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Lupeol

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Lupeol

Lupeol
Identifiers
CAS number  YesY
PubChem
ChemSpider
ChEMBL
Jmol-3D images Image 1
Properties
Molecular formula C30H50O
Molar mass 426.72 g mol−1
Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C (77 °F), 100 kPa)

Lupeol is a pharmacologically active triterpenoid. It has several potential medicinal properties.

Natural occurrences

Lupeol is found in a variety of plants, including mango, Acacia visco and Abronia villosa.[1] It is also found in dandelion coffee.

Synthesis

The first total synthesis of lupeol was reported by Gilbert Stork et al.[2]

In 2009, Surendra and Corey reported a more efficient and enantioselective total synthesis of lupeol, starting from (1E,5E)-8-[(2S)-3,3-dimethyloxiran-2-yl]-2,6-dimethylocta-1,5-dienyl acetate by use of a polycyclization.[3]

Biosynthesis

Lupeol is produced by several organisms from squalene epoxide. Dammarane and baccharane skeletons are formed as intermediates. The reactions are catalyzed by the enzyme lupeol synthase.[4]

Pharmacology

Lupeol has a complex pharmacology, displaying antiprotozoal, antimicrobial, antiinflammatory, antitumor and chemopreventive properties.[5]

Animal models suggest lupeol may act as an anti-inflammatory agent. A 1998 study found lupeol to decrease paw swelling in rats by 39%, compared to 35% for the standardized control compound indomethacin.[6]

One study has also found some activity as a Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor and prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitor at high concentrations (in the millimolar range).[7]

It is an effective inhibitor in laboratory models of prostate and skin cancers.[8][9][10]

As an anti-inflammatory agent, lupeol functions primarily on the interleukin system. Lupeol to decreases IL-4 (interleukin 4) production by T-helper type 2 cells.[5][11]

See also

References

  1. ^ Starks, CM; Williams, RB; Norman, VL; Lawrence, JA; Goering, MG; O'Neil-Johnson, M; Hu, JF; Rice, SM; Eldridge, GR (2011). "Abronione, a rotenoid from the desert annual Abronia villosa". Phytochemistry letters 4 (2): 72–74.  
  2. ^ Stork, Gilbert; Uyeo, Shoichiro; Wakamatsu, T.; Grieco, P.; Labovitz, J. (1971). "Total synthesis of lupeol". Journal of the American Chemical Society 93 (19): 4945.  
  3. ^ Surendra, K; Corey, EJ (2009). "A short enantioselective total synthesis of the fundamental pentacyclic triterpene lupeol". Journal of the American Chemical Society 131 (39): 13928–9.  
  4. ^ http://solcyc.solgenomics.net/LYCO/NEW-IMAGE?type=PATHWAY&object=PWY-112
  5. ^ a b Margareth B. C. Gallo, Miranda J. Sarachine (2009). "Biological activities of Lupeol". International Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences 3 (Special Issue 1): 46–66. 
  6. ^ Geetha, T; Varalakshmi, P (2001). "Anti-inflammatory activity of lupeol and lupeol linoleate in rats". Journal of Ethnopharmacology 76 (1): 77–80.  
  7. ^ Marques, MR; Stüker, C; Kichik, N; Tarragó, T; Giralt, E; Morel, AF; Dalcol, II (2010). "Flavonoids with prolyl oligopeptidase inhibitory activity isolated from Scutellaria racemosa Pers". Fitoterapia 81 (6): 552–6.  
  8. ^ Prasad S, Kalra N, Singh M, Shukla Y (2008). "Protective effects of lupeol and mango extract against androgen induced oxidative stress in Swiss albino mice" (PDF). Asian J Androl 10 (2): 313–8.  
  9. ^ Nigam N, Prasad S, Shukla Y (2007). "Preventive effects of lupeol on DMBA induced DNA alkylation damage in mouse skin". Food Chem Toxicol 45 (11): 2331–5.  
  10. ^ Saleem M, Afaq F, Adhami VM, Mukhtar H (2004). "Lupeol modulates NF-kappaB and PI3K/Akt pathways and inhibits skin cancer in CD-1 mice". Oncogene 23 (30): 5203–14.  
  11. ^ Bani S, Kaul A, Khan B, Ahmad SF, Suri KA, Gupta BD, Satti NK, Qazi GN (2006). "Suppression of T lymphocyte activity by lupeol isolated from Crataeva religious". Phytotherapy Research 20: 279–287.  
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