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Pacoh language

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Title: Pacoh language  
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Subject: Austroasiatic languages, Katuic languages, Tai Loi language, Lamet language, Sapuan language
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Pacoh language

Native to Vietnam
Native speakers
unknown (5,000 Tareng cited 1981)[1]
32,000 Pacoh (2002–2005)
Language codes
ISO 639-3 Either:
pac – Pacoh
tgr – Tareng

The Pacoh language is a member of the Katuic language group, a part of the Eastern [1] Mon–Khmer linguistic branch. Most Pacoh speakers live in central Laos and central Vietnam.[2] Pacoh is undergoing substantial change, influenced by the Vietnamese.[3]

Pacoh is spoken by 10,000-15,000 people, therefore, approaching the level of an endangered language.[4] About 70% of Pacoh are mono-lingual, meaning they only speak their own language.

Alternative names are: Paco, Pokoh, Bo River Van Kieu. Its dialects are Pahi (Ba-Hi).


Vowels (Sidwell 2003):

Pacoh has six vowel qualities, all of which occur long and short, in modal and creaky voice. Creaky vowels are lowered compared to modally voiced vowels. There are three diphthongs which also occur modal and creaky. Unlike other languages in the area, vowel phonation does not seem to have originated in the phonation of preceding consonants.
front central back
High modal i iː ɨ ɨː u uː
Low modal e eː ə əː o oː
High creaky ḛ ḛː ə̰ ə̰ː o̰ o̰ː
Low creaky ɛ̰ ɛ̰ː a̰ a̰ː ɔ̰ ɔ̰ː
front central back
Modal ɨə
Creaky ḛa ə̰a o̰a

Further reading

  • Alves, M. J. (2006). A grammar of Pacoh: a Mon–Khmer language of the central highlands of Vietnam. Pacific linguistics, 580. Canberra: Pacific Linguistics, Research School of Pacific and Asian Studies, the Australian National University. ISBN 0-85883-568-1
  • Watson, Richard L. (1964). "Pacoh Phonemes". Mon-Khmer Studies Journal.


  1. ^ Pacoh at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
    Tareng at Ethnologue (17th ed., 2013)
  2. ^ Table 41: Austroasiatic languages. Encyclopædia Britannica Online. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  3. ^ Mark J. Alves. "A grammar of Pacoh: A Mon–Khmer language of the central highlands of Vietnam". Pacific Linguistics Publishers. Archived from the original on 2007-08-29. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 
  4. ^ "The Pacoh People: Ethnic Minorities in Vietnam". Archived from the original on 2009-08-10. Retrieved 2007-09-11. 

External links

  • Alves, Mark J. 2007. Pacoh Pronouns and Grammaticalization Clines.
  • A grammar of Pacoh: A Mon–Khmer language of the central highlands of Vietnam
  • The language has these sounds
  • Pacoh-English-Vietnamese dictionary by SIL International
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