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Title: Microcar  
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Subject: AC Petite, City car, Bond Bug, Hoffmann (motorcycle), Economy car
Collection: Car Classifications, Microcars
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A Peel P50, currently holding the record for the smallest automobile to go into production

A microcar is the smallest automobile classification, usually applied to very small cars (smaller than city cars). Such small cars were generally referred to as cyclecars until the 1940s. More recent models are also called bubble cars due to their bubble-shaped appearance.


  • Definition 1
  • Legal position 2
  • Electric microcars 3
  • Microcars by country of origin 4
  • See also 5
  • Notes 6
  • References 7
  • External links 8


Smart Fortwo- This could be the smallest currently manufactured car with 4 wheels legally allowed in the US, but is not a microcar. The smart Fortwo would be classified as a subcompact. It is short, but all other dimensions and weights are too excessive to be a microcar.

The definition of a microcar has varied considerably in different countries. Since there are usually tax and/or licensing advantages to the classification, multiple restrictions are often imposed, starting with engine size. The Register of Unusual Microcars[1] in the UK says: "economy vehicles with either three or four wheels, powered by petrol engines of no more than 700cc or battery electric propulsion, and manufactured since 1945". The Bruce Weiner Microcar Museum (the world's largest collection of Microcars) says "Engine sizes of 700cc and less and 2 doors or less" and the US-based Vintage Microcar Club simply defines it as 1000cc or less.

Typical microcars usually have some of the following features:

  • seats only the driver and a single passenger
  • a 1-cylinder 49 – 500cc engine
  • 1 wheel drive
  • cable operated brakes on 2,3,or 4 wheels (no longer permissible in countries such as the UK)
  • simple suspensions
  • 6″ - 8″ roadwheels

Many, but not all, microcars are also:

  • Not fitted with a reverse gear (the weight of the car was light enough for parking to be achieved by lifting one end of the vehicle).
  • May have all gears operable in reverse as well as in forward gear such as the Messerschmitt KR200.
  • Fitted with lifting bodywork instead of doors.
  • Less than 3m in length (sometimes less than 8′, 2.440m).
  • Less than 85 cubic feet/2400 litres interior volume.

There are also a variety of microcar trucks, usually of the "forward control" or van style to provide more cargo room. These might be used for local deliveries on narrow streets where standard small pickup trucks would be inconvenient, and full-sized delivery trucks would be impossible.

Legal position

The economy of operating such a small car (mostly in fuel and tires) has also often been helped by three-wheeled microcars or cars with very small engines being treated as motorcycles for tax and insurance purposes.

In some countries, microcars with a certain maximum weight are considered motorcycles and therefore no car driving licence is needed (Austria, France, Germany, Spain, Italy). This assures a certain market among older people who do not want to stand for, or who cannot pass an auto driver's licence test. More negatively, at least in Austria and France, such cars are sometimes derided as a solution for people who had their licence revoked because of drunk driving.

In some European countries, taxes formerly depended on engine displacement, and/or insurance rates depended on power. This has given rise to names of such cars as Citroën 2CV and Renault 4CV. This favourable treatment by governments is based on the benefits to a society of reducing use of such resources as minerals, parking space and foreign exchange, reduced noise and chemical pollution, reduced hazard to others (they are slow vehicles) etc. Reduced global warming from carbon dioxide emission has now been added to this list.

Another advantage is the ease of parking. Some microcars can be parked perpendicular, where other cars park parallel, or be lifted by hand, like a motor scooter, to get into a tight spot. The Isetta and some others had forward entry, to facilitate perpendicular parking close to other vehicles. The Myers Motors NmG (originally called the Corbin Sparrow) is licensed as a motorcycle and parked in motorcycle spaces in California, and probably in other places.

The small size improves handling by reducing the angular inertia. The Messerschmitt and Spatz have been described as much better than ordinary cars on snow and ice. Spare room on the road and ease of missing obstacles are also improved.

For the performance oriented, who prefer more than two wheels and a roof, the scaling laws (elaborated in There's Plenty of Room at the Bottom) show that one need not give up acceleration until the curb weight comes down to around the driver's weight, because power per weight of the car itself improves with small size, in an otherwise similar design. Top speed is lost with small scale, due to the decreased Reynolds number, but this is a small effect. The Messerschmitt TG500 had about a 78 mph (126 km/h) top speed with 15 kW (20 horsepower) and excellent aerodynamics.

In the UK before October 2000, a person who passed a motorcycle test was automatically granted a full sub-category B1 licence (lightweight car with an unladen weight of 550 kg or less, motor quadricycle, motor tricycle) as an additional entitlement with the full Category A (motorcycle) licence. Since 2000 a provisional car licence has to be requested.

The last major UK manufacturer, Reliant, ceased production of these vehicles in 1998.

Elio Motors, an American company attempting to revive the class, is working with state legislatures to remove the motorcycle licensing requirement.

Electric microcars

Some examples of battery electric microcars are:

The obstacle to adaptation of such vehicles in the United States is less technical than cultural and political. The mandates by regulatory powers that such vehicles meet full U.S. safety regulations ensures the unavailability of vehicles suitable for use in the mixed traffic conditions that predominate in U.S. suburban areas.

  • The French company SECMA produces the so-called scootcar FUN-ELEC.
  • The TWIKE is a microcar that is pedal assisted.
  • Electrocar is a small freight transporter typically used in enterprises or rail stations
  • the 2012 PeelP50 comes in electric as well as the classic one cylinder gasoline.

Microcars by country of origin

See also


  1. ^ The Register of Unusual Microcars - vehicles not eligible for membership of any existing one-make clubs or registers.


  • Hans-Ulrich von Mende, Matthias Dietz & Benedikt Taschen (Sep 1994), Kleinwagen, Small Cars, Petites Voitures, Taschen, ISBN 3-8228-8910-5

External links

  • The Bruce Weiner Microcar Museum
  • Peel Microcars
  • The Vintage Microcar Club
  • Electric Car Society
  • The Micromaniacs microcar club
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