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The Ocean Conservancy
Predecessor Bill Kardash, Tom Grooms, Roger McManus, Vice Admiral Roger Rufe (USCG Retired)
Type environmental organization
Focus Arctic, Aquaculture, Marine conservation activism, Trash-Free Seas, Gulf Restoration an Fisheries, Marine Protected Area, Coast and Marine Spatial Planning
Location
  • Washington, D.C., United States
Origins The Center for Environmental Education
Volunteers
900,000+ volunteers & members[1]
Slogan "Start a sea change"
Website http://www.oceanconservancy.org

Ocean Conservancy (founded as The Delta Corporation) is a peer reviewed science. Ocean Conservancy is one of the few of the organizations that help protect wildlife in the ocean.

About

Ocean Conservancy was founded in 1972, as the Delta Corporation to promote healthy and diverse ocean ecosystems, and to oppose practices that threaten oceanic and human life.[2] Through several program areas,[3] Ocean Conservancy advocates for protecting of special marine habitats, restoring sustainable fisheries, reducing the human impact on ocean ecosystems and managing U.S. ocean resources.[4] Ocean Conservancy efforts are guided by a 17-member volunteer board of directors.[5] Ocean Conservancy is a tax-exempt not-for-profit organization.[6] It meets the Better Business Bureau's 20 Standards for Charity Accountability.[6]

History

Ocean Conservancy was founded in 1972, with goals to promote healthy and diverse ocean ecosystems, and to oppose practices that threaten oceanic and human life. The Conservancy's list of priorities include "Restore Sustainable American Fisheries," "Protect Wildlife From Human Impacts," "Conserve Special Ocean Places," and "Reform Government for Better Ocean Stewardship."[7] It started with goals to promote healthy and safe ocean ecosystems and to help prevent things that threaten oceanic and human life. The conservancy's main concern was to restore sustainable American fisheries and protect wildlife from human impact.

Previous names

  • Delta Corporation (1972 to mid-1970s)
  • Center for Environmental Education (mid-1970s to 1989)[8]
  • Center for Marine Conservation (1989–2001)[9]
  • Ocean Conservancy (2001–2008)[10]

Programs

The following are six examples of past and current program areas that have defined the scope of Ocean Conservancy’s efforts:

Arctic

Ocean Conservancy advocates for a time-out on expanding industrial uses in the Arctic to gather more comprehensive science and then develop a comprehensive plan to protect this fragile place.[11]

Trash Free Seas

In addition to hosting the International Coastal Cleanup every year, Ocean Conservancy partners with industry, government, nonprofits and academia to develop ocean trash solutions,[12] such as the Great Pacific Garbage Patch.

Gulf Restoration and Fisheries

The organization advocates for science-based restoration plans that will end overfishing and create sustainable and productive fisheries.[13]

Marine Protected Areas

Ocean Conservancy works to preserve the ocean’s most extraordinary places for future generations to enjoy.[14]

Coastal and Marine Spatial Planning

Ocean Conservancy advocates for ocean health through the implementation of smart planning and legislative reform that will ensure the durability of the process.[15]

Aquaculture

The organization analyzes the environmental risks of ocean fish farming and advocates for a national regulatory framework and standards for safe aquaculture practices.[16]

Accomplishments

Fisheries

After a four-year advocacy effort, Ocean Conservancy helped enact a Congressional rewrite of the Magnuson–Stevens Fishery Conservation and Management Act in 1996,[17] which changed the way fisheries are managed. It remains the nation’s primary fisheries law.[18]

Prior to 1996 the law contained no provisions to stop overfishing or require the rebuilding of fish stocks.[19] There was no prohibition of bycatch, when fish and animals are caught unintentionally by fishing gear or nets targeting specific species. Nor was there a directive to protect fish habitat. Ocean Conservancy lobbied successfully to close these loopholes and establish more sustainable fishing practices.[19]

International Coastal Cleanup

Upset with litter on Texas beaches, Ocean Conservancy staff member Linda Maraniss helped launch the Texas Coastal Cleanup in 1986.[20] By 1989, the cleanup event had spread globally to become the International Coastal Cleanup.[21] According to the American Recycler Newspaper, it is the world’s largest all-volunteer event for the ocean.[22] Events are held around every major body of water in the world including streams, rivers, and lakes. Almost 600,000 volunteers have cleaned 9 millions of pounds of trash from thousands of miles of coastline and waterways, tallying every item found.[23]

Ocean Conservancy’s annual reports on the Cleanup with location-by-location, state-by-state and country-by-country data have informed national legislation and inspired countless new volunteers to join the event year after year.[24]

Marine mammals

Ocean Conservancy aims to protect [25] Its efforts to ban whaling resulted in the International Whaling Commission adopting an international moratorium on commercial whaling in 1982.[25] In 1984, Ocean Conservancy led efforts against U.S.-sanctioned fur seal hunt by blocking renewal of the North Pacific Fur Seal Treaty in the Pribilof Islands, as well as efforts to protect dolphins from the tuna industry.[26] Ocean Conservancy was also a key player in the creation of the dolphin-safe tuna-labeling program.[27]

Sea turtles

Ocean Conservancy’s effort for sea turtles, which resulted in the requirement for turtle excluder devices (TEDs) in shrimp trawl gear, saves thousands of turtles each year.[28] Ocean Conservancy’s Sea Turtle Rescue Fund appealed directly to shrimpers to voluntarily address the problem of sea turtles drowning in their nets.[28]

Ocean Conservancy played a major role in derailing proposals to reopen international trade in sea turtle products and in ending Japanese imports of Hawksbill sea turtle shells.[29]

Ocean Conservancy campaigned to regulate beachfront lighting and secure funding for the Archie Carr National Wildlife Refuge in Florida played a significant role in protecting sea turtle nesting sites.

Coral reef protection and Marine Sanctuaries programs

Ocean Conservancy helped establish four of the first six U.S. marine sanctuaries—Florida Keys and Stellwagen Bank. Under the Carter administration, Ocean Conservancy fought to prohibit oil and gas drilling in two proposed sanctuaries in California. In 1981, the Reagan administration tried to block the oil-drilling ban, but failed, largely due to the efforts of an Ocean Conservancy-led coalition. Along with other partners, Ocean Conservancy fought to save the program in the 1980s when it was nearly eliminated.

Ocean Conservancy is attempting to halt current and future coral reef damage in two key ways: through changing policy and by building resiliency.[31] The coral are very sensitive to changes in water temperature and quality caused by global warming, and many times these changes result in disease and death of the reef. The Ocean Conservancy informs the public of the problems plaguing reefs as well as other marine ecosystems through their website and a magazine that they publish. They also have a staff of senior scientists and policy experts who travel to Capitol Hill to share their expertise and to urge policymakers to encourage the implementation of policies regarding the mitigation, adaptation, and alternatives to damaging activities such as the use of carbon-based fuels.[32]

To help build resiliency for the reefs, marine protected areas(MPAs), sometimes called “undersea Yosemites,” have been designated through policies encouraged by Ocean Conservancy. These MPAs are areas where endangered marine species can be placed so that they can continue undisturbed by human activities, allowing the individuals to thrive and their population to rebound in numbers. Within the areas of the MPAs, reefs are protected from sediment, trash, and pollution resulting from human activity. They are also “no take” zones, meaning that humans are not allowed to extract any resources out of these areas – including fish, oil, gas, or minerals. This can help restore the resiliency of many reefs, as there is evidence that when undisturbed coral reefs can recover on their own. The Ocean Conservancy’s plans for promoting reef protection therefore include a comprehensive plan incorporating three goals: encouraging the establishment of more (and more protective) MPAs, improving reef management, and calling for immediate action to mitigate the ecological effects of global warming.[33]

The aftermath of the [34]

Criticisms

See also

References


-- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p-------------------------------------------------------------------------------- -- Module:Hatnote -- -- -- -- This module produces hatnote links and links to related articles. It -- -- implements the and meta-templates and includes -- -- helper functions for other Lua hatnote modules. --


local libraryUtil = require('libraryUtil') local checkType = libraryUtil.checkType local mArguments -- lazily initialise Module:Arguments local yesno -- lazily initialise Module:Yesno

local p = {}


-- Helper functions


local function getArgs(frame) -- Fetches the arguments from the parent frame. Whitespace is trimmed and -- blanks are removed. mArguments = require('Module:Arguments') return mArguments.getArgs(frame, {parentOnly = true}) end

local function removeInitialColon(s) -- Removes the initial colon from a string, if present. return s:match('^:?(.*)') end

function p.findNamespaceId(link, removeColon) -- Finds the namespace id (namespace number) of a link or a pagename. This -- function will not work if the link is enclosed in double brackets. Colons -- are trimmed from the start of the link by default. To skip colon -- trimming, set the removeColon parameter to true. checkType('findNamespaceId', 1, link, 'string') checkType('findNamespaceId', 2, removeColon, 'boolean', true) if removeColon ~= false then link = removeInitialColon(link) end local namespace = link:match('^(.-):') if namespace then local nsTable = mw.site.namespaces[namespace] if nsTable then return nsTable.id end end return 0 end

function p.formatPages(...) -- Formats a list of pages using formatLink and returns it as an array. Nil -- values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local ret = {} for i, page in ipairs(pages) do ret[i] = p._formatLink(page) end return ret end

function p.formatPageTables(...) -- Takes a list of page/display tables and returns it as a list of -- formatted links. Nil values are not allowed. local pages = {...} local links = {} for i, t in ipairs(pages) do checkType('formatPageTables', i, t, 'table') local link = t[1] local display = t[2] links[i] = p._formatLink(link, display) end return links end

function p.makeWikitextError(msg, helpLink, addTrackingCategory) -- Formats an error message to be returned to wikitext. If -- addTrackingCategory is not false after being returned from -- Module:Yesno, and if we are not on a talk page, a tracking category -- is added. checkType('makeWikitextError', 1, msg, 'string') checkType('makeWikitextError', 2, helpLink, 'string', true) yesno = require('Module:Yesno') local title = mw.title.getCurrentTitle() -- Make the help link text. local helpText if helpLink then helpText = ' (help)' else helpText = end -- Make the category text. local category if not title.isTalkPage and yesno(addTrackingCategory) ~= false then category = 'Hatnote templates with errors' category = string.format( '%s:%s', mw.site.namespaces[14].name, category ) else category = end return string.format( '%s', msg, helpText, category ) end


-- Format link -- -- Makes a wikilink from the given link and display values. Links are escaped -- with colons if necessary, and links to sections are detected and displayed -- with " § " as a separator rather than the standard MediaWiki "#". Used in -- the template.


function p.formatLink(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local link = args[1] local display = args[2] if not link then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no link specified', 'Template:Format hatnote link#Errors', args.category ) end return p._formatLink(link, display) end

function p._formatLink(link, display) -- Find whether we need to use the colon trick or not. We need to use the -- colon trick for categories and files, as otherwise category links -- categorise the page and file links display the file. checkType('_formatLink', 1, link, 'string') checkType('_formatLink', 2, display, 'string', true) link = removeInitialColon(link) local namespace = p.findNamespaceId(link, false) local colon if namespace == 6 or namespace == 14 then colon = ':' else colon = end -- Find whether a faux display value has been added with the | magic -- word. if not display then local prePipe, postPipe = link:match('^(.-)|(.*)$') link = prePipe or link display = postPipe end -- Find the display value. if not display then local page, section = link:match('^(.-)#(.*)$') if page then display = page .. ' § ' .. section end end -- Assemble the link. if display then return string.format('%s', colon, link, display) else return string.format('%s%s', colon, link) end end


-- Hatnote -- -- Produces standard hatnote text. Implements the template.


function p.hatnote(frame) local args = getArgs(frame) local s = args[1] local options = {} if not s then return p.makeWikitextError( 'no text specified', 'Template:Hatnote#Errors', args.category ) end options.extraclasses = args.extraclasses options.selfref = args.selfref return p._hatnote(s, options) end

function p._hatnote(s, options) checkType('_hatnote', 1, s, 'string') checkType('_hatnote', 2, options, 'table', true) local classes = {'hatnote'} local extraclasses = options.extraclasses local selfref = options.selfref if type(extraclasses) == 'string' then classes[#classes + 1] = extraclasses end if selfref then classes[#classes + 1] = 'selfref' end return string.format( '
%s
', table.concat(classes, ' '), s )

end

return p
  1. ^
  2. ^ “Arctic”
  3. ^ “A Resolution for Gulf Restoration: An Open Letter to President Obama and the Five Gulf State Governors ”
  4. ^
  5. ^ “Better Business Bureau Review”, October 2010
  6. ^ a b
  7. ^ The Ocean Conservancy: What We Do
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^ [A New Course For America’s Fish and Fishermen: A Review of the Magnuson Stevens Reauthorization Act of 2006 and the Challenges Ahead.” Marine Fish Conservation Network (MFCN) Website. MFCN. September 2007. Web. Pg. 3. November 2, 2010 Sustainable Development 16, Dec. 2008]
  18. ^ [ 16 U.S.C. §§ 1801-1884]
  19. ^ a b [“Implementing Annual Catch Limits: A Blueprint for Ending Overfishing in U.S. Fisheries.” Marine Fish Conservation Network (MFCN) Website. MFCN, April 2009. Web. Pg. 3. November 2, 2010]
  20. ^ “Coastal Cleanups With Kids”, Narragansett Bay Journal, Winter 2011
  21. ^ [1]
  22. ^ “Data shows types of trash in ocean and waterways” American Recycler, May 2012
  23. ^ “International Coastal Cleanup Day 2011 Collects 9 Million Pounds Of Garbage” Huffington Post, March 27, 2012
  24. ^ “Environmental Management” Volusia County
  25. ^ a b Federal Register Vol. 50, No. 241 December 16, 1985
  26. ^ [ "North Pacific Fur Seal Treaty of 1911". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration.]
  27. ^ “The fairy tale of US “dolphin safe” labelling: False claims, unintended consequences” Robertson, Mark J, Bridges Trade BioRes Review, Volume 6 Number 1, May 2012
  28. ^ a b [ Lee, Scott (1999) (PDF). Ancient Sea Turtles: Stranded in a Modern World. USA: Sea Turtle Restoration Project.]
  29. ^ [ Anne B. Meylan and Marydele Donnelly, “Status Justification for Listing the Hawksbill Turtle as Critically Endangered on the 1996 IUCN Red List of Threatened Animals,” Chelonian Conservation and Biology, April 1999, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 203]
  30. ^ [2]
  31. ^ “Politicians, scientists, environmental groups comment on BP oil spill anniversary” Schleifstein, Mark, The Times-Picayune April 23, 2012
  32. ^ [ “Oceans in peril World's seas face myriad threats” Daytona Beach Daily Journal, June 8, 2009]
  33. ^ “Everglades Offers Model for Massive Gulf Restoration, Says Senior Obama Admin Official ” QUINLAN, PAUL NYT June 17, 2010
  34. ^ [3]
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^

External links

  • Official website
  • 25 June 2007 United States Government Takes Important Step in Protecting Critically Endangered North Atlantic Right Whales in the Southeast
  • 22 June 2007 NOAA Releases Report to Congress on the Status of U.S. Fisheries; Fish Stocks Remain Depleted Due to Overfishing
  • 11 June 2007 Endangered Sea Turtles Receive Vital Protection
  • 25 March 2007 New Study Shows that Catch Shares Can Help Achieve Sustainable American Fisheries
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