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National Liberation Front of Tripura


National Liberation Front of Tripura

National Liberation Front of Tripura
Participant in Tripura rebellion
Active 1989 – present
Ideology Tripuri nationalism
Christian fundamentalism
Leaders Biswamohan Debbarma
Utpanna Tripura†
Mukul Debbarma†
Area of operations Tripura, India
Strength approx. 550-850[1]
Opponents Government of Tripura

The National Liberation Front of Tripura (or NLFT) is a Tripura, India.[2][3][4][5] The NLFT seeks to secede from India and establish an independent Tripuri state, and has actively participated in the Tripura Rebellion. The NLFT manifesto says that they want to expand what they describe as the kingdom of God and Jesus Christ in Tripura.[6]

The NLFT is currently proscribed as a

External links

  1. ^ Latimer, William (March 2004). "What can the United States learn from India to counter terrorism?" (PDF).  
  2. ^ "Terrorist Organization Profile: National Liberation Front of Tripura (NLFT)". National Consortium for the Study of Terrorism and Responses to Terrorism.  
  3. ^ K. Alan Kronstadt, Bruce Vaughn, eds. (2005-08-31). "Congressional Research Service Report for Congress" (PDF). The Library of Congress. p. 44. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  4. ^ Kronstadt, K. Alan, ed. (2006-07-31). "India-U.S. Relations" (PDF). Congressional Research Service Report for Congress (PDF). The Library of Congress. p. 22. Retrieved 2009-03-01. 
  5. ^ "Country Reports on Human Rights Practices". Bureau of Democracy, Human Rights, and Labor.  
  6. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subir (2000-04-18). "Church backing Tripura rebels". BBC News (London). Retrieved 2009-03-15. 
  7. ^ a b "The Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002". Republic of India.  
  8. ^ a b c National Liberation Front of Tripura at the Institute for Conflict Management's South Asian Terrorism Portal
  9. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (April 18, 2000). "Church backing Tripura rebels". BBC News. Retrieved 8 August 2014. 
  10. ^ "Constitution of National Liberation Front Of Tripura". South Asia Terrorism Portal. 
  11. ^ a b Adam, Jeroen; De Cordier, Bruno; Titeca, Kristof; Vlassenroot, Koen (2007). "In the Name of the Father? Christian Terrorism in Tripura, Northern Uganda, and Ambon". Studies in Conflict and Terrorism 30 (11): 963–83.  
  12. ^ "National Liberation Front of Tripura, India". South Asia Terrorism Portal. 
  13. ^ a b Bhaumik, Subhir (April 18, 2000). "'Church backing Tripura rebels'". BBC News. Retrieved 26 August 2006. 
  14. ^ "Separatist group bans Hindu festivities". BBC News. 2000-10-02. 
  15. ^ a b c Tribals unite against conversions in Tripura
  17. ^ "Hindu preacher killed by Tripura rebels". BBC News. 2000-08-28. 
  18. ^ "Tripura tribal leader killed". BBC News. 2000-12-27. 
  19. ^ "Rebels kill Tripura CPM leader". The Telegraph (Calcutta, India). 2005-05-17. 
  20. ^ [2]
  21. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (2005-08-27). "'"India rebels 'making porn films. BBC News. Retrieved 2013-05-11. 
  22. ^ Bhaumik, Subir (2004-05-06). "Tripura rebels surrender". BBC News (London). 
  23. ^ "Policy for Solving Insurgency Problem in NE" (Press release).  


See also

The Nayanbasi faction (NLFT/NB) was led by Nayanbasi Jamatiya until 2004, when it peacefully entered into a Memorandum of Settlement with India.[23]

Nayanbasi faction

Upon the surrender of Mantu Koloi, second in command, he requested that Biswamohan Debbarma and Ranjit Debbarma engage in talks with the Government of India to resolve the crisis, but both leaders vowed to fight on.[22]

The Biswamohan faction (NLFT/BM) is currently headed by Biswamohan Debbarma.

Biswamohan faction

Other leaders of the original NLFT included ‘Vice President’ Kamini Debbarma, ‘Publicity Secretary’ Binoy Debbarma, ‘Chief of Army’ Dhanu Koloi, and ‘Finance Secretary’ Bishnu Prasad Jamatiya.

Cited causes of internal conflicts[8] include the reluctance of Biswamohan Debbarma's Central Executive Committee to nominate Joshua Debbarma as the King of ‘Tripura Kingdom’; misappropriation of funds by senior leaders; lavish lifestyles led by the senior leadership; and forcible conversion of tribal cadres/civilians to Christianity.

In the wake of the expulsion of Biswamohan Debbarma and Nayanbasi Jamatiya, the NLFT divided into two factions in February 2001.


According to the Institute for Conflict Management, approximately 90% of the NLFT's administration are Christians.[8]

The BBC reported in 2005 that independent investigations as well as confessions from surrendered members showed that the NLFT had been making and selling pornography to finance their activities. This includes DVDs of pornographic films made by the group with tribal men and women kidnapped and forced to participate in sex acts while being filmed. The movies are dubbed into various languages and sold illegally throughout the region for a profit. Statements from former members and one report state that the NLFT has a history of sexually abusing tribal women.[21]

In 2001, there were 826 reported terrorist attacks in [20] Nagmanlal Halam, secretary of the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, was arrested for and confessed, under torture from police, to providing munitions and financial aid to the NLFT from 1998 until 2000.[6]

In early 2000, 16 Bengali Hindus were killed by the NLFT at Gourangatilla. On May 20, 2000, the NLFT killed 25 Bengali Hindus at the Bagber refugee camp.[16] In August 2000, a tribal Hindu spiritual leader, Shanti Kali, was shot dead by about ten NLFT guerrillas who said it wanted to convert all people in the state to Christianity.[17] In December 2000, Labh Kumar Jamatia, a religious leader of the state's second largest Hindu group, was kidnapped by the NLFT, and found dead in a forest in Dalak village in southern Tripura. According to police, rebels from the NLFT wanted Jamatia to convert to Christianity, but he refused.[18] A local Marxist tribal leader, Kishore Debbarma, was clubbed to death in Tripura's Sadar by militants from the Biswamohan faction of the NLFT in May 2005.[19]

The NLFT has been described as engaging in terrorist violence motivated by their Christian beliefs.[11] The NLFT is listed as a terrorist organisation in the Prevention of Terrorism Act, 2002.[7] The state government contends that the Baptist Church of Tripura supplies arms and gives financial support to the NLFT.[12][13] In April 2000, according to the state government, the secretary of the Noapara Baptist Church in Tripura, Nagmanlal Halam, was arrested In April 2000 with explosives and confessed that for two years he had been buying explosives for the NLFT.[13] In 2000, the NLFT threatened to kill Hindus celebrating the religious festival of Durga Puja.[14] At least 20 Hindus in Tripura have been killed by the NLFT in two years for resisting forced conversion to Christianity.[15] A leader of the Jamatia tribe, Rampada Jamatia, said that armed NLFT militants were forcibly converting tribal villagers to Christianity, which he said was a serious threat to Hinduism.[15] It is believed that as many as 5,000 tribal villagers were forcibly converted from 1999 to 2001.[15] These forcible conversions to Christianity, sometimes including the use of "rape as a means of intimidation," were noted by academics outside of India in 2007.[11]

The [10]



  • History 1
  • Factions 2
    • Biswamohan faction 2.1
    • Nayanbasi faction 2.2
  • See also 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5


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