World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article


Article Id: WHEBN0000019916
Reproduction Date:

Title: Meitnerium  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Roentgenium, Periodic table, Meitnerium, Hassium, Flerovium
Collection: Chemical Elements, Meitnerium, Synthetic Elements, Transition Metals
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia


Meitnerium,  109Mt
General properties
Name, symbol meitnerium, Mt
Pronunciation [1] or [2]
Meitnerium in the periodic table


Atomic number 109
Standard atomic weight [278]
Element category unknown, but probably a transition metal[3][4]
Group, block group 9, d-block
Period period 7
Electron configuration [Rn] 5f14 6d7 7s2 (calculated)[3][5]
per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 32, 15, 2 (predicted)
Physical properties
Phase solid (predicted)[4]
Density near r.t. 37.4 g·cm−3 (predicted)[3]
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 9, 8, 6, 4, 3, 1(predicted)[3][6][7][8]
Ionization energies 1st: 800.8 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 1823.6 kJ·mol−1
3rd: 2904.2 kJ·mol−1
(more) (all estimated)[3]
Atomic radius empirical: 128 pm (predicted)[3][8]
Covalent radius 129 pm (estimated)[9]
Crystal structure face-centered cubic (fcc)
Face-centered cubic crystal structure for meitnerium

Magnetic ordering paramagnetic (predicted)[10]
CAS number 54038-01-6
Naming after Lise Meitner
Discovery Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung (1982)
Most stable isotopes
iso NA half-life DM DE (MeV) DP
278Mt syn 7.6 s α 9.6 274Bh
276Mt syn 0.72 s α 9.71 272Bh
274Mt syn 0.44 s α 9.76 270Bh
270mMt ? syn 1.1 s α 266Bh

Meitnerium is a chemical element with symbol Mt and atomic number 109. It is an extremely radioactive synthetic element (an element not found in nature that can be created in a laboratory). The most stable known isotope, meitnerium-278, has a half-life of 7.6 seconds. The GSI Helmholtz Centre for Heavy Ion Research near Darmstadt, Germany, first created this element in 1982.

In the periodic table, meitnerium is a d-block transactinide element. It is a member of the 7th period and is placed in the group 9 elements, although no chemical experiments have been carried out to confirm that it behaves as the heavier homologue to iridium in group 9. Meitnerium is calculated to have similar properties to its lighter homologues, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium.


  • History 1
    • Discovery 1.1
    • Naming 1.2
  • Isotopes 2
    • Stability and half-lives 2.1
  • Predicted properties 3
    • Chemical 3.1
    • Physical and atomic 3.2
  • Experimental chemistry 4
  • References 5
  • External links 6


Meitnerium was named after the physicist Lise Meitner, one of the discoverers of nuclear fission.


Meitnerium was first synthesized on August 29, 1982 by a German research team led by Peter Armbruster and Gottfried Münzenberg at the Institute for Heavy Ion Research (Gesellschaft für Schwerionenforschung) in Darmstadt.[11] The team bombarded a target of bismuth-209 with accelerated nuclei of iron-58 and detected a single atom of the isotope meitnerium-266:

+ 58
+ n


The naming of meitnerium was discussed in the element naming controversy regarding the names of elements 104 to 109, but meitnerium was the only proposal and thus was never disputed.[12][13] The name meitnerium (Mt) was suggested in honor of the Austrian physicist Lise Meitner, a co-discoverer of protactinium (with Otto Hahn),[14][15][16][17][18] and one of the discoverers of nuclear fission.[19] In 1994 the name was recommended by IUPAC,[12] and was officially adopted in 1997.[13] It is thus the only element named specifically after a non-mythological woman.[20]


List of meitnerium isotopes
265Mt 2? min α ? unknown
266Mt 1.7 ms α 1982 209Bi(58Fe,n)[11]
267Mt 10? ms α ? unknown
268Mt 21 ms α 1994 272Rg(—,α)[23]
269Mt 0.2? s α ? unknown
270Mt 5.0 ms α 2004 278Uut(—,2α)[24][25]
271Mt 5? s α ? unknown
272Mt 10? s α, SF ? unknown
273Mt 20? s α, SF ? unknown
274Mt 0.44 s α, SF 2006 282Uut(—,2α)[24]
275Mt 9.7 ms α 2003 287Uup(—,3α)[24]
276Mt 0.72 s α, SF 2003 288Uup(—,3α)[24]
277Mt ~5 ms SF 2012 293Uus(—,4α)[26]
278Mt 7.6 s α 2009 294Uus(—,4α)[27]
279Mt 6? min α, SF ? unknown

Meitnerium has no stable or naturally-occurring isotopes. Several radioactive isotopes have been synthesized in the laboratory, either by fusing two atoms or by observing the decay of heavier elements. Eight different isotopes of meitnerium have been reported with atomic masses 266, 268, 270, and 274–278, two of which, meitnerium-268 and meitnerium-270, have known but unconfirmed metastable states. Most of these decay predominantly through alpha decay, although some undergo spontaneous fission.[21]

Stability and half-lives

All meitnerium isotopes are extremely unstable and radioactive; in general, heavier isotopes are more stable than the lighter. The most stable known meitnerium isotope, 278Mt, is also the heaviest known meitnerium isotope; it has a half-life of 7.6 seconds. A metastable nuclear isomer, 270mMt, has been reported to also have a half-life of over a second. The isotopes 276Mt and 274Mt have half-lives of 0.72 and 0.44 seconds respectively. The remaining four isotopes have half-lives between 1 and 20 milliseconds.[21] The undiscovered isotope 281Mt has been predicted to be the most stable towards beta decay;[28] however, no known meitnerium isotope has been observed to undergo beta decay.[21] Some unknown isotopes, such as 265Mt, 272Mt, 273Mt, and 279Mt, are predicted to have half-lives longer than the known isotopes.[21][22] Before its discovery, 274Mt and 277Mt were also predicted to have long half-lives of 20 seconds and 1 minute respectively; however, they were later found to have shorter half-lives of only 0.44 seconds and 5 milliseconds respectively.[21]

Predicted properties


Meitnerium is the seventh member of the 6d series of transition metals. Since element 112 (copernicium) has been shown to be a transition metal, it is expected that all the elements from 104 to 112 would form a fourth transition metal series, with meitnerium as part of the platinum group metals.[17] Calculations on its ionization potentials and atomic and ionic radii are similar to that of its lighter homologue iridium, thus implying that meitnerium's basic properties will resemble those of the other group 9 elements, cobalt, rhodium, and iridium.[3]

Prediction of the probable chemical properties of meitnerium has not received much attention recently. Meitnerium is expected to be a noble metal. Based on the most stable oxidation states of the lighter group 9 elements, the most stable oxidation states of meitnerium are predicted to be the +6, +3, and +1 states, with the +3 state being the most stable in aqueous solutions. In comparison, rhodium and iridium show a maximum oxidation state of +6, while the most stable states are +4 and +3 for iridium and +3 for rhodium.[3] Group 9 is the first group in the transition metals to show lower oxidation states than the group number, the +9 state not being known for any element. The oxidation state +9 might be possible for meitnerium in the nonafluoride (MtF9) and the [MtO4]+ cation, although [IrO4]+ is expected to be more stable.[7] The tetrahalides of meitnerium have also been predicted to have similar stabilities to those of iridium, thus also allowing a stable +4 state.[6] It is further expected that the maximum oxidation states of elements from bohrium (element 107) to darmstadtium (element 110) may be stable in the gas phase but not in aqueous solution.[3]

Physical and atomic

Meitnerium is expected to be a solid under normal conditions and assume a face-centered cubic crystal structure, similarly to its lighter congener iridium.[4] It should be a very heavy metal with a density of around 37.4 g/cm3, which would be the second-highest of any of the 118 known elements, second only to that predicted for its neighbor hassium (41 g/cm3). In comparison, the densest known element that has had its density measured, osmium, has a density of only 22.61 g/cm3. This results from meitnerium's high atomic weight, the lanthanide and actinide contractions, and relativistic effects, although production of enough meitnerium to measure this quantity would be impractical, and the sample would quickly decay.[3] Meitnerium is also predicted to be paramagnetic.[10]

Theoreticians have predicted the covalent radius of meitnerium to be 6 to 10 pm larger than that of iridium.[29] For example, the Mt–O bond distance is expected to be around 1.9 Å.[30] The atomic radius of meitnerium is expected to be around 128 pm.[8]

Experimental chemistry

Unambiguous determination of the chemical characteristics of meitnerium has yet to have been established[31][32] due to the short half-lives of meitnerium isotopes[3] and a limited number of likely volatile compounds that could be studied on a very small scale. One of the few meitnerium compounds that are likely to be sufficiently volatile is meitnerium hexafluoride (MtF
), as its lighter homologue iridium hexafluoride (IrF
) is volatile above 60 °C and therefore the analogous compound of meitnerium might also be sufficiently volatile;[17] a volatile octafluoride (MtF
) might also be possible.[3] For chemical studies to be carried out on a transactinide, at least four atoms must be produced, the half-life of the isotope used must be at least 1 second, and the rate of production must be at least one atom per week.[17] Even though the half-life of 278Mt, the most stable known meitnerium isotope, is 7.6 seconds, long enough to perform chemical studies, another obstacle is the need to increase the rate of production of meitnerium isotopes and allow experiments to carry on for weeks or months so that statistically significant results can be obtained. Separation and detection must be carried out continuously to separate out the meitnerium isotopes and automated systems can then experiment on the gas-phase and solution chemistry of meitnerium as the yields for heavier elements are predicted to be smaller than those for lighter elements; some of the separation techniques used for bohrium and hassium could be reused. However, the experimental chemistry of meitnerium has not received as much attention as that of the heavier elements from copernicium to livermorium.[3][31][33]

The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory attempted to synthesize the isotope 271Mt in 2002–2003 for a possible chemical investigation of meitnerium because it was expected that it might be more stable than the isotopes around it as it has 162 neutrons, a magic number for deformed nuclei; its half-life was predicted to be a few seconds, long enough for a chemical investigation.[3][34] However, no atoms of 271Mt were detected,[35] and this isotope of meitnerium is currently unknown.[21]

An experiment determining the chemical properties of a transactinide would need to compare a compound of that transactinide with analogous compounds of some of its lighter homologues:[3] for example, in the chemical characterization of hassium, hassium tetroxide (HsO4) was compared with the analogous osmium compound, osmium tetroxide (OsO4).[36] In a preliminary step towards determining the chemical properties of meitnerium, the GSI attempted sublimation of the rhodium compounds rhodium(III) oxide (Rh2O3) and rhodium(III) chloride (RhCl3). However, macroscopic amounts of the oxide would not sublimate until 1000 °C and the chloride would not until 780 °C, and then only in the presence of carbon aerosol particles: these temperatures are far too high for such procedures to be used on meitnerium, as most of the current methods used for the investigation of the chemistry of superheavy elements do not work above 500 °C.[32]


  1. ^ Emsley, John (2003). Nature's Building Blocks. Oxford University Press.  
  2. ^ "Meitnerium". Periodic Table of Videos. The University of Nottingham. Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Haire, Richard G. (2006). "Transactinides and the future elements". In Morss; Edelstein, Norman M.; Fuger, Jean. The Chemistry of the Actinide and Transactinide Elements (3rd ed.). Dordrecht, The Netherlands:  
  4. ^ a b c d Östlin, A.; Vitos, L. (2011). "First-principles calculation of the structural stability of 6d transition metals". Physical Review B 84 (11).  
  5. ^ Thierfelder, C.; Schwerdtfeger, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S. (2008). "Dirac-Hartree-Fock studies of X-ray transitions in meitnerium". The European Physical Journal A 36 (2): 227.  
  6. ^ a b Ionova, G. V.; Ionova, I. S.; Mikhalko, V. K.; Gerasimova, G. A.; Kostrubov, Yu. N.; Suraeva, N. I. (2004). "Halides of Tetravalent Transactinides (Rf, Db, Sg, Bh, Hs, Mt, 110th Element): Physicochemical Properties". Russian Journal of Coordination Chemistry 30 (5): 352.  
  7. ^ a b Himmel, Daniel; Knapp, Carsten; Patzschke, Michael; Riedel, Sebastian (2010). "How Far Can We Go? Quantum-Chemical Investigations of Oxidation State +IX". ChemPhysChem 11 (4): 865–9.  
  8. ^ a b c Fricke, Burkhard (1975). "Superheavy elements: a prediction of their chemical and physical properties". Recent Impact of Physics on Inorganic Chemistry 21: 89–144.  
  9. ^ Chemical Data. Meitnerium - Mt, Royal Chemical Society
  10. ^ a b Saito, Shiro L. (2009). "Hartree–Fock–Roothaan energies and expectation values for the neutral atoms He to Uuo: The B-spline expansion method". Atomic Data and Nuclear Data Tables 95 (6): 836.  
  11. ^ a b Münzenberg, G.; Armbruster, P.; Heßberger, F. P.; Hofmann, S.; Poppensieker, K.; Reisdorf, W.; Schneider, J. H. R.; Schneider, W. F. W.; Schmidt, K.-H.; Sahm, C.-C.; Vermeulen, D. (1982). "Observation of one correlated α-decay in the reaction 58Fe on 209Bi→267109". Zeitschrift für Physik A 309 (1): 89.  
  12. ^ a b "Names and symbols of transfermium elements (IUPAC Recommendations 1994)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 66 (12): 2419. 1994.  
  13. ^ a b Rayner-Canham, Geoff; Zheng, Zheng (2007). "Naming elements after scientists: An account of a controversy". Foundations of Chemistry 10: 13.  
  14. ^ Bentzen, S. M. (2000). " 
  15. ^ Kyle, R. A.; Shampo, M. A. (1981). " 
  16. ^ Frisch, O. R. (1973). "Distinguished Nuclear Pioneer—1973.  
  17. ^ a b c d Griffith, W. P. (2008). "The Periodic Table and the Platinum Group Metals". Platinum Metals Review 52 (2): 114.  
  18. ^ Rife, Patricia (2003). "Meitnerium". Chemical & Engineering News 81 (36): 186.  
  19. ^ Wiesner, Emilie; Settle, Frank A. (2001). "Politics, Chemistry, and the Discovery of Nuclear Fission". Journal of Chemical Education 78 (7): 889.  
  20. ^ Visual Element Periodic TableRoyal Society of Chemistry –
  21. ^ a b c d e f g h Sonzogni, Alejandro. "Interactive Chart of Nuclides". National Nuclear Data Center: Brookhaven National Laboratory. Retrieved 2008-06-06. 
  22. ^ a b c Gray, Theodore (2002–2010). "The Photographic Periodic Table of the Elements". Retrieved 16 November 2012. 
  23. ^ Hofmann, S.; Ninov, V.; Heßberger, F. P.; Armbruster, P.; Folger, H.; Münzenberg, G.; Schött, H. J.; Popeko, A. G.; Yeremin, A. V.; Andreyev, A. N.; Saro, S.; Janik, R.; Leino, M. (1995). "The new element 111". Zeitschrift für Physik A 350 (4): 281.  
  24. ^ a b c d Oganessian, Yu. Ts.; Penionzhkevich, Yu. E.; Cherepanov, E. A. (2007). "AIP Conference Proceedings" 912. p. 235.  
  25. ^ Morita, Kosuke; Morimoto, Kouji; Kaji, Daiya; Akiyama, Takahiro; Goto, Sin-ichi; Haba, Hiromitsu; Ideguchi, Eiji; Kanungo, Rituparna; Katori, Kenji; Koura, Hiroyuki; Kudo, Hisaaki; Ohnishi, Tetsuya; Ozawa, Akira; Suda, Toshimi; Sueki, Keisuke; Xu, HuShan; Yamaguchi, Takayuki; Yoneda, Akira; Yoshida, Atsushi; Zhao, YuLiang (2004). "Experiment on the Synthesis of Element 113 in the Reaction 209Bi(70Zn,n)278113". Journal of the Physical Society of Japan 73 (10): 2593–2596.  
  26. ^ Oganessian, Y. T.; Abdullin, F. S.; Alexander, C. et al. (2013). "Experimental studies of the 249Bk + 48Ca reaction including decay properties and excitation function for isotopes of element 117, and discovery of the new isotope 277Mt". Physical Review C 87 (5).  
  27. ^ Oganessian, Y. T.; Abdullin, F. S.; Bailey, P. D. et al. (2010). "Synthesis of a New Element with Atomic Number Z=117". Physical Review Letters 104 (14): 142502.  
  28. ^ Nie, G. K. (2005). "Charge radii of β-stable nuclei". Modern Physics Letters A 21 (24): 1889.  
  29. ^ Pyykkö, Pekka; Atsumi, Michiko (2009). "Molecular Double-Bond Covalent Radii for Elements Li—E112". Chemistry – A European Journal 15 (46): 12770.  
  30. ^ Van Lenthe, E.; Baerends, E. J. (2003). "Optimized Slater-type basis sets for the elements 1–118". Journal of Computational Chemistry 24 (9): 1142–56.  
  31. ^ a b Düllmann, Christoph E. (2012). "Superheavy elements at GSI: a broad research program with element 114 in the focus of physics and chemistry". Radiochimica Acta 100 (2): 67–74.  
  32. ^ a b Haenssler, F. L.; Düllmann, Ch. E.; Gäggeler, H. W.; Eichler, B. Rh with different carrier gases"107"Thermatographic investigation of Rh and . Retrieved 15 October 2012. 
  33. ^ Eichler, Robert (2013). "First foot prints of chemistry on the shore of the Island of Superheavy Elements". Journal of Physics: Conference Series (IOP Science) 420 (1).  
  34. ^ Smolańczuk, R. (1997). "Properties of the hypothetical spherical superheavy nuclei". Phys. Rev. C 56 (2): 812–24.  
  35. ^ Zielinski P. M. et al. (2003). Cl"37U + 238Mt via the reaction 271"The search for , GSI Annual report. Retrieved on 2008-03-01
  36. ^ Düllmann, Ch. E for a Univ. Bern - PSI - GSI - JINR - LBNL - Univ. Mainz - FZR - IMP - collaboration. "Chemical investigation of hassium (Hs, Z=108)". Retrieved 15 October 2012. 

External links

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.