badenes, M. L. (2005). (Thunb) Lindl) assessed by SSR markers."Eriobotrya japonica"Genetic diversity of loquat germplasm (. Genome 48: 108. 
  15. ^ Eriobotrya japonicaBiota of North America Project,
  16. ^ Eriobotrya japonicaWeeds of Australia, Queensland Biosecurity Edition, loquat,
  17. ^ See the Dicionário Houaiss, entries for "nêspera" (loquat) and "nespereira" (loquat tree).
  18. ^ a b Staub 2008, p. 133.
  19. ^ a b Description from California Rare Fruit Growers, Inc.
  20. ^ "RHS Plant Selector Eriobotrya japonica (F) AGM / RHS Gardening". Apps.rhs.org.uk. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  21. ^ California Rare Fruit Growers (1997). "Loquat". Retrieved 14 October 2014. 
  22. ^ "World News - Eriobotrya_japonica". Cosplaxy.com. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  23. ^ Tropical and Subtropical Fruits: Postharvest Physiology, Processing and Packaging. Editor(s): Muhammad Siddiq [2]
  24. ^ Wolfram Alpha entry
  25. ^ a b "Medicinal Loquat Trees". Prepper Gardens. Retrieved 8 January 2014. 
  26. ^ "How to Make Japanese Loquat Leaves Tea (Biwa Cha)". WAWAZA. 1 August 2011. Retrieved 8 May 2013. 
  27. ^ pfaf.org database

References

  • Kumquat (Although kumquats are not related botanically to loquats, the two names share an origin in their old Chinese names.)
  • Coppertone loquat, a hybrid of Eriobotrya deflexa (synonym: Photinia deflexa) and Rhaphiolepis indica

See also

The name loquat derives from lou4 gwat1, the Cantonese pronunciation of its old classical Chinese name (simplified Chinese: 芦橘; traditional Chinese: 蘆橘; pinyin: lújú, literally "reed orange").

A loquat leaf, shown at a high magnification, illustrating the general appearance of the leaf and the structure of the venation

Etymology

In Spanish the fruits are referred to as nísperos (or, in southern areas of Mexico, mísperos) and are associated with the Day of the Dead in Mexico, when they are commonly placed on altars as offerings to the spirits of the deceased.

Cultural references

Eaten in quantity, loquats have a gentle but noticeable sedative effect, lasting up to 24 hours.[27]

In Japan, loquat leaves are dried to make a mild beverage known as biwa cha by brewing them using the traditional Japanese senjiru method. Biwa cha is held to beautify skin and heal inflammatory skin conditions such as psoriasis and eczema and to heal chronic respiratory conditions such as bronchitis.[26]

Loquat syrup is used in Chinese medicine for soothing the throat and is a popular ingredient for cough drops.[25] The leaves, combined with other ingredients and known as pipa gao (枇杷膏; pinyin: pípágāo; literally "loquat paste"), it acts as a demulcent and an expectorant, as well as to soothe the digestive and respiratory systems.[25]

Medicinal

Like most related plants, the seeds (pips) and young leaves of the plant are slightly poisonous, containing small amounts of cyanogenic glycosides (including amygdalin) which release cyanide when digested, though the low concentration and bitter flavour normally prevent enough being eaten to cause harm.

The loquat is low in saturated fat and sodium, and is high in vitamin A, dietary fiber, potassium, and manganese.[24]

Loquats, raw
Nutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 197 kJ (47 kcal)
12.14 g
Dietary fiber 1.7 g
Fat
0.2 g
0.43 g
Vitamins
Vitamin A equiv.
(10%)
76 μg
Thiamine (B1)
(2%)
0.019 mg
Riboflavin (B2)
(2%)
0.024 mg
Niacin (B3)
(1%)
0.18 mg
Vitamin B6
(8%)
0.1 mg
Folate (B9)
(4%)
14 μg
Vitamin C
(1%)
1 mg
Minerals
Calcium
(2%)
16 mg
Iron
(2%)
0.28 mg
Magnesium
(4%)
13 mg
Manganese
(7%)
0.148 mg
Phosphorus
(4%)
27 mg
Potassium
(6%)
266 mg
Sodium
(0%)
1 mg
Zinc
(1%)
0.05 mg

Link to USDA Database entry
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutrition

In Italy nespolino[22] liqueur is made from the seeds, reminiscent of nocino and amaretto, both prepared from nuts and apricot kernels. Both the loquat seeds and the apricot kernels contain cyanogenic glycosides, but the drinks are prepared from varieties that contain only small quantities (such as Mogi and Tanaka[23]), so there is no risk of cyanide poisoning.

Loquats can also be used to make light wine. It is fermented into a fruit wine, sometimes using just the crystal sugar and white liquor.

Alcoholic beverages

Loquats are abundant in Pakistan, from Islamabad north, during the month of April, where the sour unripe fruit are used to make chutneys and sauces.

The fruit is also processed into confectioneries.

The fruit is sometimes canned. The waste ratio, however, is 30 percent or more, due to the seed size.

The loquat has a high sugar, acid, and pectin content.[21] It is eaten as a fresh fruit and mixes well with other fruits in fresh fruit salads or fruit cups. The fruits are also commonly used to make jam, jelly, and chutney, and are often served poached in light syrup. Firm, slightly immature fruits are best for making pies or tarts.

Loquat in plate

Culinary use

In the US, the loquat tree is hardy only in USDA zones 8 and above, and will flower only where winter temperatures do not fall below 30 °F (−1 °C). In such areas, the tree flowers in autumn and the fruit ripens in late winter.[18]

In the highland parts of Central America, the loquat has become naturalized, and is often found growing wild in areas that have been disturbed but abandoned, its seeds having been dispersed by birds. Below 1000 meters, the fruit remains inedible for its high acidity, but above it, the wild fruit is appreciated and much harvested for its sweet, fruity flavor. It is occasionally planted for living fenceposts, as the tree is long-lived, not much subject to disease, and the wood is hard and durable. Good quality logs are much sought-after by furniture makers in Central America, who prize its hardness and durability .

In temperate climates it is grown as an ornamental with winter protection, as the fruits seldom ripen to an edible state. In the United Kingdom, it has gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.[20]

Japan is the leading producer of loquats followed by Israel and then Brazil.[19]

There are many named cultivars, with orange or white flesh.[19] Some cultivars are intended for home-growing, where the flowers open gradually, and thus the fruit also ripens gradually, compared to the commercially grown species where the flowers open almost simultaneously, and the whole tree's fruit also ripens together.

Fruit
Loquat in flower. This is a cultivar intended for home-growing, where the flowers open gradually resulting in fruit also ripening gradually.

Over 800 loquat cultivars exist in Asia. Self-fertile variants include the 'Gold Nugget' and 'Mogi' cultivars.[18] The loquat is easy to grow in subtropical to mild temperate climates where it is often primarily grown as an ornamental plant, especially for its sweet-scented flowers, and secondarily for its delicious fruit. The boldly textured foliage adds a tropical look to gardens, contrasting well with many other plants. It is popular in the American South as an ornamental plant for its blossoms, though winter frosts rarely allow the flowers to survive and bear fruit the following spring.

Cultivation

The loquat was often mentioned in ancient Chinese literature, such as the poems of Li Bai. In Portuguese literature, it is mentioned since before the Age of Discovery.[17]

[16][15]

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