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Nellore

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Title: Nellore  
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Nellore

Nellore
నెల్లూరు
Simhapuri
City
Nellore Montage Clockwise from top left: Nellore City View, Narayana Colleges, A Ship at Krishnapatnam Port, Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Nellore
Nellore Montage Clockwise from top left: Nellore City View, Narayana Colleges, A Ship at Krishnapatnam Port, Gopuram of Sri Ranganathaswamy Temple, Nellore
Nellore is located in Andhra Pradesh
Nellore
Nellore
Nellore
Coordinates:
Country India
State Andhra Pradesh
Region Coastal Andhra
District Nellore
Government
 • Type Municipal Corporation
 • Body Nellore Municipal Corporation
 • Mayor Abdul Aziz
Area[1]
 • Total 149.96 km2 (57.90 sq mi)
Elevation 18 m (59 ft)
Population (2011)[1]
 • Total 600,869
 • Rank 76th (India)
4th (Andhra Pradesh)
 • Density 4,000/km2 (10,000/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 524 xxx
Telephone code +91–861
Vehicle registration AP–26

Nellore is a city and municipal corporation in the state of Andhra Pradesh. Nellore is the 4th most populous city in Andhra Pradesh and the district headquarters as well.[2] The ancient name of Nellore was "Vikrama Simhapuri" until the 13th century.[3] Nellore is situated about 279 kilometres (173 mi) south of the state capital Amaravati and 168 kilometres (104 mi) north of Chennai on the Chennai-Kolkata highway. It is located on the banks of the Penner River and is well known for its agriculture and aquaculture.

Contents

  • Etymology 1
  • History 2
  • Geography 3
  • Demographics 4
  • Government and politics 5
  • Economy 6
  • Culture 7
    • Festivals 7.1
  • Transportation 8
    • Road 8.1
    • Rail 8.2
    • Sea 8.3
    • Air 8.4
  • Education 9
  • Places of interest 10
  • See also 11
  • References 12
  • External links 13

Etymology

According to Gazetteer of the Nellore District the word Nellore is combination of two Tamil words Nel+oor which means Paddy Town in Tamil language.

History

Nellore also known as Vikrama Simhapuri existed from the times of the Mauryan empire and was ruled by Ashoka in the 3rd century B.C. Tamil inscriptions indicate that it formed part of Cholas kingdom till their decline in the thirteenth century A.D (Gazetteer of South India).Nellore was known by the name of Vikrama Simhapuri till the 13th century It was annexed by the Pallavas between the fourth and sixth centuries A.D. It was later part of Kakatiyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Sultanate of Golconda, Mughal Empire and Arcot Nawabdom. In the 18th century, Nellore was taken over by the British from the Arcot Nawabs and was part of the Madras Presidency of British India. The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. Potti Sriramulu, who fasted until death for the formation of Andhra Pradesh, hailed from Nellore.. The city had an important role in the emergence of the Telugu language and the formation of the state of Andhra Pradesh. It had been under the rule of Maurya Dynasty, Kharavela of Chedi dynasty, Satavahanas, Kakatiyas, Pallavas, Cholas, Eastern Gangas of Kalinga Empire, Telugu Cholas, Pandyas, Vijayanagara Empire, Arcot Nawabs and other dynasties

Geography

Nellore is located at .[4] It has an average elevation of 18 metres (59 ft).[4]

Climate

The climate of Nellore city is a typical tropical maritime climate, with hot, humid summers and mild winters. April and May are the hottest months and the hot conditions generally last until the end of the June, December, January and February are the coolest months. As the Bay of Bengal is at a distance of 24 kilometres (15 mi) from the city, the sea breeze renders the climate of the city moderate both in winter and in summer. Humidity level in the city is high due to its proximity to the coast. Nellore does not receive the south-west monsoon. Rainfall in Nellore occurs between the months of October and December due to the north-east monsoon. This period gives about 60 percent of the city's annual rainfall. Cyclones are common in the city during this period, causing floods and havoc.[5]

  • Winter: January and February
  • Summer: March to May
  • South West Monsoons – June to September
  • North East Monsoons – October to December

The maximum temperature is 36 to 46 °C (97 to 115 °F) during summer and the minimum temperature is 23 to 25 °C (73 to 77 °F) during winter. The rainfall ranges from 700 to 1,000 mm (28 to 39 in) through South West and North East Monsoons. Nellore is subject both to droughts and to floods based on the seasons. It is also the hottest city in India with at least 35 super hot days in a year.[6]

Climate data for Nellore (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 35.6
(96.1)
39.4
(102.9)
43.9
(111)
45.6
(114.1)
46.7
(116.1)
46.7
(116.1)
42.2
(108)
40.6
(105.1)
41.7
(107.1)
39.4
(102.9)
36.7
(98.1)
35.0
(95)
46.7
(116.1)
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
32.4
(90.3)
35.0
(95)
37.9
(100.2)
39.8
(103.6)
38.1
(100.6)
35.9
(96.6)
35.1
(95.2)
35.2
(95.4)
32.6
(90.7)
29.9
(85.8)
28.9
(84)
34.2
(93.6)
Average low °C (°F) 20.3
(68.5)
21.8
(71.2)
23.4
(74.1)
26.1
(79)
28.1
(82.6)
28.3
(82.9)
26.9
(80.4)
26.7
(80.1)
26.3
(79.3)
25.0
(77)
23.0
(73.4)
21.2
(70.2)
24.8
(76.6)
Record low °C (°F) 15.0
(59)
16.1
(61)
17.2
(63)
20.2
(68.4)
20.2
(68.4)
21.1
(70)
22.2
(72)
21.7
(71.1)
21.5
(70.7)
18.9
(66)
16.7
(62.1)
14.4
(57.9)
14.4
(57.9)
Average precipitation mm (inches) 9.7
(0.382)
1.7
(0.067)
1.5
(0.059)
11.0
(0.433)
30.1
(1.185)
31.1
(1.224)
75.4
(2.969)
85.2
(3.354)
91.6
(3.606)
265.9
(10.469)
316.6
(12.465)
102.5
(4.035)
1,022.3
(40.248)
Average precipitation days 0.9 0.2 0.2 0.4 1.3 3.5 6.0 6.4 5.6 8.9 9.1 4.0 46.4
Source: India Meteorological Department (record high and low up to 2010)[7][8]

Demographics

As of 2011 census, Nellore city had a population of 505,258, constituting 257,043 males and 248,215 females —a sex ratio of 966 females per 1000 males. 42,041 children are in the age group of 0–6 years, of which 21,701 are boys and 20,340 are girls. The average literacy rate stands at 83.59% (male 87.53%; female 79.52%) with 387,192 literates, significantly higher than the state average of 73.00%.[9][10] The expanded city population post merger of 15 gram panchayats into Nellore Municipal Corporation stands at 600,869.[1][11]

Government and politics

Civic administration

Nellore Municipal Corporation oversees the civic needs of the city. It was constituted on 18 October 2004 with 50 wards, which were increased to 54 wards in 2013. After the merger of 15 gram panchayats, the corporation increased its area from 48.39 km2 (18.68 sq mi) to its present area of 149.96 km2 (57.90 sq mi) under its jurisdiction.[1] Present mayor of the city is Abdul Aziz.[12]

Politics

Nellore is represented by Nellore City (Assembly constituency) and Nellore Rural (Assembly constituency) for Andhra Pradesh Legislative Assembly. Anil Kumar Poluboina is the present MLA of Nellore City (Assembly constituency) representing YSRCP.[13] Kotamreddy Sridhar Reddy is the present MLA of Nellore Rural (Assembly constituency) representing YSRCP.[14][15]

Economy

Agriculture in Nellore - paddy fields

Proximity to the sea and fertile land towards the east have led to agriculture and aquaculture being the backbone of the economy. The district has a cultivable area equal to 41.3 percent and the crops which are most commonly grown in the district are paddy, jowar, bajra along with tobacco, chillies, groundnut and sugarcane. Handloom, mica mines, thermal power generation and hand made jewellery are other industries that contribute to the economic development. Also salt production is the most popular in nellore mostly (Gogulapalli, Iskapalli and Ramathirdam villages). For the salt production nellore takes the top most place in AP. Krishnapatnam port which is located 20 kilometers from the district serves as a major center for economic activity of the district.

Culture

Festivals

The annual Rottela Panduga/Rotiyaan ki Eid is an annual urs event celebrated at the Bara Shaheed Dargah(shrine of twelve martyrs) on the banks of Swarnala Cheruvu.[16] The event got its name after the practice of exchanging roti(flat breads) and attracts visitors from all background.[17]

Transportation

Road

4-lane divided National Highway 5 connects Nellore to major urban and cultural centers of India

Nellore is well connected by road with National Highway 5 from Chennai to Kolkata, part of the Golden Quadrilateral expressway project, passing through it. Nellore is connected by APSRTC (Andhra Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation) to major parts of Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu and Karnataka, TNSTC from Chennai and KSRTC from Bangalore. Nellore is a zonal headquarters of APSRTC,[18] comprising Nellore, Prakasam and Chittoor districts. There are 2 bus stations in the city:

  • RTC Bus Station- for intercity and interstate mofussil buses
  • Potti Sreeramulu Bus Station or Atmakur Bus Station- for intra district and town buses

Rail

Nellore railway station lies on Vijayawada-Chennai section of Howrah-Chennai main line and hence well connected by rail to most parts of India. It is also connected by Chennai Suburban Railway, lying on the North Line which terminates at Bitragunta. It is classified as an A–category station. It is recognised as an Adarsh station in the Vijayawada railway division of South Central Railway zone.[19] It is also one amongst the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railway.[20] Apart from Nellore, the city has and two small railway stations namely, Nellore south & Vedayapalem.[21][22]

Sea

Krishnapatnam Port Company in the sea is where Nellore live. (KPCL) was formed by government of Andhra Pradesh to develop the existing minor port into modern, deep water and high productivity port, on BOST (Build–Operate-Share-Transfer) concession basis for 50 years. It was opened on July 17, 2008. On May 9, 2013, Government of India decided to set up a second major port at Dugarajapatnam in Nellore District. It will be the second major port in Andhra Pradesh.

Air

The nearest airport is at Tirupati (Renigunta), which is 130 km from the city which has limited services to certain domestic destinations like Vijayawada, Hyderabad, Visakhapatnam, Mumbai and Delhi. The nearest major airport is the Chennai International Airport, about 189 km from the city, which is an international airport providing connectivity to major parts of India and the world. The Government of Czech Republic has evinced interest in building a domestic airport in Nellore.[23] However so far no concrete work has been done on this front as the process of land acquisition for the airport is posing a problem.[24]

Education

Secondary and higher secondary education are handled by SSC board. Although many schools have a choice to pursue school education through Central board (CBSE).Several institutes are offering K.G to P.G in Nellore itself without depending on other states or country's. Prominent institutions include Vikrama Simhapuri University, Rao's Educational Society, Indian Institute of Tourism and Travel Management, Veda and Sanskrit college, Government Medical College, and Venkatagiri Raja's College (VRC) and high school,Narayana Medical College, Atmakur Engineering college, Thrive School [1].

Places of interest

Somasila Dam, Pulicat Lake, Nelapattu Bird Sanctuary, Udaygiri fort, SiddalaKona, Satish Dhawan Space Centre, Mypadu Beach are some of the notable places.

See also

References

  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^
  6. ^
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^ http://www.apsrtc.gov.in/Officers%20and%20Employees.aspx
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^

External links

  • Sri Potti Sri Ramulu Nellore
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