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Metabolic pathway

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Metabolic pathway

In biochemistry, a metabolic pathway is a series of chemical reactions occurring within a cell. In a pathway, the initial chemical (metabolite) is modified by a sequence of chemical reactions. These reactions are catalyzed by enzymes, where the product of one enzyme acts as the substrate for the next. These enzymes often require dietary minerals, vitamins, and other cofactors to function.

Pathways are required for the maintenance of flux of metabolites through a pathway is regulated depending on the needs of the cell and the availability of the substrate. The end product of a pathway may be used immediately, initiate another metabolic pathway or be stored for later use. The metabolism of a cell consists of an elaborate network of interconnected pathways that enable the synthesis and breakdown of molecules (anabolism and catabolism)

Overview

Each metabolic pathway consists of a series of biochemical reactions that are connected by their intermediates: the products of one reaction are the substrates for subsequent reactions, and so on. Metabolic pathways are often considered to flow in one direction. Although all chemical reactions are technically reversible, conditions in the cell are often such that it is thermodynamically more favorable for flux to flow in one direction of a reaction. For example, one pathway may be responsible for the synthesis of a particular amino acid, but the breakdown of that amino acid may occur via a separate and distinct pathway. One example of an exception to this "rule" is the metabolism of glucose. Glycolysis results in the breakdown of glucose, but several reactions in the glycolysis pathway are reversible and participate in the re-synthesis of glucose (gluconeogenesis).

  • Glycolysis was the first metabolic pathway discovered:
  1. As glucose enters a cell, it is immediately phosphorylated by ATP to glucose 6-phosphate in the irreversible first step.
  2. In times of excess lipid or protein energy sources, certain reactions in the glycolysis pathway may run in reverse in order to produce glucose 6-phosphate which is then used for storage as glycogen or starch.
  • Metabolic pathways are often regulated by feedback inhibition.
  • Some metabolic pathways flow in a 'cycle' wherein each component of the cycle is a substrate for the subsequent reaction in the cycle, such as in the Krebs Cycle (see below).
  • organelles or separated biochemically by the requirement of different enzymes and co-factors.

Major metabolic pathways

Cellular respiration

A core set of energy-producing aerobic respiration through the citric acid cycle and oxidative phosphorylation. Additionally plants, algae and cyanobacteria are able to use sunlight to anabolically synthesise compounds from non-living matter by photosynthesis.

See also

External links

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  • BioCyc: Metabolic network models for thousands of sequenced organisms
  • KEGG: Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes
  • Reactome, a database of reactions, pathways and biological processes
  • MetaCyc: A database of experimentally elucidated metabolic pathways (2,200+ pathways from more than 2,500 organisms).
  • The Pathway Localization database (PathLocdb)
  • Metabolism, Cellular Respiration and Photosynthesis - The Virtual Library of Biochemistry and Cell Biology
  • Interactive Flow Chart of the Major Metabolic Pathways
  • A novel visualization for a Metabolic Pathway
  • DAVID: Visualize genes on pathway maps
  • Wikipathways: pathways for the people
  • ConsensusPathDB
  • : Integrated interactive metabolic chartmetpath
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