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Neuropeptide S

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Neuropeptide S

Neuropeptide S
Identifiers
NPS Gene
Orthologs
SpeciesHumanMouse
Neuropeptide S
Identifiers
Symbol Neuropeptide_S
Pfam PF14993

Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a neuropeptide found in human and mammalian brain, mainly produced by neurons in the amygdala and between Barrington's nucleus and the locus coeruleus, although NPS-responsive neurons extend projections into many other brain areas.[1][2][3] NPS binds specifically to a newly de-orphaned G protein-coupled receptor, NPSR.[4][5] Animal studies show that NPS suppresses anxiety and appetite, induces wakefulness and hyperactivity, including hyper-sexuality, and plays a significant role in the extinction of conditioned fear.[6][7][8][9][10][11][12] It has also been shown to significantly enhance dopamine activity in the mesolimbic pathway.[12]

Synthetic ligands

The non-peptide NPS receptor antagonist SHA-68 blocks the effects of NPS in animals and is anxiogenic.[13] Several peptide derived NPS agonists and antagonists have also been developed.[14][15][16][17][18]

Peptide sequence

Below are the sequences of mature neuropeptide S in several representative species in which it is expressed:

species sequence MW
human SFRNGVGTGMKKTSFQRAKS 2187.5
rat SFRNGVGSGVKKTSFRRAKQ 2210.5
mouse SFRNGVGSGAKKTSFRRAKQ 2182.5
dog, chimp SFRNGVGTGMKKTSFRRAKS 2215.6
chicken SFRNGVGSGIKKTSFRRAKS 2183.5
consensus SFRNGVGxGXKKTSFxRAKx N/A

References

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