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Osman II

 

Osman II

Osman II
Caliph of Islam
Ottoman Sultan
Reign 1618–1622
Predecessor Mustafa I
Successor Mustafa I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Consort Akile Hatun
Ayşe Hatun
Issue Şehzade Ömer
Zeyneb Sultan
Şehzâde Mustafa
Royal house House of Osman
Father Ahmed I
Mother Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan
Born (1604-11-03)November 3, 1604
Died March 20, 1622(1622-03-20) (aged 17)
Religion Sunni Islam
Tughra

Osman II (Ottoman Turkish: ثانى عثمان ‘Osmān-i sānī;‎ November 3, 1604 – May 20, 1622), commonly known as Genç Osman ("Osman the Young" in Turkish), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1618 until his death on 20 May 1622.

Biography

Osman II was born at Topkapı Palace, Constantinople, the son of Sultan Ahmed I (1603–17) and his consort Mahfiruz Hatice Sultan, was originally either named Maria, a Greek,[1] or Evdoksiya, a Serbian.[2] At a young age, his mother paid a great deal of attention to Osman's education, as a result of which Osman II became a known poet and had mastered many languages, including Arabic, Persian, Greek, Latin, Italian, and most prominently, the Ottoman Sign Language. He ascended the throne at the early age of 14 as the result of a coup d'état against his uncle Mustafa I "the Intestable" (1617–18, 1622–23). Despite his youth, Osman II soon sought to assert himself as a ruler, and after securing the empire's eastern border by signing a peace treaty (Treaty of Serav) with Safavid Persia, he personally led the Ottoman invasion of Poland during the Moldavian Magnate Wars. Forced to sign a peace treaty with the Poles after the Battle of Chotin (Chocim) (which was, in fact, a siege of Chotin defended by the Polish hetman Jan Karol Chodkiewicz) in September–October, 1621, Osman II returned home to Constantinople in shame, blaming the cowardice of the Janissaries and the insufficiency of his statesmen for his humiliation.

His death

Sultan Osman the Young was strangulated in Yedikule Zindans in 1622
One of the entrances of the Yedikule Fortress in Istanbul, where Osman II was strangled to death by revolting Janissaries

Katip Çelebi witnessed the murder of Osman II in person, and presented the most complete account of this event in his famous book Fazlaka in the chapter titled "Sultan Osman II at the Central Mosque (Orta Camii)", written in Old Ottoman Turkish.[3]

Probably the first Sultan to identify and attempt to tackle the Janissaries as a praetorian institution doing more harm than good to the modern empire, Osman II closed their coffee shops (the gathering points for conspiracies against the throne) and started planning to create a new, loyal and ethnic Turkic army consisting of Anatolian, Mesopotamian, and Egyptian Turks and Turkmens. The result was a palace uprising by the Janissaries, who promptly imprisoned the young sultan. When an executioner was sent to strangle him at Yedikule Fortress in Constantinople (Istanbul), Osman II refused to give in and began fighting the man and was only subdued when he was hit on his back with the rear end of an axe by one of his imprisoners. After that he was strangled with a bowstring. A combination of these stories is given by the French traveler Pouqueville, who writes that when the cord was thrown over his neck, Osman had the presence of mind to grasp it with his hand, and knock down the principal executioner, after which his grand vizier seized Osman by the genitals. When Osman fainted with pain, he was strangled.[4]

Personal life

Osman had two wives:

  1. Ayşe Hatun (m. January 1620), daughter of Ahmed Efendi;
  2. Akile Hatun (m. 7 February 1622), daughter of Şeyhülislam Esad Efendi.

He had three children, Şehzade Ömer, Zeyneb Sultan and Şehzade Mustafa with concubines.

Notes

  1. ^ Shaw, Stanford Jay. History of the Ottoman Empire and Modern Turkey, volume I: Empire of the Gazis: The Rise and Decline of the Ottoman Empire, 1280-1808. Cambridge University Press. p. 191. 
  2. ^ Günseli İnal; Semiramis Arşivi (2005). Semiramis: Sultan'ın gözünden şenlik. YKY. p. 27.  
  3. ^ Ahmet Refik, Kâtip Çelebi, Kanaat Kütüphanesi Publications, pages 41-42, 1932.
  4. ^ Pouqueville, François Charles H.L.: Travels through the Morea, Albania, and several other parts of the Ottoman Empire, page 113-114, published 1806.

External links

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

Osman II
Born: November 3, 1604 Died: May 20, 1622
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Mustafa I
Sultan of the Ottoman Empire
Feb 26, 1618 – May 20, 1622
Succeeded by
Mustafa I
Sunni Islam titles
Preceded by
Mustafa I
Caliph of Islam
Feb 26, 1618 – May 20, 1622
Succeeded by
Mustafa I
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