Names of syriac christians

The various communities of indigenous pre-Arab, Semitic and often Neo-Aramaic-speaking people of; Iraq, Syria, Iran, Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, the Palestinian Territories and the surrounding areas advocate different terms for ethnic self-designation. These groups are culturally and theologically closely related, but often ethnically, linguistically, genetically, historically and geographically distinct from one another.

The terminological problem goes back to colonial times, but it became more acute in 1946, when with the independence of Syria, the adjective "Syrian" referred to an independent state. The controversy is not restricted to exonyms like English "Assyrian" vs. "Aramean", but also applies to self-designation in Neo-Aramaic, the minority "Aramean" faction endorses both Sūryāyē (ܣܘܪܝܝܐ) and Ārāmayē (ܐܪܡܝܐ), while the majority "Assyrian" faction insists on Āṯūrāyē (ܐܬܘܪܝܐ) but also accepts Sūryāyē (ܣܘܪܝܝܐ) as Sūryāyē is generally accepted to be a derivative of Āṯūrāyē.

The question of ethnic identity and self-designation is sometimes connected to the scholarly debate on the etymology of "Syria". The question has a long history of academic controversy, but majority mainstream opinion currently strongly favors that Syria is indeed ultimately derived from the Assyrian term 𒀸𒋗𒁺 𐎹 Aššūrāyu.[1] Meanwhile, a minority of scholars have rejected the theory of 'Syrian' being derived from 'Assyrian' as "naive".[2]

Rudolf Macuch points out that the Eastern Neo-Aramaic press initially used the term "Syrian" (suryêta) and only much later, with the rise of nationalism, switched to "Assyrian" (atorêta).[3] According to Tsereteli, however, a Georgian equivalent of "Assyrians" appears in ancient Georgian, Armenian and Russian documents.[4] This correlates with the theory of the nations to the East of Mesopotamia knew the group as Assyrians, while to the West, beginning with Luwian, Hurrian and later Greek influence, the group was known as Syrians. "Syria" being an Indo-European corruption of "Assyria".[5] In addition, Arab writers of the Medieval period referred to the indigenous Christians of Mesopotamia as Ashuriyun.

Syriac Christians from the Middle East are theologically and culturally closely related to, but should not be confused with the Saint Thomas Christians from India, whose cultural and ethnic links were a result of trade links and migration by Assyrian Christians from Mesopotamia and the Middle East mostly around the 9th century. There are around 7,000,000+ Syriacs of various ethnicities and denominations in the world, the majority living in the diaspora with the largest centres being in Brazil, India, the United States, Canada, Syrian Arab Republic, Lebanon, Sweden, Australia, Canada, Germany, the Caucasus and Iraq.

History

Syriac Christianity was established among the Syriac (Aramaic) speaking Assyrian population of Upper Mesopotamia ( in other words Persian ruled Assyria/Assuristan) during the 1st to 5th centuries. Until the 7th century Arab Islamic conquests, Syriac Christianity was divided between two empires, Sassanid Persia in the east and Rome/Byzantium in the west. The western group in Syria (ancient Aramea), the eastern in Assyria and Persian Athura/Assuristan (Assyria) and Mesopotamia. Syriac Christianity was divided from an early date over questions of Christological dogma, viz. Nestorianism in the east and Monophysitism and Dyophysitism in the west.

The historical English term for the group is "Syrians" (as in, e.g., Ephraim the Syrian). It is not now in use, since after the 1936 declaration of the Syrian Arab Republic, the term "Syrian" has come to designate citizens of that state regardless of ethnicity. The designation "Assyrians" has also become current in English besides the traditional "Syrians" since at least the Assyrian genocide of the 1910s, although the term was used by European travellers as far back as the late 18th and early 19th centuries and was always in use in the near east in various forms, including Ashuriyun, Assouri, Atorayeh etc.

The adjective "Syriac" properly refers to the Syriac language exclusively and is not a demonym. The OED explicitly still recognizes this usage alone:

A. adj. Of or pertaining to Syria: only of or in reference to the language; written in Syriac; writing, or versed, in Syriac.
B. n. The ancient Semitic language of Mesopotamia and Syria; formerly in wide use (="Aramaic"; now, the form of Aramaic used by Syrian Christians, in which the Peshito version of the Bible is written.[6]

The noun "Syriac" (plural "Syriacs") has nevertheless come into common use as a demonym following the declaration of the Syrian Arab Republic to avoid the ambiguity of "Syrians". Limited de facto use of "Syriacs" in the sense of "authors writing in the Syriac language" in the context of patristics can be found even before World War I.[7]

Since the 1980s, a dispute between Assyrianists, who are mainly indigenous Christians from Iraq, Iran, southeastern Turkey and northeastern Syria, and derive their national identity from the Iron Age Assyria, Mesopotamia and Assyria/Athura/Assuristan/Adiabene under Babylonian, Achamaenid Persian, Seleucid Greek, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid Persian rule, and Arameanists who are mainly from central, south, west and northwestern Syria and southcentral Turkey, (emphasizing their descent from the Levantine Arameans instead) has become ever more pronounced. In the light of this dispute, the traditional English designation "Assyrians" has come to appear taking an Assyrianist position, for which reason some official sources in the 2000s have come to use emphatically neutral terminology, such as "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac" in the US census, and "Assyrier/Syrianer" in the Swedish census.


In the Aramaic language, the dispute boils down to the question of whether Sūrāyē/Sūryāyē "Syrian" or Āṯūrāyē "Assyrian" is in preferred use, or whether they are used synonymously. A 2007 Modern Aramaic Dictionary & Phrasebook does treat the terms as synonyms:

Assyrians call themselves: S: Suraye, Suryaye, Athuraye / T: Suroye, Soryoye, Othuroye[8]

The question of the history of each of these terms is less clear. The points to be distinguished are

  • was the term Āṯūrāyē introduced into Neo-Aramaic in the 19th century, during the Early Modern period, or has it been in use even in the Middle Aramaic vernacular of the Early Christian period?
  • what was the relation of the Greek terms Suria vs. Assuria in pre-Christian classical Antiquity
  • what is the ultimate etymological connection of the terms Syria and Assyria.

It is undisputed that reference to both the "Syrian" and "Assyrian" self-designations were in use by the mid-19th century.[9]

Medieval Syriac authors show awareness of the descent of their language from the ancient Arameans, without however using "Aramean" as an ethnic self-designation. Thus, Michael the Great (13th century) wrote Michael the Great also mentions an earlier, 9th-century dispute of a dispute of Jacobite Syrians with Greek scholars, in which the Jacobites endorsed an "Assyrian" identity. Also according to the "Chronicle of the Carmelites in Persia", Pope Paul V shall, in a letter to the Persian Shah Abbas I (1571-1629) of 3 November 1612 mention that the Jacobites endorsed an "Assyrian" identity.

John Joseph in the Nestorians and Their Muslim Neighbors (1961) stated that the term Assyrians had for various political reasons been reintroduced to Syriac Christians by British missionaries during the 19th century, and strengthened by archaeological discoveries of ancient Assyria.[10] In the 1990s, the question was revived by Richard Frye among others, who disagreed with Joseph, establishing that the term "Assyrians" had existed amongst the Jacobites and the Nestorians already during the 17th century,[11] Frye further adduces Armenian, Persian, Russian, Arab and Georgian sources to establish the pre-modern usage of Assyrian for the Christian group.[12] The two scholars agreed on the fact that "confusion has existed between the two similar words ‘Syria’ and ‘Assyria’ throughout history down to our own day", but each accused the other of contributing further to this confusion. In addition, Horatio Southgate came upon people known as Assyrians in the early 19th century, many decades before the archaeological discoveries and missionary activities of western Christians.

The question of the synonymity of Suria vs. Assuria was already discussed by classical authors: Herodotus has “This people, whom the Greeks call Syrians, are called Assyrians by the barbarians”.[13][14] while strictly distinguishing the toponyms Syria vs. Assyria, the former referring to the Levant, the latter to Mesopotamia. Posidonius has “The people we [Greeks] call Syrians were called by the Syrians themselves Arameans”.[15]

Further information: Syria (etymology)

Quite apart from the question of de facto usage, the question of the etymological relation of the two terms had been open until recently. The point of uncertainty was whether the toponym Syria was ultimately derived from the name Aššur (as opposed to alternative suggestions deriving Syria from the name of the non-Semitic Hurrians). With the discovery of the Çineköy inscription the question does now appear to have been decisively settled to the effect that Syria does indeed derive from Aššur.[16]

The Çineköy inscription is a Hieroglyphic Luwian-Phoenician bilingual, uncovered from Çineköy, Adana Province, Turkey (ancient Cilicia), dating to the 8th century BC. Originally published by Tekoglu and Lemaire (2000),[17] it was more recently the subject of a 2006 paper published in the Journal of Near Eastern Studies, in which the author, Robert Rollinger, lends strong support to the age-old debate of the name "Syria" being derived from "Assyria" (see Etymology of Syria). The examined section of the Luwian inscription reads:

§VI And then, the/an Assyrian king (su+ra/i-wa/i-ni-sa(URBS)) and the whole Assyrian "House" (su+ra/i-wa/i-za-ha(URBS)) were made a fa[ther and a mo]ther for me,
§VII and Hiyawa and Assyria (su+ra/i-wa/i-ia-sa-ha(URBS)) were made a single “House.”

The corresponding Phoenician inscription reads:

And the king [of Aššur and (?)]
the whole “House” of Aššur (’ŠR) were for me a father [and a]
mother, and the DNNYM and the Assyrians (’ŠRYM)

The object on which the inscription is found is a monument belonging to Urikki, vassal king of Hiyawa (i.e. Cilicia), dating to the 8th century BC. In this monumental inscription, Urikki made reference to the relationship between his kingdom and his Assyrian overlords. The Luwian inscription reads "Sura/i" whereas the Phoenician translation reads ’ŠR or "Ashur" which, according to Rollinger (2006), "settles the problem once and for all".[18]

Names in diaspora

USA

During the 2000 United States census, Syriac Orthodox Archbishops Cyril Aphrem Karim and Clemis Eugene Kaplan issued a declaration that their preferred English designation is "Syriacs".[19] The official census avoids the question by listing the group as "Assyrian/Chaldean/Syriac".[20][21] Some Maronite Christians also joined this US census (as opposed to Lebanese American).[22]

Sweden

In Sweden, this name dispute has its beginning when immigrants from Turkey, belonging to the Syriac Orthodox Church emigrated to Sweden during the 1960s and were applied with the ethnic designation Assyrians by the Swedish authorities. This caused many who preferred the indigenous designation Suryoyo (who today go by the name Syrianer) to protest, which led to the Swedish authorities began using the double term assyrier/syrianer.[23][24]

National identities

Assyrian identity

Main articles: Assyrian nationalism and Assyrian continuity

An Assyrian identity has existed continuously since the mid 3rd millenium BC, and is today maintained by followers of the Assyrian Church of the East, the Ancient Church of the East, most followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church, Assyrian Protestants, some communities of the Syriac Orthodox Church (particularly in eastern Syria and south eastern Turkey) and to a much lesser degree the Syriac Catholic Church . Those identifying with Assyria, and with Mesopotamia in general, tend to be Mesopotamian Eastern Aramaic speaking Christians from Iraq, north eastern Syria, south eastern Turkey and north west Iran, together with communities that spread from these regions to neighbouring lands such as Armenia, Georgia, southern Russia and Azerbaijan.

Assyrian identitification with an ancient Assyrian/Mesopotamian heritage is supported by a number of factors. They are indesputably the pre-Arab and pre-Islamic population of Assyria in particular, and Mesopotamia in general. Assyriologists and Orientalists point out that there is no historical evidence, let alone proof to suggest the indigenous Assyrians and Mesopotamians were ever wiped out, deported or removed from their homelands, and that Assyria existed as a specifically named region until the second half of the 7th century as Athura/Assuristan. Most speak various Mesopotamian dialects of Neo-Aramaic which still retain hundreds of Akkadian loan words, and notably also have an Akkadian rather than Aramaic grammatical structure. Assyrian continuity receives support from modern Assyriologists like H.W.F. Saggs, Robert D. Biggs, Giorgi Tsereteli and Simo Parpola,[26][27][28] and Iranologists like Richard Nelson Frye.[1][29] Further support is added by historians such as J.G. Browne, George Percy Badger and J.A. Brinkman. Orientalists of the 19th century such as Austen Henry Layard and Hormuzd Rassam also supported this view.

During the Medieval period, Arab histographers labelled the Assyrians of Mesopotamia as Ashuriyun. Early European travellers to the Ottoman Empire found eastern Aramaic speaking Christian people in upper Mesopotamia with distinct Assyrian names who referred to themselves and were referred to by neighbouring peoples as Assouri ( in other words Assyrians). Assyria continued to exist as a named province and entity under Achamenid, Seleucid, Parthian, Roman and Sassanid rule, and Syriac (Assyrian) Christianity began to take hold from the 1st to 3rd centuries AD. The Assyrianist movement originated in the 19th to early 20th century, in direct opposition to Pan-Arabism and in the context of Assyrian irredentism. It was exacerbated by the Assyrian Genocide and Assyrian War of Independence of World War I. The emphasis of Assyrian antiquity grew ever more pronounced in the decades following World War II, with an official Assyrian calendar introduced in the 1950s, taking as its era the year 4750 BC, the purported date of foundation of the city of Assur and the introduction of a new Assyrian flag in 1968. Assyrians tend to be from Iraq, Iran, southeast Turkey, northeast Syria, Armenia, Georgia, southern Russia and Azerbaijan, as well as in diaspora communities in the US, Canada, Australia, Great Britain, Sweden, Netherlands etc. The The discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 AD clearly supports the already prevailing argument that the terms Syrian and Syriac are indeed Luwian and Greek corruptions of the term Assyrian.

Genetic continuity has been supported by the studies of Cavalli-Sforza which note that Assyrians have a distinct genetic profile which maps back to ancient Mesopotamia, and differs from that of Levantine Syriacs. Linguistic evidence also lends itself to Assyrian identity with the Assyrian dialects still retaining an Akkadian grammatical structure together with many Akkadian loan words.

The Assyrian movement today, is also very strong amongst the Jacobites. In Sweden, the majority of those who identify themselves as Assyrians, are Jacobites from the Syriac Orthodox Church,[30] but there are also Assyrians and Syriacs in Sweden representing the other Syriac churches.

Syriac identity

The term Syriac is usually taken as a theological and cultural term, used to describe Semitic Christians from the Near East in general. However it is advocated as an ethnic term by some followers of the Syriac Orthodox Church, the Syriac Catholic Church and to a much lesser degree, the Maronite Church. Those self identifying as Syriacs tend to be from western, northwestern, southern and central Syria, as well as southcentral Turkey. The term "Syriac" is the subject of some controversy, as it is generally accepted by the vast majority of scholars that it is a Greek corruption of "Assyrian". In addition, the Syriac script and Syriac Dialect as well as Syriac Christianity all arose in Sassanid ruled Assyria. For these reasons, some Assyrians also accept the term "Syriac" as well as "Assyrian", as it is taken to mean one and the same thing. The discovery of the Çineköy inscription in 2000 appears to have confirmed this. Likewise, some Syriacs identify equally with the term Assyrian.

Organisations such as the Syriac Union Party in Lebanon and Syria, as well as the European Syriac Union, espouse a Syriac identity.

Chaldean and Chaldo-Assyrian identity

Advocated by some followers of the Chaldean Catholic Church who are mainly based in the United States.[31] This is mainly a denominational rather than ethnic term,[32] though some Chaldean Catholics espouse a distinct Chaldean ethnic identity. However it is highly likely that these are exactly the same people as the Assyrians,[33] both having the same culture, speaking the same language and originating from the same lands in northern Mesopotamia, rather than the far south east where the long disappeared ancient Chaldeans dwelt.[34] The term "Chaldean" came into being when some Mesopotamian/Assyrian followers of the Church of the East entered communion with Rome in the 16th and 17th centuries, and Rome named the new church the "Chaldean Catholic Church", after initially calling it the "Church of Assyria and Mosul". It is noteworthy that Chaldean Catholics originate from and live mostly in Northern Iraq, the traditional Assyrian homeland, and not in the extreme south of Iraq where "Ancient Chaldea" was situated. The origins of the ancient Chaldeans is unclear, they first appeared in the 8th century BC. It is most likely that they were either a distinct Akkadianized Semitic group or were a powerful Akkadianized Aramean tribe. What is certain is that the Chaldean Dynasty did not even survive until the end of the aforementioned dynasty, Nabonidus, the last king of the Chaldean Dynasty and his son, prince Belshazzar were from Harran, and thus from Assyria. Despite this, Babylon was often referred to as Chaldea in later Classical writings. There has been no serious historical evidence produced thus far to support a specific link between the Chaldean Catholics (who were originally members of the "Assyrian" Church) and the ancient long disappeared Chaldean tribe.[35][36][37]

The Chaldean Catholic Church was established as a split off the Assyrian Church of the East (East Syrian Rite), its first patriarch was proclaimed patriarch of "Mosul and Athur" (Persian for "Assyria") on 20 February 1553 by Pope Julius III.[38] The term "Chaldean" was chosen at the time to distinguish from the adherents of the Assyrian Church of the East after originally being called The Church of Athora(Assyria) and Mosul .[39][40]

A small minority Chaldean Catholics (mainly American-based) no longer subscribe to an "Assyrian" identity,[41] due mainly to the esposing of a purely Catholic identity, rather than any interest in an ethnic one, promoted by the Chaldean Catholic Church.[41] However most Chaldean Catholics acknowledge that ethnically they are one and the same people as the Assyrians, and many priests in the Chaldean Church, such as Mar Raphael I Bedawid, advocate the Assyrian ethnicity regardless of doctrinal differences.[42]

Orientalists such as Hannibal Travis and Mordechai Nisan state that later erroneous names which served to confuse Assyrian identity in the Western World, such as Nestorians, Syrians, Syriacs, and Chaldeans, were names imposed by Western Missionaries such as the Catholics and Protestants on the Ottoman, Persian and Mesopotamian Assyrians. The Greek, Persian, and Arab rulers of occupied Assyria, as well as Assyrian, Chaldean Catholic and Syriac Orthodox patriarchs, priests, and monks, as well as Armenian, Georgian, Arab, Kurdish, Turkish, Russian, British, and French laypeople, called them Assyrians.[33]

Artur Boháč ehoes Hannibal Travis in pointing out that the confusion of later names applied to the Assyrian ethnic group were introduced by Western theologians and missionaries, and others arose out of doctrinal rather than ethnic divisions.[32]

Others prefer to call themselves Chaldo-Assyrian to avoid division on theological grounds. The Iraqi and Iranian governments uses this term in recognition that Assyrians and Chaldeans are ethnically the same people but with different religious traditions. They are indigenous to Iraq, north east Syria and southeast Turkey, for the most part speaking the Chaldean Neo-Aramaic and Assyrian Neo-Aramaic dialects.

Also known as "Chaldean Christians", "Assyrian Christians" or "Syrian Christians" are the Saint Thomas Christians of India (also called the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church). They are ethnically and culturally related to the Chaldo-Assyrian people as a result of trade links and mass migration during the 9th century at the height of the Nestorian Church. They are referred to as 'Suriyani', an Arabic term meaning 'Syrian Christian'. They are also referred to as Nasrani, which is an Arabic term referring to Christians, more specifically Jewish-Christians, which originates from 'Nazareth'. They belong to the Syriac Christian heritage, and their churches continue to remain in communion with their sister churches in the Middle East.

Aramean identity

Further information: Arameans

Advocated by a number of indigenous Christians in western, north-western, southern and central Syria, and south-central Turkey, but rejected by the ethnically, genetically and linguistically distinct Christians in Iraq, Iran, south eastern Turkey and north east Syria. They reject the term "Syriac" because of its probable Assyrian origin,[43] and because they are not in fact geographically from Assyria or Mesopotamia in general, but rather are pre-Arab inhabitants of lands that encompass the traditional Aramean homeland, which is in effect most of modern Syria. Few of those identifying as Aramean now speak Aramaic, and most are now Arabic speaking. The Arameans are a people who emerged in the Levant (modern Syria) during the Late Bronze Age, who following the Bronze Age collapse formed a number of small kingdoms before they were conquered into the Neo-Assyrian Empire in the course of the 10th to late 7th centuries BC. During Horatio Southgate's travels through Mesopotamia, he encountered indigenous Christians, adherents of the Assyrian Church of the East and Chaldean Catholic Church who claimed an Assyrian ancestry and had distinct Assyrian names, but stated that the Jacobites (adherents of the Syriac Orthodox Church) of Syria were descendants of the Arameans, "whose chief city was Damascus" (Arameans).[44]

Such an Aramean identity is mainly held by a number of Syriac Christians in southcentral Turkey, western, central, northern and southern Syria and in the diaspora especially in Germany and Sweden.[45] In English, they self-identify as "Syriac", sometimes expanded to "Syriac-Aramean" or "Aramean-Syriac". In Swedish, they call themselves Syrianer, and in German, Aramäer is a common self-designation. In recent days the term Aramean rather than Syriac is gaining popularity among some Christians in Syria and the diaspora.

The Aramean Democratic Organization, based in Lebanon, is an advocate of the Aramean identity.

Flag

The Syriac-Aramaic flag[46] (also "Syriac flag", "Aramaean flag") is the flag chosen by the Arameanist faction to represent the Aramean (Syriac) nation in the Syriac homeland and in the Syriac diaspora. The original relief depicted was excavated by André Dupont-Sommer (1900–1983) in the old Aramean village Tell Halaf, Syria.[47] It was adapted as a flag in Bahro Suryoyo January issue 1980.[48] However, it was redesigned to its current form in 1982 by Abdulmasiḥ Ḥanna, a member of the Syrian Social Nationalist Party. Members of the SSNP party were known to be opponents of the Assyrian more actionary movement back in the homeland, Qamishlo, before the diaspora.

In the flag design, the sun is replaced by a flame or torch, symbolizing the Holy Spirit. The red background was chosen because of all blood that was spilled in the Syriac genocide. The yellow color is symbolizing the hope for a country of their own, since Syriacs are a people living without their own state.

Phoenician identity

Main article: Phoenicianism

Many Maronites identify with a Phoenician origin and do not see themselves as Syriac or Aramean. These tend to be from Lebanon and the Mediterranean coast of Syria, an area roughly corresponding to ancient Phoenicia. They are of pre-Arab and pre-Islamic origin, and thus identify with the ancient population of that region.[49] Lebanese author Walid Phares, speaking at the 70th Assyrian Convention, on the topic of Assyrians in post-Saddam Iraq, began his talk by asking why he as a Lebanese Maronite ought to be speaking on the political future of Assyrians in Iraq, answering his own question with "because we are one people. We believe we are the Western Assyrians and you are the Eastern Assyrians."[50]

However, other Maronite factions in Lebanon, such as Guardians of the Cedars, in their opposition to Arab nationalism, advocate the idea of a Phoenician racial heritage (see Phoenicianism). They point out that they are of pre-Arab and pre-Islamic origin, and as such are at least in part of Phoenician-Canaanite stock.[49]

Other names

  • "Nestorians", is a now defunct catch-all term to describe any Near-Eastern and Asian Christians regardless of ethnicity, language and often doctrine. The term was used by Europeans from Medieval times to the Victorian age, regardless of denomination or ethnicity. In the 19th century, this was narrowed to apply specifically to those Assyrians who were members of the Assyrian Church of the East and the Chaldean Catholic Church. The term is rejected by Assyrians who point out they are a multi denominational ethnic group rather than a religious sect, and by the Assyrian Church of the East, which points out that it is both older and theologically distinct from the church founded by Nestorius in the 5th century AD. The term Nestorian has now largely been discarded.
  • "Christians", Western media often makes no mention whatsoever of any ethnic identity of the Christian people of the region, and simply call them "Christians" or "Iraqi Christians", "Iranian Christians", "Syrian Christians" etc. This label is rejected by many[51] Assyrian/Aramean/Syriac/Phoenician Christians (as well as by Copts and Armenians) as it wrongly implies no difference other than theological with the Arabs, Kurds, Turks, Iranians and Azeris of the region.
  • "Ashuriyun", a term used by Medieval Arabs to for the eastern Aramaic speaking Assyrian Christians of Mesopotamia. The term has now fallen out of use, however it is noteworthy in that it illustrates the Arab Islamic rulers acknowledged Assyrian identity.

Generally, those self identifying as "Arabs" tend to be indigenous to Jordan, Israel & the Palestinian Territories, the Arabian Peninsula and Yemen, although even in these areas an Arab identity is not universally accepted.

See also

Assyrians portal
Syriac Christianity portal

External links

  • Kelley L. Ross, , The Proceedings of the Friesian School
  • Los Angeles Times (Orange County Edition), , 17 February 2003, p. B8.
  • Sarhad Jammo, Contemporary Chaldeans and Assyrians: One Primordial Nation, One Original Church, Kaldu.org
  • Edward Odisho, PhD, Assyrians, Chaldeans & Suryanis: We all have to hang together before we are hanged separately (2003)
  • Aprim, Fred, (2004)
  • Wilfred Alkhas, (2006)
  • Nicholas Aljeloo, Who Are The Assyrians?, (2000)
  • William Warda, Aphrim Barsoum's Role in distancing the Syrian Orthodox Church from its Assyrian Heritage, (2005)

Bibliography

References

  • Sargon R. Michael, review of J. Joseph The Modern Assyrians of the Middle East, Zinda magazine (2002)

Footnotes

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