World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Ordnance QF 95 mm Howitzer

Article Id: WHEBN0029460550
Reproduction Date:

Title: Ordnance QF 95 mm Howitzer  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: List of howitzers, BL 18 inch railway howitzer, Assault gun, 75 mm Gun M1917, Churchill tank
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Ordnance QF 95 mm Howitzer

Ordnance QF 95 mm howitzer
Centaur tank with 95mm gun
Type Howitzer
Place of origin  United Kingdom
Service history
In service 1944 -
Used by British Army
Wars World War II
Production history
Designed 1942
Specifications
Weight 867 lb (393 kg)
Length 7 ft (2.1 m)

Shell Fixed
Calibre 95 mm (3.7 in) L/18.65
Elevation -5° to +30°
Rate of fire 7 rounds per minute
Muzzle velocity 330 m/s (1,100 ft/s)
Effective firing range 7,315 m (8,000 yd)

The Ordnance QF 95-mm howitzer was a British howitzer built in two versions during the Second World War. The tank howitzer version was accepted for service use, but an infantry howitzer version was not accepted for service use.

Design and development

The Ordnance QF 95-mm tank howitzer was designed to be fitted to some later British tanks so they could lay smoke screens or fire HE or HEAT/Hollow Charge shell against concrete targets like pillboxes in the "close support" of infantry. A HESH round may have been issued after World War II. The 95mm howitzer used fixed ammunition with a 25 lb (11 kg) projectile, rather than separate charge and round common for artillery howitzers. The tank howitzer was used to arm the Churchill Mark V and VIII, the Cromwell VI & VIII and the Centaur IV tanks.[1] The Ordnance QF 95 mm howitzer was built up from a section of a 3.7-inch anti-aircraft gun barrel, the breech mechanism of the Ordnance QF 25 pounder field gun/howitzer and the recoil mechanism of the Ordnance QF 6 pounder anti-tank gun.[2] The tank howitzer version was also fitted with a large counterweight at the end of the barrel to help balance the gun. In most regiments the 95-mm-armed tanks were issued to regimental or squadron HQ troops at the rate of two vehicles per HQ.

The only variant of the Centaur tank (a Cromwell tank with a less powerful engine) to see action was the 95 mm armed Mark IV. For the Normandy landings, the Royal Marine Armoured Support Group was formed with an establishment of eighty Mark IVs.

The Ordnance QF 95-mm infantry howitzer was a version built as a conventional towed artillery piece. Perhaps in response to the success of the German sIG 33, a proposal was circulated in the summer of 1942 by the British Army for an infantry howitzer for direct fire against concrete structures, like pillboxes.[3] The 95 mm tank howitzer already under development was considered to be a logical starting point for the design of the new howitzer. The infantry howitzer version was similar to the tank howitzer, except the infantry howitzer lacked the barrel counterweight and was placed on a box-trail carriage and given a gun shield.[4]

Testing in 1943 showed that both the recoil system and the carriage were over stressed and redesign was needed, which delayed testing and introduction of the infantry howitzer until 1944. However the problems with the recoil mechanism and carriage were never fully ironed out and the weapon was refused by the infantry and declared obsolete in April 1945 but not before several hundred examples were produced.[5]

The decision to reject the infantry howitzer may have not been based entirely on the deficiencies of the gun but due to obsolescence and organizational difficulties. The introduction of the [6]

Specifications

  • Name: Ordnance QF 95mm infantry howitzer
  • Number built: 800
  • Crew: 6
  • Calibre: 95 mm (3.7 in)
  • Barrel length: 85.5 in (2.17 m)
  • Weight in action: 945 kg (2,083 lb)
  • Elevation: -5 to +30 degrees
  • Traverse: 8 degrees
  • Rate of fire: 7 rounds per minute
  • Muzzle velocity: 330 m/s (1,100 ft/s)
  • Range: 7,315 m (8,000 yd)[7]
  • Ammunition
    • Smoke: smoke composition
    • HE: Amatol filling with 12 oz 4 dr cordite propellant, No. 119B fuze (direct action and graze type)
    • HE/AT: 50/50 pentolite filling, No 233 Direct Action percussion fuze
    • HESH:

Notes and references

Notes
  1. ^ History Of The Second World War
  2. ^ Twentieth-Century Artillery
  3. ^ Land Power A Modern Illustrated Military History
  4. ^ Land Power A Modern Illustrated Military History
  5. ^ Twentieth-Century Artillery
  6. ^ Land Power A Modern Illustrated Military History
  7. ^ Twentieth-Century Artillery
Bibliography
  • Churchill tank Vehicle History and specification, HMSO
  • Hogg, Ian Twentieth-Century Artillery . p. 175
  • History Of The Second World War Marshall and Cavendish. p. 2079
  • Land Power A Modern Illustrated Military History. p. 210

External links

  • 95mm Howitzer armed Churchills by S. Osfield
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.