Nigun

This article is about a type of Jewish religious music, Nigun. For the main article on religious Jewish music, see Religious Jewish music.

A nigun (Hebrew: ניגון‎ meaning "tune" or "melody", pl. nigunim) or niggun (pl. niggunim) is a form of Jewish religious song or tune sung by groups. It is vocal music, often with repetitive sounds such as "bim-bim-bam" or "ai-ai-ai!" instead of formal lyrics. Sometimes, Bible verses or quotes from other classical Jewish texts are sung repetitively to form a nigun. Some nigunim are sung as prayers of lament, while others may be joyous or victorious. [1][2]

Nigunim are largely improvisations, though they could be based on thematic passage and are stylized in form, reflecting the teachings and charisma of the spiritual leadership of the congregation or its religious movement. Nigunim are especially central to worship in Hasidic Judaism, which evolved its own structured, soulful forms to reflect the mystical joy of intense prayer (devekut).

Contents

  • Hasidic Nigunim 1
    • Kaliver nigunim 1.1
    • Chabad Nigunim 1.2
  • See also 2
  • Notes 3
  • References 4
  • External links 5

Hasidic Nigunim

Marc Chagall: The Fiddler, 1912-1913.

A revival of interest in Jewish music was sparked as part of Hasidism. Different Hasidic groups have their own nigunim, often composed by their Rebbe or leader. Hasidim gather around holidays to sing in groups. There are also nigunim for individual meditation, called devekus or devekut (connecting with God) nigunim. These are usually much slower than around-the-table nigunim, and are almost always sung without lyrics. The Baal Shem Tov, founder of Hasidism, spoke of devekus nigunim as “songs that transcend syllables and sound.” Several tunes attributed to him are still used today.

Some nigunim originate from non-Jewish sources. Hasidic Jews, based on a practice of their founder Rabbi Israel Baal Shem Tov, have adapted anthems and even folk songs, ascribing them a new spiritual dimension. For example, Chabad Hasidim have adopted the French tunes of La Marseillaise and Napoleon’s March, as well as Russian or German drinking songs as a part of their liturgy. Many Hasidim believe that these songs, in their secular forms, are in spiritual exile. By adapting them to liturgical forms, they are “raising Holy Sparks” according to the teachings of Rabbi Isaac Luria’s system of kabbalah. (The same justification is used for the use of Arab tunes for Sephardic pizmonim.) The process continues to this day, with new nigunim emerging from time to time.

Nigunim are usually sung at Hasidic gatherings (Tish/Farbrengens) when large numbers of followers come together to sing and to discuss spiritual concepts. The belief is that when you sing a nigun, the soul of the rabbi who created it appears in the room. On festive occasions the nigunim, especially, are joyful melodies. On the festival of Simchat Torah, the most joyous day in the calendar, fervent nigunim are sung in the dancing with the Torah scrolls in the synagogue.

Amongst the variety of Hasidic dynasties, different styles of nigunim are prominent, reflecting the alternative spiritual paths of each group. These include the emotional creativity of Breslov, the encouraging marches of Ger, the charismatic faith of Kaliv, and the intellectual content of Chabad.

Kaliver nigunim

The present Kaliver Rebbe at left

The Kaliver Dynasty began with Rabbi Yitzchak Isaac Taub (1744–1828) of Shechina (Divine Presence) that is in exile until the Messiah:

Forest, O forest, how vast are you!
Rose, O rose, how distant you are!
Were the forest not so vast,
My rose wouldn't be so far.
Who will guide me out of the forest,
And unite me with my rose?3
Then he sang it as Rabbi Leib Sarah's heard it.

Exile, O exile, how vast are you!
Shechinah, Shechinah, how distant you are!
Were the exile not so vast,
The Shechinah wouldn't be so far.
Who will guide me out of the exile,
And unite me with the Shechinah?[3]

Another famous song by the Kaliver Rebbe is Sírnak, rínak a bárányok - also in Hungarian.

Then there is the beautiful song, Kol Haberuim by Baruch Levine, whose lyrics go:

"There's a chamber that doesn't open, but with a nigun..."

Chabad Nigunim

Nigunim of the Chabad dynasty are admired across Hasidism for their intellectual depth. The aim of Chabad Hasidic thought is to articulate Hasidic philosophy in philosophical investigation, in order to awaken inner emotional ecstasy. Chabad writings talk of two types of Hasid, the practical "Oveid" (from the word to serve God-Avodah), and the intellectual "Maskil" (from the word to intellectually study-Haskalah). Both are united in the mystical dveikut fervour of Hasidism, but the primary aim of the Oveid is to bring their inspiration into practical action, while the primary aim of the Maskil is to reach deeper understanding of Hasidic thought. This differentiation enables the intellectual aims of Chabad to be holistically united with emotional joy and soul-searching. The second Rebbe of Chabad, Dovber Schneuri, distinguished between mainstream Hasidic "enthusiasm", and the Chabad aim of intellectually created "ecstasy". Enthusiasm expresses itself in emotional exuberance, reflected in emotional nigunim. Ecstasy is an inner emotional perception, and may be restrained in outward expression when suited. The meditative nature of many Chabad nigunim expresses this. Among them:

See also

Nigunim:

Practices:

Notes

  1. ^ Haida Touchstone Sacred Dance Library, Accessed February 2014
  2. ^ Music In Kaballah , The Nigun's Influence on the Soul From the book Shirat HaLev (The Song of the Heart) by Shmuel Stern - Translated by Gita Levi.Accessed February 2014
  3. ^ "The Singing Tzaddik"
  4. ^ "Nigun Shamil: The Soul Endlessly Yearning for What It Has Always Never Been

References

  • Pinson, DovBer, Inner Rhythms: The Kabbalah of Music, Jason Aronson, Inc. 2000. Excellent chapters on the history of Jewish music, the various types and uses of Hasidic nigunim, etc.
  • Stern, Shmuel, Shirat HaLev (Trans The Song of the Heart) Translated by Gita Levi.

External links

  • CMusic - Lyrics & Reviews for Chasidus Music
  • Spiritual Jewish music in Bandcamp
  • Kabbalah of Music
  • Shamil Nigun
  • Napoleon's March
  • Music in Kabbalah
  • Biala Nigunim
  • Modzitzer Nigunim
  • The Nigun from an Ethnomusicological Perspective
  • Listen to hundreds of Chabad Nigunim online
  • Nigun, about Jewish music chabad.org
  • Neohasid - Chasidus without borders
  • Power of the Nigun
  • Music of Baruch Levine
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.