World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Mountain hawk-eagle

Article Id: WHEBN0000577784
Reproduction Date:

Title: Mountain hawk-eagle  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Buteoninae, Eagle, Legge's hawk-eagle, Thattekad Bird Sanctuary, François' langur
Collection: Birds of Bhutan, Birds of India, Birds of Pakistan, Eagles, Nisaetus
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Mountain hawk-eagle

Mountain hawk-eagle
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Accipitriformes
Family: Accipitridae
Genus: Nisaetus
Species: N. nipalensis
Binomial name
Nisaetus nipalensis
Hodgson, 1836[2]
Synonyms

Spizaetus nipalensis

The mountain hawk-eagle or Hodgson's hawk-eagle (Nisaetus nipalensis, earlier treated under Spizaetus[3]) is a bird of prey. Like all eagles, it is in the family Accipitridae. It breeds in the Indian subcontinent, from India, Nepal to Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia and Japan.[4]

The mountain hawk-eagle is a medium-large raptor at 69–84 cm (27–33 in) in length and a wingspan of 134–175 cm (53–69 in). The typical adult has brown upperparts and pale underparts, with barring on the undersides of the flight feathers and tail. The breast and belly and underwing coverts are heavily streaked. The wings are broad with a curved trailing edge, and are held in a shallow V in flight. Sexes are similar, but young birds are often whiter-headed.

The Sri Lankan and south Indian population is smaller and has unstreaked buff underwing coverts. A 2008 study based on the geographic isolation and differences in call suggest that this be treated as a full species, Nisaetus kelaarti, Legge's hawk-eagle.[5]

The Japanese subspecies N. n. orientalis is larger, lighter, and has only a very small crest, which is large in the other two subspecies. The Japanese subspecies usually weighs 2.2–3.6 kg (4.8–8 lbs).[6]

The heavier underpart streaking and wing shape help to distinguish this species from the similar crested hawk-eagle (Nisaetus cirrhatus).

It is a bird of mountain woodland, which builds a stick nest in a tree and lays usually a single egg. Mountain hawk-eagles eat small mammals, birds and reptiles.

Though it is not considered a globally threatened species, the Japanese population is declining. As the species is a K-strategist like all eagles, it was feared that the ongoing population reduction of N. n. orientalis might lead to loss of genetic diversity, and consequently inbreeding depression. However, genetic diversity was shown to be still considerable at present.[7]

Notes

  1. ^
  2. ^
  3. ^ Helbig AJ, Kocum A, Seibold I & Braun MJ (2005) A multi-gene phylogeny of aquiline eagles (Aves: Accipitriformes) reveals extensive paraphyly at the genus level. Molecular phylogenetics and evolution 35(1):147-164 PDF
  4. ^ Grimmett, Richard; Inskipp, Carol, Inskipp, Tim & Byers, Clive (1999): Birds of India, Pakistan, Nepal, Bangladesh, Bhutan, Sri Lanka, and the Maldives. Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. ISBN 0-691-04910-6
  5. ^ Gjershaug, J. O.; Diserud, O. H.; Rasmussen, P. C. & Warakagoda, D. (2008) " (Aves: Accipitriformes)Nisaetus kelaartiAn overlooked threatened species of eagle: Legge’s Hawk Eagle " (PDF) Zootaxa 1792: 54–66
  6. ^
  7. ^ Asai, Shigeki; Yamamoto, Yoshihiro & Yamagishi, Satoshi (2006): Genetic diversity and extent of gene flow in the endangered Japanese population of Hodgson’s hawk-eagle, Spizaetus nipalensis. Bird Conservation International 16(2): 113–129. doi:10.1017/S0959270906000050

References

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.