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Magical girl

Magical girls (魔法少女 mahō shōjo, also known as mahou shoujo or majokko) is a subgenre of Japanese fantasy anime and manga which feature young girls who use magic.


  • Genre history 1
  • See also 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4

Genre history

Manga and anime historians regard the Princess Knight manga, released in 1953, as a prototype for the magical girl genre.[1] Himitsu no Akko-chan, serialized in 1962 in Ribon, is regarded as the earliest magical girl manga.[2]

The Japanese dub of the American TV series Bewitched became popular among young Japanese girls in the 1960s,[3] and inspired Mitsuteru Yokoyama to invent Sally the Witch, which aired on television in 1966[4] and is regarded by historians as the first magical girl anime.[5]

Sailor Moon is considered to have revitalized the genre and paved the way for later successful titles.[6][7]

After 2003, magical girl anime marketed to male audiences such as Magical Girl Lyrical Nanoha became a prolific trend alongside the traditional female-oriented works.[8]

The magical girl genre earned renewed popularity in the 2010s with the advent of Puella Magi Madoka Magica, whose mature themes and darker atmosphere earned acclaim from viewers and critics outside the genre's target audience.[9]

See also


  1. ^ Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics (2. print. ed.). London: Laurence King. p. 77.  
  2. ^ Thompson, Jason (2007). Manga: The Complete Guide. New York: Del Rey Books. p. 8.  
  3. ^ Drazen, Patrick (2003). Anime Explosion! The What? Why? & Wow! of Japanese Animation ([Nachdr.]. ed.). Berkeley, California: Stone Bridge Press. p. 281.  
  4. ^ Gravett, Paul (2004). Manga: Sixty Years of Japanese Comics (2. print. ed.). London: Laurence King. p. 78.  
  5. ^ Boren, James (September 2003). "The Making of a Magical Girl".  
  6. ^ Thompson, Jason (2013). Manga: The Complete Guide (Unabridged. ed.). New York: Del Rey. p. 199.  
  7. ^ Poitras, Gilles (2004). Essentials: Every Thing a Fan Needs to Know (4. [Ausg.] ed.). Berkely, Calif.: Stone Bridge Press. pp. 31–32.  
  8. ^ "AnimeNation Anime News Blog » Blog Archive » Ask John: Is Magical Girl Anime for Male Viewers a New Trend?". 2007-10-22. Retrieved 2014-08-20. 
  9. ^ Ohanesian, Liz (October 22, 2012). Shatters Anime Stereotypes"Puella Magi Madoka Magica"How .  

Further reading

  • Yoshida, Kaori (2002). "Evolution of Female Heroes: Carnival Mode of Gender Representation in Anime". Western Washington University. Retrieved 2007-09-22. 
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