World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Marc-André Fleury

Article Id: WHEBN0000566283
Reproduction Date:

Title: Marc-André Fleury  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: 2009 Stanley Cup playoffs, 2012 Stanley Cup playoffs, 2012–13 Pittsburgh Penguins season, 2010–11 Pittsburgh Penguins season, 2009–10 Pittsburgh Penguins season
Collection: 1984 Births, Canadian Ice Hockey Goaltenders, Cape Breton Screaming Eagles Players, French Quebecers, Ice Hockey People from Quebec, Ice Hockey Players at the 2010 Winter Olympics, Living People, Medalists at the 2010 Winter Olympics, National Hockey League All-Stars, National Hockey League First Overall Draft Picks, National Hockey League First Round Draft Picks, Olympic Gold Medalists for Canada, Olympic Ice Hockey Players of Canada, Olympic Medalists in Ice Hockey, Pittsburgh Penguins Draft Picks, Pittsburgh Penguins Players, Sportspeople from Sorel-Tracy, Stanley Cup Champions, Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins Players
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Marc-André Fleury

Marc-André Fleury
Fleury in 2011
Born (1984-11-28) November 28, 1984
Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, CAN
Height 6 ft 2 in (188 cm)
Weight 180 lb (82 kg; 12 st 12 lb)
Position Goaltender
Catches Left
NHL team Pittsburgh Penguins
National team  Canada
NHL Draft 1st overall, 2003
Pittsburgh Penguins[1]
Playing career 2003–present

Marc-André Fleury (born November 28, 1984) is a Canadian professional ice hockey goaltender playing for the Pittsburgh Penguins of the National Hockey League (NHL). Drafted out of the Quebec Major Junior Hockey League (QMJHL) first overall by the Penguins in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft,[1] Fleury played major junior for four seasons with the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, earning both the Mike Bossy Trophy as the league's top prospect and the Telus Cup as the top defensive player in 2003. He joined the Penguins in 2003–04 and won a Stanley Cup championship with the team five years later in 2009. Internationally, Fleury has represented Canada twice as a junior, winning back-to-back silver medals at the World Junior Championships in 2003 and 2004. He won a gold medal with Team Canada at the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver.

Fleury is known by the nickname "Flower,"[2] derived from the English translation of his last name (fleuri is "in bloom," or "in flower," in French). His goaltender masks always feature a fleur-de-lys on the backplate (in addition to the initials EFGT, honouring his four grandparents in memoriam), and have frequently featured some sort of flower on the front artwork, as well.


  • Playing career 1
    • 2003–04 1.1
    • 2005–06 1.2
    • 2006–07 1.3
    • 2007–08 1.4
    • 2008–09 1.5
    • 2009–10 1.6
    • 2010–11 1.7
    • 2011–12 1.8
    • 2012–13 1.9
    • 2013–14 1.10
    • 2014–15 1.11
  • International play 2
  • Personal life 3
  • Career statistics 4
    • Regular season 4.1
    • Playoffs 4.2
  • Awards 5
    • Major junior 5.1
    • NHL 5.2
    • International 5.3
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Playing career

Fleury played major junior in the QMJHL for the Cape Breton Screaming Eagles, beginning in 2000–01. After a strong 2002–03 campaign that included a silver medal with Team Canada at the World Junior Championships and QMJHL Second Team All-Star honours, he was chosen first overall in the 2003 NHL Entry Draft by the Pittsburgh Penguins. The Penguins acquired the first overall pick from the Florida Panthers in a trade that sent the first and 73rd overall picks to the Penguins in exchange for Mikael Samuelsson and the third and 55th picks.[3] He is only the third goalie to be chosen first overall in the NHL draft, after Michel Plasse and Rick DiPietro.[4] Playing four seasons total with Cape Breton, Fleury's jersey number 29 was later retired by the club in his fourth NHL season on January 25, 2008.[5]


Fleury immediately made his NHL debut in 2003–04 as the youngest goaltender in the league at 18 years old (three months less than the second-youngest, Rick DiPietro of the New York Islanders).[6] He appeared in his first NHL game on October 10, 2003, against the Los Angeles Kings, recording an impressive 46-save performance, which included a penalty shot save, in a 3–0 loss.[7] Fleury recorded his first NHL win in his very next start, on October 18, with 31 saves in a 4–3 win over the Detroit Red Wings.[8] His first NHL shutout came on October 30, in a 1–0 victory over the Chicago Blackhawks.[8] Fleury shared time with goaltenders Jean-Sébastien Aubin and Sébastien Caron[9] and lived up to first-overall-pick expectations early, earning Rookie of the Month honours in October with a 2–2–2 record, 1.96 goals against average (GAA) and .943 save percentage.[6] As the season progressed, however, his performance began to sink, mainly due to Pittsburgh's poor defence.[8][9] The team regularly gave up over 30 shots per game, and rarely managed to become an offensive threat.[10] He was loaned to Team Canada for the 2004 World Junior Championships in December and, upon returning with a second consecutive silver medal, he was sent back to the QMJHL on January 29, 2004.[9] In light of financial difficulties for the franchise, it is believed Fleury's $3 million contract bonus, which he would have potentially received if he stayed and met several performance goals, was a factor in the decision to return him to Cape Breton.[9] To no avail, Fleury offered to forfeit his bonus to remain with the club.[11] Fleury finished the QMJHL season with Cape Breton in a first round elimination and was subsequently assigned to Pittsburgh's American Hockey League (AHL) affiliate, the Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins, and appeared in two post-season games.


Marc-Andre Fleury in net in January 2006

As NHL play was postponed on account of the labour dispute, Fleury continued to play with Wilkes-Barre/Scranton in 2004–05, where he posted a 26–19–4 record, a 2.52 GAA and a .901 save percentage. When NHL play resumed in 2005–06, Fleury started the season once more in the minors, but was quickly called up by Pittsburgh for a game against the Buffalo Sabres on October 10 to replace an injured Jocelyn Thibault.[12] He continued to play between Wilkes-Barre/Scranton and Pittsburgh until November 28, after which he remained with Pittsburgh. With the Penguins finishing last in the Eastern Conference and allowing a league-worst 316 goals,[13] Fleury recorded a 3.25 GAA and a .898 save percentage. Competing for time with Sébastien Caron and Jocelyn Thibault, Fleury emerged as the Penguins' starting goalie.


Despite playing behind a shaky defence, Fleury was able to impress the team management with his technique and performance and signed a two-year contract extension worth $2.59 million in the off-season.[14] In the proceeding campaign, Fleury's stats improved significantly. Playing behind a better Penguins team, which featured rising superstars Sidney Crosby and Evgeni Malkin, he recorded five shutouts and a 2.83 GAA. He earned his 40th win in a 2–1 victory over the New York Rangers in the season finale, joining Tom Barrasso as the only Penguins goaltenders to record 40 wins in a season.[15] He also broke Johan Hedberg's single season franchise record for most games and minutes played. Fleury made his NHL playoff debut against the Ottawa Senators, the eventual Stanley Cup finalists, in the first round and recorded his first playoff win in Game 2, recording 34 saves in a 4–3 win at Scotiabank Place.[16] Fleury was credited with strong performances in the series, but the Penguins were eliminated in five games.


Fleury started the 2007–08 season slowly, then won four straight games before suffering a high-ankle sprain against the Calgary Flames on December 6.[17] He returned as a starter on March 2,[18] after a brief conditioning stint in the AHL with Wilkes-Barre/Scranton. While sidelined, he decided to change the colour of his goaltending equipment from the bright yellow that had become his signature to plain white, to gain an optical advantage over shooters. He was also influenced and challenged by the very strong play of Ty Conklin, who took the team's starting job after being promoted from Wilkes-Barre/Scranton in Fleury's absence. Upon his return from injury, Fleury helped the Penguins win the Atlantic Division, going 10–2–1 with a 1.45 GAA[18] en route to a 12–2 playoff run to the 2008 Stanley Cup Finals against the Detroit Red Wings. He recorded perhaps the best performance of his career at the time in Game 5 of the Finals at Detroit, where he stopped 55 of 58 shots in a triple overtime win for the Penguins to stave off elimination. Possibly the most memorable save he made came in the second period against Mikael Samuelsson – where he barely got a toe on the puck to keep Pittsburgh in the game, which Petr Sýkora eventually ended.[19] Despite his strong play, the Penguins lost the series in six games, and Fleury's unfortunate attempt to cover an unseen loose puck by sitting on it in Game 6 resulted in him propelling the puck into the net; the own goal turned out to be the Stanley Cup-winner, credited to Henrik Zetterberg. "The one where I sat on it?" he said. "Oh yeah. (Expletive) yeah. That stunk." However, he would recover by the start of the following season:

"I'm done with it", Fleury said. "I swore enough about it. Nothing I can do anymore. I don't think we lost the finals on one goal, you know what I mean? I feel bad because I kind of put it in, but it was a best-out-of-seven. They had a good team, and they beat us."[20]

Fleury completed the playoffs with three shutouts – a new team record for one playoff season – and a 14–6 record. His .933 save percentage was also tops in the playoffs. In the off-season, Fleury signed a seven-year, US$35 million contract with the Penguins, on July 3. It included a no-movement clause, and a limited no-trade clause that triggers in the 2010–11 season.[21]

Marc-André Fleury with the Stanley Cup at the Pittsburgh Penguins' Stanley Cup Parade on June 15, 2009


Fleury compiled a 35–18–7 record in 2008–09 to help the Penguins to a fourth place finish in the Eastern Conference, entering the 2009 playoffs as the defending Prince of Wales champions. Fleury was a major factor in the first round against the Penguins' intrastate rivals the Philadelphia Flyers. In Game 2 at home, with a 2–1 deficit late in the third, Fleury made a key toe save against Flyers top goal scorer Jeff Carter which was eventually pivotal as the Penguins tied the game late in the 3rd and won late in overtime. After the Flyers won Game 3 comfortably, Fleury once again stole a game for the Penguins in Game 4, stopping 43 shots to keep a surging Flyers line-up at bay and ensure a 3–1 lead. The Flyers won in Pittsburgh in Game 5, but Fleury saved another performance for the final period of Game 6. After initially letting in 3 goals, Fleury did not allow another as the Penguins rallied from a 3–0 deficit to win 5–3. The Penguins went the full distance in the second round against the Washington Capitals. In the deciding game seven, Fleury made a key breakaway glove save early in the contest against Capitals superstar Alexander Ovechkin, helping the Penguins eliminate Washington by a 6–2 score.[22]

Fleury and the Penguins then swept the Carolina Hurricanes in the Conference Finals to return to the Stanley Cup Finals against the Detroit Red Wings for the second consecutive year. After being pulled in game five after allowing 5 goals, Fleury made another momentous breakway save in game six, this time with 1:39 minutes left in regulation against Dan Cleary to preserve a 2–1 lead and help the Penguins force a game seven.[23] Playing the series-deciding game in Detroit, Fleury played an integral role in the Penguins 2–1 victory to capture the franchise's third Stanley Cup, making two critical saves in the final seconds. After stopping an initial Henrik Zetterberg shot from the right faceoff circle, the rebound came loose to Nicklas Lidström at the left faceoff circle, forcing Fleury to make a diving stop with 1.5 seconds remaining to preserve the win and the Stanley Cup.[24][25]


Fleury in 2010

Fleury recorded a 37–21–6 record during the 2009–10 NHL season, as the defending Stanley Cup champions Pittsburgh would again finish fourth in the Eastern Conference. After dispatching Ottawa in six games, the Penguins were upset by the eighth-seeded Montreal Canadiens in round two, ending their chance of a Stanley Cup repeat. Fleury recorded a 2.78 goals against average during the Playoffs.


Fleury stretching during a 2011 game

With Sidney Crosby and Evgeni Malkin sidelined with injuries for much of the 2010–11 season, Fleury and the Penguins' defence were relied on to carry the team to the playoffs. Fleury finished with a 36–20–5 record and the Penguins finished fourth in the Eastern Conference. The Penguins squared off against the Tampa Bay Lightning in the first round of the playoffs, where they were defeated in seven games despite taking a 3–1 series lead early. Fleury posted a .899 save percentage in the series.


Backup goalies Brent Johnson and Brad Thiessen struggled through much of the 2011–12 season, leaving Fleury as the only viable goaltending option. Fleury played 67 games in the season, starting 23 consecutive games at one point leading up to the All-Star break, and finished the season with 42 wins, second only to the Nashville Predators' Pekka Rinne.

Despite the impressive regular season campaign, Fleury had a less-than-impressive playoff run, being eliminated by the Philadelphia Flyers in the first round and posting a .834 save percentage and 4.63 goals against average, as the Flyers advanced in six games.


Fleury returned to the net after the lock-out season with a vengeance, putting some of the best marks of his career in the shortened season. He finished with a record of 23–8, tying him for fourth in the league, while his save percentage and goals against average continued to place him in the top half of starting goaltenders. His playoff troubles continued, however; after posting a shutout in his playoff game, he was less than impressive in following starts, leaving backup Tomáš Vokoun to start for the remainder of the 2013 playoffs. The Penguins promising 2012–13 season ended abruptly with a 4–0 loss to the Boston Bruins in the Eastern Conference Finals. After the season, however, Penguins officials confirmed that Fleury remained the team's starting goaltender.


Fleury's performance during the regular season during 2013–14 was similar to his performance the year before. He finished with a record of 39–18–5 and posted a save percentage of .915 and a goals against average of 2.37. Despite a marked improvement in his playoff performance over the prior year, the Penguins lost in the second round to the New York Rangers despite taking an early 3–1 lead in the series.


On November 5, 2014, the Penguins signed Fleury to a four-year extension with an average annual value of $5.75 million.[26] On November 18, 2014, he earned his first shutout against the Montreal Canadiens, making 27 saves for a league-leading fourth shutout of the season, with a final score of 4–0.[27]

On November 24, 2014, Fleury recorded his 300th NHL win, becoming the third-youngest player and third-fastest to reach the milestone [28] On April 11, Fleury recorded his league leading tenth shutout in a 2–0 victory against the Buffalo Sabres to secure the last wild card spot in the East.

International play

Medal record
Competitor for  Canada
Ice hockey
Winter Olympics
2010 Vancouver
World Junior Championships
2004 Finland
2003 Canada

Fleury won two silver medals with Team Canada at the IIHF World Junior Championships. He made his first appearance in 2003 in Halifax. Although Canada was defeated by Russia 3–2 in the gold medal game, Fleury posted a 1.57 GAA and was named the Top Goaltender and tournament MVP.[11]

Although Fleury was playing in the NHL the next year leading up to the tournament, the Pittsburgh Penguins lent him to Team Canada. Fleury expressed a desire to remain with his NHL club, but Penguins management decided the high-profile tournament would be good for his development.[11] He led Team Canada to the gold medal game for the second consecutive year, but made a costly mistake that lost his team the championship. With the game tied 3–3 with less than five minutes remaining in regulation, Fleury left his net to play the puck and avert a breakaway opportunity for Patrick O'Sullivan of Team USA. Fleury's clearing attempt, however, hit his own defenceman, Braydon Coburn, and trickled into the net. This proved to be the difference, as the Americans held on for a 4–3 win.[29]

On December 30, 2009, Fleury was named to Team Canada for the 2010 Winter Olympics in Vancouver. He did not play in the tournament, however, as the goaltending duties were split between Martin Brodeur and Roberto Luongo, but still received a gold medal as Canada defeated the United States 3–2 in the final.

Year Team League Result GP W L T OTL MIN GA SO GAA SV%
2003  Canada WJC-A 5 4 1 267 7 1 1.57
2004  Canada WJC-A 5 4 1 299 9 1 1.81

Personal life

Fleury was born to André and France Fleury in Sorel-Tracy, Quebec, a small town near Montreal. He has one sibling, his younger sister Marylène.[30][31] When he was first drafted, he lived with Mario Lemieux for a brief period of time as he searched for more permanent living arrangements. He currently resides in Franklin Park, Pennsylvania.

Fleury got married on July 22, 2012, to longtime girlfriend Véronique Larosée. They had been dating since they were 15 years old. In a Twitter Q & A from March, when asked if they were excited for the baby, he replied, "Yeah, really excited about it. A little bit nervous, you know. But I think it will be fun." The couple have two daughters, Estelle (born April 26, 2013) and Scarlett (born July 22, 2015).[32]

Career statistics

Regular season

Season Team League GP W L T OTL MIN GA SO GAA SV%
1999–00 Charles-Lemoyne Riverains QAAA 15 4 9 0 780 36 1 2.77
2000–01 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 35 12 13 2 1705 115 0 4.05 0.886
2001–02 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 55 26 14 8 3043 141 2 2.78 0.915
2002–03 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 51 17 24 6 2889 162 2 3.36 0.910
2003–04 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 21 4 14 2 1154 70 1 3.64 0.896
2003–04 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 10 8 1 1 606 20 0 1.98 0.933
2003–04 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL
2004–05 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 54 26 19 4 3029 127 5 2.52 0.901
2005–06 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 50 13 27 6 2809 152 1 3.25 0.898
2005–06 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 12 10 2 0 727 19 0 1.57 0.939
2006–07 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 67 40 16 9 3905 184 5 2.83 0.906
2007–08 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 35 19 10 2 1857 72 4 2.33 0.921
2007–08 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 5 3 2 0 297 7 0 1.42 0.950
2008–09 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 62 35 18 7 3641 162 4 2.67 0.912
2009–10 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 67 37 21 6 3798 168 1 2.65 0.905
2010–11 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 65 36 20 5 3695 143 3 2.32 0.918
2011–12 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 67 42 17 4 3896 153 3 2.36 0.913
2012–13 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 33 23 8 0 1858 74 1 2.39 0.916
2013–14 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 64 39 18 5 3792 150 5 2.37 0.915
2014–15 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 64 34 20 9 3776 146 10 2.32 0.920
NHL Totals 595 322 189 2 53 34183 1474 38 2.59 0.911


Season Team League GP W L T OTL MIN GA SO GAA SV%
2000–01 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 2 0 1 32 4 0 3.15 0.905
2001–02 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 16 9 7 1003 55 0 3.29 0.900
2002–03 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 4 0 4 228 17 0 4.47 0.894
2003–04 Cape Breton Screaming Eagles QMJHL 4 1 3 251 13 0 3.10 0.886
2003–04 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 2 0 1 92 6 0 3.90 0.800
2004–05 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 4 0 2 151 11 0 4.36 0.843
2005–06 Wilkes-Barre/Scranton Penguins AHL 5 2 3 311 18 0 3.48 0.883
2006–07 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 5 1 4 287 18 0 3.76 0.880
2007–08 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 20 14 6 1251 41 3 1.97 0.933
2008–09 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 24 16 8 1447 63 0 2.61 0.908
2009–10 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 13 7 6 798 37 1 2.78 0.891
2010–11 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 7 3 4 405 17 1 2.52 0.899
2011–12 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 6 2 4 337 26 0 4.63 0.834
2012–13 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 5 2 2 290 17 1 3.52 0.883
2013–14 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 13 7 6 800 32 2 2.40 0.915
2014–15 Pittsburgh Penguins NHL 5 1 4 312 11 0 2.12 0.927
NHL Totals 98 53 44 5927 262 8 2.65 0.906


Major junior




  1. ^ a b "NHL Entry Draft Year by Year Results". National Hockey League. 
  2. ^ LeBrun, Pierre (April 28, 2008). "Fleury unbeatable".  
  3. ^ Spence, Rob (June 26, 2009). "TRADING UP FOR MARC-ANDRE FLEURY". CrashingTheGoalie. Retrieved April 16, 2014. 
  4. ^ "Fleury has history against him".  
  5. ^ "A standout goalie with his feet on the ground".  
  6. ^ a b "Fleury named top rookie".  
  7. ^ "Fleury shines debut; Penguins still lose". CBC. October 10, 2003. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  8. ^ a b c Worgo, Tom (December 1, 2003). "It was all about the money". Hockey Digest. Retrieved September 2, 2006. 
  9. ^ a b c d "Penguins send Fleury back to juniors". CBC. January 29, 2004. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  10. ^ Kreiser, John (December 12, 2003). "WJC respite should help Fleury". Retrieved September 2, 2006. 
  11. ^ a b c "Fleury will play for Canada at world juniors". CBC. December 7, 2003. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  12. ^ "Penguins call up Fleury to replace injured Thibault".  
  13. ^ "2005–2006 Conference Standings". Archived from the original on April 28, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2006. 
  14. ^ "Penguins sign Fleury to two-year deal". August 5, 2006. Archived from the original on August 27, 2006. Retrieved September 2, 2006. 
  15. ^ Molinari, Dave (April 8, 2007). "Penguins top Rangers, 2–1, in regular-season finale".  
  16. ^ "Crosby lifts Penguins over Senators in Game 2".  
  17. ^ "Penguins' Fleury sidelined with high ankle sprain". CBC. December 12, 2007. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  18. ^ a b "Senators-Penguins Preview". ESPN. Retrieved November 25, 2008. 
  19. ^ "Fleury's performance Roy-esque".  
  20. ^ Starkey, Joe (October 3, 2008). "Pens' Fleury joins the elite". Pittsburgh Tribune-Review. Retrieved October 25, 2009. 
  21. ^ "Penguins lock up Fleury with seven-year $35 million deal". TSN. July 3, 2008. Retrieved July 3, 2008. 
  22. ^ "Penguins save best for last".  
  23. ^ "Game 6's defining moment".  
  24. ^ "Penguins clip Red Wings to win Stanley Cup". CBC. June 12, 2009. Retrieved June 13, 2009. 
  25. ^ "Fleury's save erased doubts about big-game ability".  
  26. ^ "Penguins' Fleury signs four-year contract extension". November 5, 2014. Retrieved November 5, 2014. 
  27. ^ "Fleury has 27 saves, Penguins blank Canadiens 4–0".  
  28. ^ "Fleury Sets Historic Milestone with 300th Win". November 24, 2014. Retrieved November 24, 2014. 
  29. ^ Late comeback seals USA's first World Junior Hockey title
  30. ^ Colello, TJ (January 24, 2008). "Fleury grateful for time in Cape Breton". The Cape Breton Post. 
  31. ^ Kovacevic, Dejan (June 29, 2003). "Good as goal: Penguins' prized pick built one step at a time". Pittsburgh Post Gazette. Retrieved February 22, 2009. 
  32. ^ "Catching Up With Fleury". August 17, 2015. Retrieved August 17, 2015. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ Molinari, Dave. "Fleury Savors All-Star Spot". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. 

External links

  • Marc-André Fleury's player profile at
  • Marc-André Fleury's career statistics at The Internet Hockey Database
Preceded by
Pierre-Marc Bouchard
Winner of the Mike Bossy Trophy
Succeeded by
Alexandre Picard
Preceded by
Rick Nash
NHL first overall draft pick
Succeeded by
Alexander Ovechkin
Preceded by
Ryan Whitney
Pittsburgh Penguins first round draft pick
Succeeded by
Evgeni Malkin
Preceded by
Jamie Dixon
Dapper Dan Sportsman of the Year
2011 (co-winner with Dan Bylsma)
Succeeded by
Andrew McCutchen
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.