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Mirza

Royal and noble ranks in Iran, Turkey, Caucasus, India, Pakistan and Afghanistan
A sultan's turban helmet
Shah
Emperor
High King
King
Sultan
Sultana
Padishah
Royal Prince
Shahzada (Şehzade)
Sultanzade
Mirza
Noble Prince
Sahibzada
Nobleman
Nawab
Baig
Begzada
Royal house
Damat
Governmental
Lala
Agha
Atabeg
Hazinedar

Mirza ( or )[1][1] is a title of Persian origin, denoting the rank of a high nobleman or Prince. It is usually translated into English as a royal or imperial Prince of the Blood. It was used as a name by and signifies patriarchal lineage to the imperial families and aristocracy of the Turkish Empire, Persia, Circassia, and subsequently the Moghals of the Indian Subcontinent and the Muslim Rajputs of the Punjab. It was also the title borne by members of the highest aristocracies in Tatar states, such as the Khanates of Kazan and Astrakhan.

Under Catherine the Great, empress of Russia, the Mirzas gained equal rights with the Russian nobility due to their extreme wealth. In return, the Mirzas financed her Russo-Turkish war against the Ottoman Empire.[2] Abdul Mirza was given the title Prince Yusupov, and his descendant Prince Felix Yusupov married a niece of Tsar Nicholas II of Russia.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
    • Persian Kingdom 2.1
    • Circassia 2.2
    • South Asia 2.3
      • Imperial Family of Hindustan 2.3.1
      • Royal Family of Bengal 2.3.2
      • Royal Family of Awadh 2.3.3
      • Royal Family of Berar 2.3.4
  • Notable Mirzas 3
    • Academics and literature 3.1
    • Advocate 3.2
    • Arts 3.3
    • Government 3.4
    • Military 3.5
    • Nobility 3.6
    • Religion 3.7
    • Sport 3.8
  • See also 4
  • Further reading 5
  • Footnotes 6
  • References 7

Etymology

The word Mīrzā is derived from the Persian term ‘Amīrzāde which literally means "child of the ‘Amīr" or "child of the ruler" in Persian.[3] ‘Amīrzād in turn consists of the Arabic title ‘Amīr (engl. Emir), meaning "commander" and "Prince", and the Persian suffix -zād, meaning "birth" or "lineage". Due to vowel harmony in Turkic languages, the alternative pronunciation Morza (plural morzalar; derived from the Persian word) is also used. The word Mirza means Royalty in almost every old version of Persian, Arab, Turkish and Indian languages.

Variant spellings in English include miriza, mirize, mirze, morsey, mursay, murse, meirsa, mirzey, mursi, murze, murza, mirza, myrza, meerza.[4]

History

Persian Kingdom

The titles themselves were given by the Kings, Sultans and Emperors (equivalent to the western Fount of honour) to their sons and grandsons, or even distant kins. Noblemen loyal to the kings also received this Title, although their usage differed. Aristocratic families (royal descent) from South Asia and individuals descended from the Persian nobility have 'Mirza' in their name.

The title itself came from the title emir. Emir, meaning "commander" or "Prince", -derived from the Semitic root Amr, "command". Originally simply meaning commander or leader, usually in reference to a group of people. It came to be used as a title of governors or rulers, usually in smaller states, and usually renders the English word "prince. Amir Sadri." The word entered English in 1595, from the French émir.[5]

Circassia

There hereditary title of Mirza was also adopted by the highest of nobles of the Circassians. Idar of Kabardia, also known as "Mirza Haydar Temruk Bey", was the great-grandson of Prince Inal, Sultan of Egypt, the founder of the "Temruk dynasty" of the Kabardian princes, in Russia known as the "Cherkassky" a Circassian princely family.

Other notable Circassians with the name Mirza include;

  • Temruk Mirza (ca. 1501 - 1571)
  • Kambulat Mirza (ca. 1510 - 1589)
  • Zhelegot Mirza (ca. 1520- ?)

South Asia

Mirzas of the Mughal imperial family, 1878

In South Asia (modern day Pakistan, India, Bangladesh), the title Mirza was borne by an imperial prince. It was adopted as part of ones name, implying relationship to the Turk dynasties like the Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur).[6] In the traditional naming sequence of the Indian royal families, the title can be placed both before the name and after it, such as Prince Mirza Mughal or Prince Kamran Mirza. Prince Khusrau Mirza was the grandson of Emperor Babur (Babur Mirza), son of Emperor Jahangir and a brother of Emperor Shah Jahan. Emperor Akbar Shah II was Prince Mirza Akbar before his coronation. Emperor Babur took the imperial title of Padishah on 6 March 1508, before which he used the title Mirza.[7]

The title Mirza was also adopted (both as a title and as a name) by the Muslim Rajputs of Punjab. The meaning of Mirza (Persian origin) is a literal translation to the meaning of Rajput (Sanskrit Origin). In the case of the Muslim Rajputs, the title did not imply heredity to the Turk dynasties of Northern India.

Because the Bengali language has no phoneme /z/, Mirza has the local form Mridha (from Mirdhjah) in Bengal and Bihar.[8]

Imperial Family of Hindustan

Royal Family of Bengal

Royal Family of Awadh

Royal Family of Berar

  • Mirza Azam 1707, seventh Mughal Emperor.
  • Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza, son of Emperor Mirza Azam
  • Prince Mohammed Beg Feroz Bakht Mirza, son of Prince Bedar Bakht Mirza
  • Prince BulaquiBeg Mirza, son of Prince Mirza Feroz Bakht
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur Aduli Mirza, son of Mirza Bulaqui Baig Bahaddur
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur AduliBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHatamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur SardarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur UmraoBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurMehboobBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HatamBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurAlamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur HasanBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurRoshanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurQaderBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MehboobBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurHasanBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurKhaliqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurWasiqueBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurSaquibalamBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurAnzarBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • Prince Sultan BahaddurFauwazBeg Mirza S/O Prince Sultan Bahaddur MuqaddarBeg Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Numan Baig Mirza, son of Dr. Hasan Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Afzal Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shahnawaz Baig Mirza, son of Khalique Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Muqadder Baig Mirza, son of Saquib Alam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shafaqat Baig Mirza, son of Qader Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sharafat Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Shabaz Baig Mirza, son of Shafaqat Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Sulaiman Mirza, son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak I son of Hatam Baig Mirza
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Rasheed son of Mirza Abdur Razzak
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Abdul Razzak II a.k.a. Mohammed Rizwan Mirza son of Mirza Abdul Rasheed
  • His Highness Prince Mirza Mohammad Gibran son of Mohammed Rizwan Mirza

Notable Mirzas

Academics and literature

  • Mirza Ghalib (born: Mirza Asadullah Baig Khan), a famous Urdu and Persian poet from South Asia who adorned the Mughal court
  • Mirza Khan of "Mirza & Sahiba", a tragic Romeo-and-Juliet-like love story, based on true events, which is enshrined in Panjabi literature and commonly told in the Punjab region. Though in this story Mirza is used as a name and not as a title. Mirza of "Mirza & Sahiba" was of Muslim Jat / Muslim Rajput descent.
  • Iraj Mirza, Persian folk poet, also known as Jalaal-al-mamalek.
  • Muhammad Munawwar Mirza, a prominent scholar, historian, writer and intellectual from Pakistan
  • Nawab Mirza Khan "Daagh" a famous Urdu poet
  • Muhammad Ilyas Adil (Kashmir Colony Gujranwala Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan) a prominent columnist, educationist and the head of Adil Academy.
  • Muhammad Adrees Baig Mirza (Kashmir Colony Gujranwala Cantt, Punjab, Pakistan), Principal Superior College Gujranwala

Advocate

Arts

  • Aziz Mirza (born 1947) is an Indian film director, producer and writer
  • Haroon Mirza is a living Anglo-Pakistani artist born in London pm in 1977.

Government

Military

Nobility

Religion

Sport

See also

Further reading

  • Life of a Mirza Chapter 7 (pg 225-227) The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture (2004) by Annemarie Schimmel ISBN 1-86189-185-7
  • Mirzah in The Wordsworth Dictionary of Phrase and Fable By Ebenezer Cobham Brewer: The quintessential guide to myth, folklore, legend, legend and literature. ISBN 1-84022-310-3
  • MI’RZA Chambers’s Encyclopaedia: A Dictionary of Universal Knowledge For the People. ISBN 1-149-98693-X
  • A. Jaimoukha The Circassians: A Handbook Routledge, Palgrave, 2001, pp 157–60) ISBN 0-312-23994-7

Footnotes

  1. ^ Persian: میرزا; Azeri: Mirzə; Tajik: Мирзо; Uzbek: Mirzo; Russian: мурза; Bashkir: mïrða; Circassian: мырзэ (common variance in Tatar nobility as Morza); Urdu: مرزا; Punjabi: مرزا

References

Notes
  1. ^ "Mirza Definition". Collins Dictionary. n.d. Retrieved 15 October 2014. 
  2. ^ Life in Samarkand Caucasus and Central Asia vis-à-vis Russia, the West, and Islam, Madina Tlostanova: Peoples’ Friendship University of Russia, Human Architecture: Journal of the Sociology of Self-Knowledge (ISSN: 1540-5699)]
  3. ^ mirza. CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved 2 October 2012
  4. ^ OED: http://www.oed.com/view/Entry/119129?redirectedFrom=mirza#eid Accessed June 17, 2013
  5. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?search=amir&searchmode=none EtymologyOnLine
  6. ^ http://www.columbia.edu/itc/mealac/pritchett/00urdu/hali/majalis/10glossary.html
  7. ^ pg 24. The Empire of the Great Mughals: History, Art and Culture
  8. ^ The Mughal dynasty (the Imperial House of Timur "Sarai Mulk Khanam Qutubuddunniya wa Deen Amir Qutubuddin Taimur Baig Sahib-e-kiran").
Sources
  • Brewer's Dictionary of Phrases and Fable, 16th edition Revised by Adrian Room, 1999
  • WorldStatesmen
  • Eymology Online
  • Mirza, AskDefine.com
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