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Markham, Ontario


Markham, Ontario

City (lower-tier)
City of Markham
Markham Civic Centre
Flag of Markham
Coat of arms of Markham
Coat of arms
Official logo of Markham
Nickname(s): The High-Tech Capital
Motto: Leading While Remembering
Location of Markham within York Region
Location of Markham within York Region
Markham is located in Southern Ontario
Markham in relation to southern Ontario
Country Canada
Province Ontario
Regional Municipality York Region
Settled 1794
Incorporated 1872 (village)
1972 (town)
2012 (city)
 • Mayor Frank Scarpitti
 • Deputy Mayor Jack Heath
 • Regional Councillors Jim Jones, Joe Li, Nirmala Armstrong
 • MPs
 • MPPs
 • Total 212.58 km2 (82.08 sq mi)
Elevation 200 m (700 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 301,709 (16th)
Demonym(s) Markhamite
Time zone EST (UTC−5)
 • Summer (DST) EDT (UTC−4)
Forward sortation areas L6B, L6C, L6E, L6G, L3P, L3R, and L3S
Area code(s) 905, 289
ISO 3166-2 CA-ON
Website .ca.markhamwww

Markham , a city in the Regional Municipality of York, lies within the Greater Toronto Area of Southern Ontario, Canada. At the 2011 Canadian census it had a population of 301,709.[1] Markham's population in 2015 was estimated at 342,000 through The Region of York population census data monitoring . The city is the fourth-largest community within the Greater Toronto Area after Toronto, Mississauga and Brampton. Markham changed its status from town to city on July 1, 2012.[2]

The city gained its name from the first Lieutenant-Governor of Upper Canada, John Graves Simcoe (in office 1791–1796), who named the area after his friend, William Markham, the Archbishop of York from 1776 to 1807. The first European settlement in Markham occurred when William Berczy, a German artist and developer, led a group of approximately sixty-four German families to North America. While they initially planned to settle in New York, disputes over finances and land tenure there would eventually lead to Berczy to negotiate with Simcoe for 64,000 acres (260 km2) in Markham Township in 1794.[3] Through much of Markham's history the community has been described as an agricultural community. A turn towards a more urbanized community within the township began after World War II when the township had begun to feel the effects of urban encroachment from Toronto. The completion of Highway 404 during the mid-1970s further accelerated urban development in Markham.[4]

As of 2013 tertiary industry mainly drives Markham. As of 2010 "business services" employed the largest proportion of workers in Markham – nearly 22% of its labour force.[5] The city also has over 900 technology and life-sciences companies, with IBM as the city's largest employer.[6][7] A number of multinational companies also have their Canadian headquarters located in Markham, including: Honda Canada, Hyundai,[8] Advanced Micro Devices,[9] American Express,[10] Johnson & Johnson, Avaya,[11] IBM,[12] Motorola,[13] Oracle,[14] Toshiba,[15] Toyota Financial Services [16] and Honeywell.


  • History 1
  • Geography 2
    • Topography 2.1
    • Climate 2.2
  • Neighbourhoods 3
  • Demographics 4
    • 2011 4.1
  • Government 5
    • City Council 5.1
    • Members of Provincial Parliament 5.2
    • Members of Parliament 5.3
    • Markham Civic Centre 5.4
    • Elections 5.5
    • By-laws 5.6
  • City services 6
    • Police 6.1
    • Fire 6.2
    • Hospitals 6.3
  • Education 7
    • Post-secondary 7.1
    • Primary and secondary schools 7.2
  • Economy 8
  • Performing arts 9
  • Culture 10
  • Sports 11
    • Community Centres/Recreational Facilities 11.1
  • Parks 12
  • City issues 13
    • Urban growth 13.1
    • Transit plan 13.2
  • Attractions 14
  • Annual events 15
  • Shopping 16
  • Local media 17
  • Transportation 18
    • Roads 18.1
    • Rail 18.2
    • Public transit 18.3
    • Air 18.4
  • Notable people 19
    • Authors 19.1
    • Actors/actresses 19.2
    • Athletes 19.3
    • Business People 19.4
    • Military People 19.5
    • Musicians 19.6
  • International relations 20
    • Friendship cities 20.1
    • Sister cities 20.2
  • See also 21
  • References 22
    • Notes 22.1
  • External links 23


Farmers lined up to sell cream at Albert Reesor's Locust Hill Creamery, c. 1900

Markham was first surveyed as a township in 1793 by William Berczy, who in 1794 led 75 German families including the Ramers, Reesors, Wheters, Burkholders, Bunkers, Wicks and Lewis from Upstate New York to an area of Markham now known as German Mills.[17] Each family was granted 200 acres (0.81 km2) of land; however due lack to roads in the region many opted to settle in York (now Toronto) and Niagara. German Mills later became a ghost town. Between 1803 to 1812, another attempt at settling in the region was made. The largest group of settlers were Pennsylvania Dutch, most of whom were Mennonites. These highly skilled craftsmen and knowledgeable farmers were able to settle the region and founded Reesorville, named after the Mennonite settler Joseph Reesor.[18] In 1825, Reesorville was renamed to Markham having taken the name of the unincorporated village (see Markham Village, Ontario). By 1830, a large influx of Irish, Scottish and English families began immigrating to Upper Canada, many settling in Markham.[19] Markham's early years blended the rigours of the frontier with the development of agriculture-based industries. The many rivers and streams in the township soon supported water-powered saw and gristmills and later wooden mills. With improved transportation routes, such as the construction of Yonge Street in the 1800s, along with the growing population, urbanization increased. In 1842 the township population was 5,698; 29,005 acres (117.38 km2) were under cultivation (second highest in the province), and the township had eleven gristmills and twenty-four sawmills.[20] By 1850, the first form of structured municipal government formed in Markham.[21] By 1857, most of the township had been cleared of timber and was under cultivation. Villages like Thornhill, Unionville, and Markham greatly expanded.[22] In 1851 Markham Village "was a considerable village, containing between eight and nine hundred inhabitants, pleasantly situated on the Rouge River. It contains two grist mills ... a woollen factory, oatmeal mill, barley mill, and distillery, foundry, two tanneries, brewery, etc., a temperance hall and four churches... ."[23] In 1871, with a township population of 8,152,[24] the Toronto and Nipissing Railway built the first rail line to Markham Village and Unionville, which is still used today by the GO Transit commuter services.

In 1972, Markham was incorporated as a town, as its population skyrocketed due to urban sprawl from Toronto. In 1976, Markham's population was approximately 56,000. Since that time, the population has more than quintupled with explosive growth in new subdivisions. Much of Markham's farmland has now disappeared, but is still found north of Major Mackenzie Drive. Controversy over the development of the environmentally sensitive Oak Ridges Moraine will likely curb development north of Major Mackenzie Drive.

As of 2006, Markham comprises six major communities, which include Berczy Village, Cornell, Markham Village, Milliken, Thornhill, and Unionville. Since the 1980s, the city has been recognized as a suburb of Toronto. Many high-tech companies have head offices located in Markham for the relative abundance of land, low tax rates and good transportation routes. Broadcom Canada, ATI Technologies (now known as AMD Graphics Product Group), IBM Canada, Motorola Canada, Honeywell Canada and many other well-known companies have chosen Markham as their home in Canada. Hence, the city has been branding itself as Canada's "High-Tech Capital". An Ontario Historical Plaque was erected in front of the Markham Museum by the province to commemorate the founding of Markham's role in Ontario's heritage.[25]

Town council voted on May 29, 2012, to officially change Markham's legal designation from "town" to "city"; according to councillor Alex Chiu, who introduced the motion, the change of designation merely reflects the fact that many people already think of Markham as a city.[2] Some residents objected to the change because it will involve unknown costs without any demonstrated benefits. The designation officially took effect on July 1.[2]


Suburban tract housing in northeastern Markham
Townhomes in Buttonville, Ontario

Markham covers an area of 212.47 km2 (82.04 sq mi) and Markham's City Centre is at . It is bounded by 5 municipalities; in the west is Vaughan with the boundary along Yonge Street between Steeles Avenue and Highway 7 and Richmond Hill with the boundary along Highway 7 from Yonge Street to Highway 404 and at Highway 404 from Highway 7 to 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the south, it borders Toronto with the boundary along Steeles Avenue. In the North it borders Whitchurch–Stouffville with the boundary from Highway 404 to York-Durham Line between 19th Avenue and Stouffville Road. In the East it borders Pickering along the York-Durham Line.


Markham's average altitude is at 200 m (660 ft) and in general consists of gently rolling hills. The city is intersected by two rivers; the Don River and Rouge River, as well as their tributaries. To the north is the Oak Ridges Moraine, which further elevates the elevation towards the north.


Markham borders and shares the same climate as Toronto. On an average day, Markham is generally 1 °C (1.8 °F) cooler than in downtown Toronto. The highest temperature recorded was 37.8 °C (100 °F) on August 8, 2001, and the lowest temperature recorded was −35.2 °C (−31 °F) on January 16, 1994.[26] Like most cities in Southern Ontario, the city itself experience a warm summer humid continental climate (Koppen Dfb) featuring warm, humid summers with significant rainfall lasting from May to October and cold, snowy winters.
Climate data for Markham (Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high humidex 16.0 14.4 29.2 35.7 41.0 44.6 50.9 47.4 43.6 37.8 24.9 20.6 50.9
Record high °C (°F) 14.9
Average high °C (°F) −1.5
Daily mean °C (°F) −5.8
Average low °C (°F) −10.1
Record low °C (°F) −35.2
Record low wind chill −42.6 −37.4 −35.6 −18.6 −4.4 0.0 0.0 0.0 −4.2 −8.8 −23.9 −36.6 −42.6
Average precipitation mm (inches) 62.1
Average rainfall mm (inches) 26.0
Average snowfall cm (inches) 38.9
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.2 mm) 16.7 12.9 12.0 12.3 12.0 11.8 11.2 9.9 10.8 13.2 14.5 15.3 152.7
Average rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 5.8 3.8 6.7 10.8 12.0 11.8 11.2 9.9 10.8 13.0 11.3 6.6 113.7
Average snowy days (≥ 0.2 cm) 13.4 10.8 7.0 2.9 0.13 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 0.48 4.7 10.8 50.2
Source: Environment Canada[26]


Skyline of Markham.
Markham is made up of many original 19th century communities (many of which, despite being technically suburban districts today, are still signed with official 'city limits' signs on major roads) and/or each with a distinctive character:

Thornhill and Unionville are popularly seen as being separate communities. Thornhill actually straddles the Markham-Vaughan municipal boundary (portions of it in both municipalities). Unionville is actually a single community with three sub-communities:

  • original Unionville lying along Highway 7 and Kennedy Road
  • South Unionville is a newer residential community (beginning from the 1990s onwards) south of Highway 7 to Highway 407 and from McCowan to Kennedy Road
  • Upper Unionville is a new residential development being built on the northeast corner of 16th Avenue and Kennedy Road



According to the 2011 Canadian Census,[28] the population of Markham is 301,709, a 15.3% increased from 2006, which is approximately 3 times faster than Canada as a whole. Markham's land mass is 212.58 km2 with a population density is 1,419.3 people per km2. The median age is 39.6 years old which is slightly lower than the median age of Canada at 40.6 years old.

Most residents in Markham can speak English (91.0%), and only a small portion can speak French (1.7%). Many other languages can be spoken in high quantity in Markham, such as; Cantonese (19.9%), Chinese - not specific (9.6%), Mandarin (9.4%), Tamil (6.4%), Hindi (3.0%), Nepali (2.9%), Urdu (2.9%), Gujarati (2.4%), Persian (2.3%), Punjabi (2.2%), Tagalog (2.2), Italian (2.1%) and more. In fact, 57.2% of the population's mother tongue was neither English nor French.

According to the 2011 National Household Survey, 89.3% of Markham's residents are Canadian citizens, and about 14.5% of residents are recent immigrants (from 2001 to 2011). The racial make up of Markham is; East Asian (39.7%), White (27.5%), South Asian (19.1%), Southeast Asian (3.9%), Black (3.2%), West Asian & Arab (3.2%), Latin American (0.5%), Aboriginal (0.2%), and 1.9% of the population is multiracial while the rest of the population (0.7%) is of another group. Markham has the highest visible minority population of any major Canadian city (over 100,000 residents) at 72.3%, and is one of eight major cities with no majority racial group.

Religiously speaking, 29.9% of Markham's population does not affiliate with any religion. For those who do, the religious make up is Christian (44.1%), Hindu (10.1%), Muslim (7.3%), Buddhist (4.4%), Jewish (2.4%) and Sikh (1.4%). The rest fall into another category.

Religions in Markham
Religion Percent
Distribution of religions (2011 NHS)

As far as education goes, for those who are 25 to 64 years old, the highest levels of education are as followed; 69.5% of people have a post-secondary schooling degree, 20.5% have a high school degree (or equivalent too) and 10.0% have nothing. The unemployment rate is 8.1% in Markham which is similar to the national average at 7.8%. The median household income before taxes is $86,022, and after taxes at $75,135, which is a quite a bit higher than the national average at $54,089.

The median value of a household in Markham is $500,741 which is 1.8 times higher than the national average at $280,552.

Canada 2011 Census Population % of Total Population
Ethnicity group
Source: NHS 2011 Profile
Chinese 114,950 38.3
White 82,560 27.5
South Asian 57,375 19.1
Black 9,715 3.2
Filipino 9,020 3.0
West Asian 6,185 2.1
Arab 3,400 1.1
Korean 3,160 1.0
Southeast Asian 2,750 0.9
Other visible minority 1,995 0.7
Latin American 1,600 0.5
Multiple visible minority 5,805 1.9
Aboriginal 485 0.2
Total population 300,140 100

Mother Tongue [29] Percentage
English 38.5%
Cantonese 15.8%
Chinese, not otherwise specified 10.4%
Tamil 4.9%
Mandarin 4.8%
Urdu 2.1%
Persian 1.9%
Tagalog (Pilipino, Filipino) 1.6%
Gujarati 1.6%
Panjabi (Punjabi) 1.5%
Italian 1.4%


City Council

Markham City Council consists of Frank Scarpitti as mayor, four regional councillors and eight ward councillors each representing one of the city's eight wards. Scarpitti replaced Don Cousens, who was a former Progressive Conservative MPP for Markham and a Presbyterian church minister. The mayor and four regional councillors are elected by the community to represent the City of Markham at the regional level. Councillors are paid by the municipality for their services, but in many municipalities, members of council usually serve part-time and work at other jobs as well. The current members of council were elected by the residents to a four-year term of office, in accordance with standards set by the province. The selection of members for the offices of mayor and regional councillors are made town-wide, while ward councillors are elected by individual ward.

Members of Provincial Parliament

Riding Name Party Prior Experience Education Assumed Office Born In
Markham—Unionville Michael Chan Liberal Insurance Broker 2007 1956

Members of Parliament

Riding Name Party Prior Experience Education Assumed Office Born In
Markham—Unionville McCallum, JohnJohn McCallum Liberal Bank of Canada
University Professor
Cambridge University (BA)
Queens' College (BA)
McGill University (phD)
2000 1950
Oak Ridges—Markham Calandra, PaulPaul Calandra Conservative Ontario Legislative Assembly 2008 1970
Thornhill Kent, PeterPeter Kent Conservative Canadian Coalition for Democracies
Emmy Award Nominee
2008 1943

Markham Civic Centre

Markham Civic Centre

The city council is located at the Markham Civic Centre at the intersection of York Regional Road 7 and Warden Avenue. The site of the previous offices on Woodbine Avenue has been redeveloped for commercial uses. The historic town hall on Main Street is now a restored office building. The Mayor's Youth Task Force was created to discuss issues facing young people in the city and to plan and publicize events. Its primary purpose is to encourage youth participation within the community.



The city is permitted to create and enforce by-laws upon residents on various matters affecting the town. The by-laws are generally enforced by City By-Law enforcement officers, but they may involve York Regional Police if violations are deemed too dangerous for the officers to handle. In addition the by-laws can be linked to various provincial acts and enforced by the town. Violation of by-laws is subject to fines of up to $20,000 CAD. The by-laws of Markham include:

Toogood Pond
  • Animal Control (see Dog Owners' Liability Act of Ontario)
  • Construction Permits
  • Driveway Extensions
  • Fencing and Swimming Pools
  • Heritage Conservation (see Ontario Heritage Act)
  • Home-Based Businesses
  • Noise
  • Parking
  • Property Standards
  • Registration of Basement Apartments and Second Suites
  • Sewers
  • Site Alteration
  • Waste Collection
  • Water Use

City services

Fire engine of Markham Fire and Emergency Services


There are no courts in Markham, but the city is served by an Ontario Court of Justice in Newmarket, as well as an Ontario Small Claims court in Richmond Hill. There are also served by a Provincial Offence Court in Richmond Hill. The Ontario Court of Appeal is located in Toronto, while the Supreme Court of Canada is located in Ottawa. Policing is provided by York Regional Police at a station (5 District) at the corner of McCowan Road and Carlton Road and Highway 7. Highway 404, Highway 407 and parts of Highway 48 are patrolled by the Ontario Provincial Police. Toronto Police Service is responsible for patrol on Steeles from Yonge Street to the York - Durham Line.


Markham Fire and Emergency Services was established in 1970 as Markham Fire Department and replaced various local volunteer fire units. There are 9 fire stations currently serving Markham. Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport is also served by Markham's Fire service.


The main healthcare facility in the city is Markham Stouffville Hospital, located in the far eastern end. Markham is also home to Shouldice Hospital, one of the world's premier facilities for people suffering from hernias. For those living near Steeles, they sometimes will be able to receive treatment at The Scarborough Hospital Birchmount Campus in Toronto/Scarborough.



Seneca College, Markham Campus

Markham currently does not have any universities itself, but Seneca College has campuses at Highways 7 and 404 and at Buttonville Municipal Airport. In May 2015, York University announced plans to open a new campus in the Markham Centre area, in collaboration with Seneca College.[30] Most high school graduates continue to post-secondary education in universities across Ontario. There are local transit services that connect to various post-secondary institutions in the Greater Toronto Area.

Markham is located within driving distance of several universities in the Greater Toronto Area:

Primary and secondary schools

Markham has a number of both public and Catholic high schools. All have consistently scored high on standardized tests and have some of the highest rate of graduates attending universities.

The York Region District School Board operates secular Anglophone public schools. The York Catholic District School Board operates Anglophone Catholic schools. The Conseil scolaire Viamonde operates secular Francophone schools, and the Conseil scolaire de district catholique Centre-Sud operates Catholic Francophone schools.


In the 19th century Markham had a vibrant, independent community with mills, distilleries and breweries around the Highway 7 and 48 intersection. The Thomas Speight Wagon Works exported products (wagons, horsecars) around the world, and Markham had a reputation as being more active than York (the former name for Toronto) early on. Most of these industries disappeared leaving farming as the main source of business.

Light industries and businesses began to move into Markham in the 1980s attracted by land and lower taxes. Today, it claims to be "Canada's Hi-Tech Capital" with a number of key companies in the area, such as IBM, Motorola, Toshiba, Lucent, Honeywell, Apple, Genesis Microchip, and is home to the head office of graphics card producer ATI (recently merged with AMD).

Yogen Früz has its headquarters in Markham.[31]

Markham also maintains economic and cultural cooperation agreements with the city of Laval, Quebec, which is the second largest city in the Greater Montreal area.

Performing arts

Markham is home to several locally oriented performing arts groups:

  • Kindred Spirits Orchestra
  • Markham Little Theatre
  • Markham Youth Theatre
  • Unionville Theatre Company
  • Markham Concert Band

A key arts venue is the 'Markham Theatre For Performing Arts', at the Markham Civic Centre located at Highway 7 and Warden Avenue.


Thornhill Village Library, built 1851

Until the 1970s, Markham was mostly farmland and marsh, as reflected in events like the Markham Fair. Markham has several theatres, Markham Little Theatre at the Markham Museum,[32] the Markham Youth Theatre, and the Markham Theatre.

The Markham Public Library system has 7 branches, with over 600,000 items in its collections.


Community Centres/Recreational Facilities

  • Angus Glen Community Centre - library, tennis courts, indoor pool
  • Armadale Community Centre - multi-purpose rooms, outdoor tennis courts
  • Centennial Community Centre - multi-purpose rooms, indoor ice rink, indoor pool, squash courts, gym
  • Cornell Community Centre - library, indoor pool, multi-purpose rooms, gym, indoor track, fitness centre
  • Crosby Community Centre - indoor ice rink, multi-purpose rooms
  • Markham Pan Am Centre - indoor pools, gym, fitness centre
  • Markham Village Community Centre - library, indoor ice rink
  • Milliken Community Centre - library, indoor pool, multi-purpose rooms, indoor ice rink
  • Mount Joy Community Centre - outdoor soccer pitches, indoor ice rink, multi-purpose rooms
  • R.J. Clatworthy Community Centre - indoor ice rink, multi-purpose rooms
  • Rouge River Community Centre - multi-purpose rooms, outdoor pool
  • Thornhill Community Centre - indoor ice rink, multi-purpose rooms, indoor track, library, squash court, gym


Circular pathway along Berczy Park

City issues

Like most cities and towns in the Greater Toronto Area, Markham has a few issues it must deal with:

Urban growth

There is a desire by the city to control urban sprawl by requesting higher density for new development. The city plan calls for more growth along Highway 7 and less towards the farmland to the north. A similar development in Cornell promotes the need for services to be closer to residences.

Transit plan

Linked to the concern of urban growth, Markham through York Region Transit (YRT) has implemented a transit system called Viva to ease the strain on the region's congested roads. Viva is similar to YRT but is used as an express bus service with the ability to change traffic signals to help reduce delays. The YRT is also planning to build a transit terminal somewhere near Cornell soon.


Markham has retained its historic past in part of the town. Here a just few places of interest:

Heritage streets preserve the old town feeling:

There are still farms operating in the northern reaches of the town, but there are a few 'theme' farms in other parts of Markham:

Markham's heritage railway stations are either an active station or converted to other uses:

Annual events

Events taking place annually include the Nightitup! Night Market, Taste of Asia Festival, Tony Roman Memorial Hockey Tournament, Markham Youth Week, Unionville Festival, Markham Village Music Festival, Markham Jazz Festival, Milliken Mills Children's Festival, Markham Ribfest & Music Festival, Doors Open Markham, Thornhill Village Festival, Markham Fair, Olde Tyme Christmas Unionville, Markham Santa Claus Parade and Markham Festival of Lights.


Markham is home to several large malls of 100+ stores. These include:

There are also a lot of higher-profile malls in nearby Toronto, and elsewhere in York Region. Many shopping centres in Markham are also Asian-oriented. This is a reflection of the large Asian, particularly Chinese Canadian, population found in Markham. They carry a wide variety of traditional Chinese products, apparel, and foods.

On Highway 7, between Woodbine and Warden Avenues, is First Markham Place, containing numerous shops and restaurants; this is several kilometres east of Richmond Hill's Chinese malls. Further east along Highway 7 is an older plaza is at the southwest quadrant with the intersection with Kennedy Road.

Pacific Mall is the most well-known Chinese mall in Markham, located at Kennedy Road and Steeles Avenue East, which, combined with neighbouring Market Village Mall and Splendid China Mall, forms the second largest Chinese shopping area in North America, after the Golden Village in Richmond, British Columbia. In close proximity, at Steeles East and Warden Avenue, there is the New Century Plaza mall and a half-block away there is a plaza of Chinese shops anchored by a T & T Supermarket.

There are also some smaller shopping centres in Markham, such as:

  • Albion Mall
  • Alderland Centre
  • J-Town
  • Markham Town Square
  • Metro Square
  • Peachtree Centre
  • New Kennedy Square
  • The Shops on Steeles and 404
  • Thornhill Square

Local media

  • Markham Review - local monthly newspaper
  • TLM The Local Magazine -local satire & lifestyle magazine[33]
  • Markham Economist and Sun - community paper owned by Metroland Media Group
  • The Liberal - serving Thornhill and Richmond Hill
  • The York Region Business Times - business news
  • York Region Media Group - Online news
  • North of the City - magazine for York Region
  • Rogers Cable 10 - community TV station for York Region, owned by Rogers Media
  • Markham News24'"" - Hyper-local, video-based news website focusing on municipal politics, crime, lifestyle and business features.



Major highways passing through Markham include Highway 404 (from Toronto to just North of Newmarket) and Highway 407, a toll highway that passes north of Toronto and connects Markham with Vaughan, Brampton and Burlington.

Highway 407 runs parallel to Highway 7, also known as York Road 7, which is a major east-west artery suffering from congestion due to development along its route. Other major east-west routes include 16th Avenue, Major MacKenzie Drive, and Steeles Avenue which forms Markham's southern boundary with Toronto.


Passenger rail service in Markham is provided by the GO Transit Stouffville line, which is a commuter rail line stretching from Lincolnville to downtown Toronto. The line operates only at rush hour and uses tracks owned by Metrolinx, the provincial transit agency. Five stations on the Stouffville line serve Markham, of which 4 are within the municipal borders.

Public transit

VIVA bus in Markham

York Region Transit (YRT) connects Markham with surrounding municipalities in York Region, and was created in 2001 from the merger of Markham Transit, Richmond Hill Transit, Newmarket Transit and Vaughan Transit. YRT to connects to the Toronto Transit Commission (TTC) subway system by way of Viva bus rapid transit from Finch station along Yonge Street, and Don Mills station through Unionville and on to Markville Mall.

The TTC also provides service in Markham on several north-south routes, such as Warden Avenue, Birchmount Road, McCowan Road and Markham Road. These routes charge riders a double fare if they are travelling across the Steeles border and most Markham residents choose to travel by car instead of public transportation.

GO Transit provides train service on the old trackbed of the Toronto and Nipissing Railway, which connects Markham with downtown Toronto on the Stouffville commuter rail service. The line has stops at several stations in Markham, namely Unionville GO Station, Centennial GO Station, Markham GO Station, and Mount Joy GO Station. The Richmond Hill commuter rail line provides service to the Langstaff GO Station, which straddles Markham and Richmond Hill but is used primarily by residents of west-central Markham and southern Richmond Hill.


Toronto/Buttonville Municipal Airport, Canada's 11th busiest airport (Ontario's 4th busiest). However, the airport was sold to Cadillac Fairview in late 2010 and is slated for demolition in 2014-2019. A new mall with condo towers and office space will be built in phases in the coming years.[34] caters to general aviation and business commuter traffic to Ottawa and Montreal. Operators at Buttonville include:

Markham Airport or Toronto/Markham Airport, (TC LID: CNU8), is a private airport operating 2.6 nautical miles (4.8 km; 3.0 mi) north of Markham, north of Elgin Mills Road. The airport is owned and operated by Markham Airport Inc. and owned by a numbered Ontario company owned by the Thomson family of Toronto. The airport is not part of the Greater Toronto Airports Authority (GTAA). The airport consists of a single 2,013 ft (614 m) runway for small and private aircraft only (with night flying capabilities). The Royal Canadian Air Cadets Gliding Program uses the north side or the runway 09/27 for glider operations in the spring and fall months, and use a northern traffic pattern.

Notable people




Business People

Military People


International relations

Friendship cities

Sister cities

See also



  1. ^ a b c Statistics Canada: 2012
  2. ^ a b c "Markham to change from town to city". CBC News, May 30, 2012.
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^ Contact Oracle
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ For a complete history, cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979).
  18. ^ See I. Champion, Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979), p. 248; also Markham Village - A Brief History 1800-1919, Markham Public Library (website).
  19. ^ For a complete history of Markham's early years, cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979).
  20. ^ Markham, Canadian Gazetteer (Toronto: Roswell, 1849), 111.
  21. ^ Cf. C.P. Mulvany, et al, The Township of Markham, History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), 114ff.
  22. ^ Cf. the detailed 1878 map, Township of Markham, Illustrated historical atlas of the county of York and the township of West Gwillimbury & town of Bradford in the county of Simcoe, Ont. (Toronto : Miles & Co., 1878).
  23. ^ C.P. Mulvany, et al., "The Village of Markham," History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), p. 198.
  24. ^ C.P. Mulvany, et al., "The Township of Markham," History of Toronto and County of York, Ontario (Toronto: C.B. Robinson, 1885), p. 121.
  25. ^
  26. ^ a b
  27. ^ Cf. Isabel Champion, ed., Markham: 1793-1900 (Markham, ON: Markham Historical Society, 1979), pp. 225; 121f.; 148; 227; 338. See also articles on Almira from the Stouffville Tribune.
  28. ^
  29. ^
  30. ^
  31. ^ "Contact Us." Yogen Früz. Retrieved on March 15, 2014. "Yogen Früz headquarters 210 Shields Court; Markham, Ontario L3R 8V2, Canada"
  32. ^ Markham Museum Facilities
  33. ^ TLM The Local Magazine
  34. ^
  35. ^ Toronto Airways Limited
  36. ^ Seneca College
  37. ^
  38. ^
  39. ^ [1]
  40. ^ Sister Cities International
  41. ^ The Official Website of the City of Las Piñas, Metro Manila, Philippines

External links

  • City of Markham official website (history included)
  • Town of Markham history
  • Map of Markham Township in 1878
  • Markham Youth Theatre
  • VivaNext - Highway 7 rapidways project
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