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Official development assistance


Official development assistance

Official development assistance (ODA) is a term coined by the aid. The DAC first used the term in 1969. It is widely used as an indicator of international aid flow. It includes some loans.

Most ODA comes from the 28 members of the DAC, or about $135 billion in 2013. A further $15.9 billion came from the European Commission and non-DAC countries gave an additional $9.4 billion. Although development aid rose in 2013 to the highest level ever recorded, a trend of a falling share of aid going to the neediest sub-Saharan African countries continued.[1]


  • Definition 1
  • Countries by development aid given 2
    • Donor countries by percentage of gross national income 2.1
  • Countries by foreign aid received 3
  • Criticism 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The full definition of ODA is:

In other words, ODA needs to contain the three elements:
(a) undertaken by the official sector (official agencies, including state and local governments, or their executive agencies)[1]
(b) with promotion of economic development and welfare as the main objective; and
(c) at concessional financial terms (if a loan, having a grant element of at least 25 per cent).

This definition is used to exclude development aid from the two other categories of aid from DAC members:

  • Official Aid (OA): Flows which meet conditions of eligibility for inclusion in Official Development Assistance (ODA), other than the fact that the recipients are on Part II of the Development Assistance Committee (DAC) List of Aid Recipients.
  • Other Official Flows (OOF): Transactions by the official sector with countries on the List of Aid Recipients which do not meet the conditions for eligibility as Official Development Assistance or Official Aid, either because they are not primarily aimed at development, or because they have a grant element of less than 25 per cent.

If a donor country accords a grant or a concessional loan to Afghanistan it is classified as ODA, because it is on the Part I list.
If a donor country accords a grant or a concessional loan to Bahrain it is classified as OA, because it is on the Part II list.
If a donor country gives military assistance to any other country or territory it is classified as OOF, because it is not aimed at development.

Countries by development aid given

ODA volumes may be measured absolutely, by the amount transferred, or relatively, as a proportion of the donor country's economy. According to the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the top 10 DAC countries giving the highest amounts (in absolute terms) are as follows. European Union countries together gave $70.73 billion and EU Institutions gave a further $15.93 billion.[1][3]

  1.  United States – $31.55 billion
  2.  United Kingdom – $17.88 billion
  3.  Germany – $14.06 billion
  4.  Japan – $11.79 billion
  5.  France – $11.38 billion
  6.  Sweden – $5.83 billion
  7.  Norway – $5.58 billion
  8.  Netherlands – $5.44 billion
  9.  Canada – $4.91 billion
  10.  Australia – $4.85 billion

Donor countries by percentage of gross national income

The OECD also lists countries by the amount of ODA they give as a percentage of their gross national income. The top 10 DAC countries are shown below. Five countries met the longstanding UN target for an ODA/GNI ratio of 0.7% in 2013:[1]

  1.  Norway – 1.07%
  2.  Sweden – 1.02%
  3.  Luxembourg – 1.00%
  4.  Denmark – 0.85%
  5.  United Kingdom – 0.72%
  6.  Netherlands – 0.67%
  7.  Finland – 0.55%
  8.   Switzerland – 0.47%
  9.  Belgium – 0.45%
  10.  Ireland – 0.45%

European Union countries that are members of the Development Assistance Committee gave 0.42% of GNI (excluding the $15.93 billion given by EU Institutions).[1]

Countries by foreign aid received

A map of official development assistance distribution in 2005.

World Bank reports that Iraq was the top recipient of development aid in 2005 followed by Nigeria. However, this is due to the significant debt relief deals that were granted to these nations that year - when donor countries write off a portion of a recipient country's debt, it is counted as official development assistance from the donor country.

The OECD reports that in 2009 Africa received the largest amount of ODA, at $28 billion. Of that, $25 billion went to countries south of the Sahara, with Sudan receiving approximately $1.9 billion and Ethiopia getting $1.8 billion. Asia received the second largest amount at $24 billion. The top ODA receiving countries in order were Afghanistan ($5.1 billion), Iraq ($2.6 billion) and Vietnam ($2.1 billion) [4]


Official development assistance has been criticized by several economists for being an inappropriate way of helping poor countries. The Hungarian economist Peter Thomas Bauer has been one of the most vocal of them. Another notable economist arguing against ODA includes Dambisa Moyo in her book Dead Aid. A country, used to receiving ODA, may be perpetually bound to depend on handouts.

Donor countries are most commonly compared by the amount of Official Development Assistance given and their quantity of aid as a percent of GDP. However, there is an increasing focus placed on the quality of aid, rather than simply the quantity. The Commitment to Development Index is one such measure that ranks the largest donors on a broad range of their "development friendly" policies. It takes into account the quality of aid, in addition to the quantity, penalizing countries for tied aid. Aid also does not operate in a vacuum; a country's policies on issues such as trade or migration also have a significant impact on developing countries.

See also



  1. ^ a b c d
  2. ^ Official Development Assistance (ODA)OECD Glossary of statistical terms,
  3. ^
  4. ^ OECD, "ODA by Recipient", 2011-08-08

External links

  • Development Assistance Database (DAD)
  • Aid Management Platform
  • AidData: Tracking Development Finance
  • OpenaidSearch: Search and explore IATI data
  • IATI data published by UN-Habitat
  • ODA Data from Global Policy Forum website.
  • ODA Statistics Portal. Fairly detailed extracts of the OECD's ODA statistics are available here free.
  • The UN has some free ODA data under "Key Global Indicators."
  • (pdf)The Story of Official Development Assistance. A history of the DAC by Helmut Führer, former Director of the OECD's Development Co-operation Directorate.
  • OECD: Final Official Development Assistance (ODA) data for 2007
  • Arab Aid
  • Foreign Aid Explorer
  • USAID Development Experience Clearinghouse (DEC)
  • Aidflows
  • ODI's Centre for Aid and Public Expenditure
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