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Luna-Glob

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Luna-Glob

Luna-Glob (Russian: Луна-Глоб, meaning Lunar sphere) is a Moon exploration program by the Russian Federal Space Agency (Roscosmos). It will be the first of the missions planned before the creation of a fully robotic lunar base.

Program based on plans dating back to 1997. Due to financial problems, however, the project was put on hold only to be revived a few years later. Initially scheduled for launch in 2012[1] by a Soyuz-2 rocket,[2] the mission has been delayed many times, first to 2014 and then to 2015[3][4] and 2016.[5][6] As of November 2014, Luna-Glob is planned to be launched in 2018.[7]

History

Initially, Luna-Glob was planned as orbiter with ground penetrating sensors.[8] Four Japanese-built penetrators inherited from the Lunar-A was to be used, each weighing 45 kg (100 lb), including 14 kg (31 lb) for the penetrator proper. Furthermore, seismic experiments were planned, including the use of four penetrators, which will slam into the lunar surface equipped to detect seismic signals. These experiments are expected to help clarify the origin of Earth's moon whereas two of the penetrators are planned to land near the Apollo 11 and Apollo 12 landing sites, taking advantage of seismic data gathered there from 1969 to 1974. The payload of the orbiter will total 120 kg (260 lb) and include astrophysics experiments, dust monitors, plasma sensors, including the LORD astronomy payload, designed to study ultra-high-energy cosmic rays.[9]

Luna-Resurs was initially planned as a joint orbiter-rover mission (the orbiter was to be the Indian Chandrayaan-2) that will feature a 58 kg Russian Polar Moon Rover and lander, as part of the International Lunar Network.[10] This mission will land in Moon's south pole, examine a crater and operate for up to one year. The six wheeled, solar powered rover will land near one of the poles and will survive for a year, roving up to 150 km at a speed of 360 m/h.[10] Because the loss of the Fobos-Grunt in 2011 which was planned as a test for the landing system, Russia cited its inability to provide the lander within the proposed time. India then decided to develop the lunar mission independently.[11] Next lander will carry a large 400 kg rover capable of in-situ soil analysis. Lander with a 400 kg ascent stage will return up to 1 kilogram (2.2 lb) of surface and rock samples.[12]

List of missions

As of November 2014, it was announced about next five missions:[13][14][15]

  • Luna-Glob lander (or Luna-25), a lunar pole lander, planned launch in 2018.[7]
  • Luna-Glob orbiter (or Luna-26), a lunar orbiter, planned launch in 2018 or 2019.
  • Luna-Resurs lander (or Luna-27), a lunar lander, planned launch in 2019 or 2020.
  • Luna-Grunt rover (or Luna-28), a lunar rover (lunokhod), proposed launch around 2023 or 2025.
  • Luna-Grunt sample return vehicle (or Luna-29), lunar sample return mission, proposed launch around 2025.

Future lunar base

It was planned in 2008, that a robotic lunar base that follows Luna-Glob would be a "Robotic proving ground", consist of several components: solar power station,telecommunication station, technological station, scientific station, long-range research rover, landing and launch area, orbiting satellite.[16][17] This project was planned for after 2020, with an expected completion date of 2037.[18]

See also

References

  1. ^ "Fundamental Space Studies".  
  2. ^ "Lavochkin begins phase B work for Luna-Glob 1 orbiter". www.flightglobal.com. Retrieved 2008-10-16. 
  3. ^ Российский зонд Луна-Глоб отправится исследовать Луну в 2015 году
  4. ^ "First Russian moon mission delayed". Space Exp. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  5. ^ Roscosmos: Fundamental space researches
  6. ^ "Future planetary missions". Space Exp. Retrieved 2013-10-17. 
  7. ^ a b Russia will launch Luna spacecraft in 2018
  8. ^ "Russia Plans Ambitious Robotic Lunar Mission".  
  9. ^ Luna-Glob at Skyrocket
  10. ^ a b Luna-Resurs at RussianSpaceweb
  11. ^ "Chandrayaan-2: India to go it alone". The Hindu. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2013-01-22. 
  12. ^ "Program of the Moon Exploration by Automatic Space Complexes".  
  13. ^ Russian Moon missions face three-year delay
  14. ^ Manned Moon Mission to Cost Russia $2.8 Bln – Space Research Institute
  15. ^ Russian Luna-25 Mission to Cost Billions: Space Agency
  16. ^ "Russian project Luna-Glob: goals and status". Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  17. ^ "RETURN TO THE MOON: NEXT STEPS". Retrieved 2008-10-21. 
  18. ^ "Russia To Build Lunar Base By 2037", Xinhua, , 26 January 2011.

External links

  • Luna-Glob at Skyrocket
  • Luna-Glob at RussianSpaceweb
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