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Palmitic acid

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Title: Palmitic acid  
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Palmitic acid

Palmitic acid[1]
Names
IUPAC name
hexadecanoic acid
Other names
C16:0 (Lipid numbers), palmic acid
Identifiers
 Y
ChEMBL  N
ChemSpider  N
Jmol-3D images Image
PubChem
Properties
C16H32O2
Molar mass 256.43 g·mol−1
Appearance white crystals
Density 0.852 g/cm3 (25 °C)[2]
0.8527 g/cm3 (62 °C)[3]
Melting point 62.9 °C (145.2 °F; 336.0 K) [4]
Boiling point 351–352 °C (664–666 °F; 624–625 K) [5]
271.5 °C (520.7 °F; 544.7 K)
at 100 mmHg[2]
215 °C (419 °F; 488 K)
at 15 mmHg
4.6 mg/L (0 °C)
7.19 mg/L (20 °C)
8.26 mg/L (30 °C)
9.9 mg/L (45 °C)
11.8 mg/L (60 °C)[6]
Solubility soluble in amyl acetate, alcohol, CCl4,[6] C6H6
very soluble in CHCl3[3]
Solubility in ethanol 2 g/100 mL (0 °C)
2.8 g/100 mL (10 °C)
9.2 g/100 mL (20 °C)
31.9 g/100 mL (40 °C)[7]
Solubility in methyl acetate 7.81 g/100 g[6]
Solubility in ethyl acetate 10.7 g/100 g[6]
Vapor pressure 0.051 mPa (25 °C)[3]
1.08 kPa (200 °C)
28.06 kPa (300 °C)[8]
Acidity (pKa) 4.78
1.43 (70 °C)[3]
Viscosity 7.8 cP (70 °C)[3]
Thermochemistry
463.36 J/mol·K[8]
452.37 J/mol·K[8]
-892 kJ/mol[8]
10030.6 kJ/mol[3]
Hazards
GHS pictograms The exclamation-mark pictogram in the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals (GHS)[2]
GHS signal word Warning
H319[2]
P305+351+338[2]
Irritant Xi
R-phrases R36/37/38
S-phrases S26
NFPA 704
1
1
0
Flash point 206 °C (403 °F; 479 K) [2]
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
 N  (: Y/N?)

Palmitic acid, or hexadecanoic acid in

Media related to at Wikimedia Commons

External links

  1. ^ Merck Index, 12th Edition, 7128.
  2. ^ a b c d e f Sigma-Aldrich Co., Palmitic acid. Retrieved on 2014-06-02.
  3. ^ a b c d e f CID 985 from PubChem
  4. ^ Beare-Rogers, J.; Dieffenbacher, A.; Holm, J.V. (2001). "Lexicon of lipid nutrition (IUPAC Technical Report)". Pure and Applied Chemistry 73 (4): 685–744.  
  5. ^ Palmitic acid at Inchem.org
  6. ^ a b c d http://chemister.ru/Database/properties-en.php?dbid=1&id=6488
  7. ^ Seidell, Atherton; Linke, William F. (1952). [Google Books Solubilities of Inorganic and Organic Compounds] . Van Nostrand. Retrieved 2014-06-02. 
  8. ^ a b c d n-Hexadecanoic acid in Linstrom, P.J.; Mallard, W.G. (eds.) NIST Chemistry WebBook, NIST Standard Reference Database Number 69. National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg MD. http://webbook.nist.gov (retrieved 2014-05-11)
  9. ^ Gunstone, F. D., John L. Harwood, and Albert J. Dijkstra. The Lipid Handbook with Cd-Rom. 3rd ed. Boca Raton: CRC Press, 2007. ISBN 0849396883 | ISBN 978-0849396885
  10. ^ Frémy, E. (1842). "Memoire sur les produits de la saponification de l’huile de palme". Journal de Pharmacie et de Chimie XII: 757. 
  11. ^ Anneken, David J.; Both, Sabine; Christoph, Ralf; Fieg, Georg; Steinberner, Udo; Westfechtel, Alfred (2006). "Fatty Acids". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH.  
  12. ^ Kingsbury, K. J.; Paul, S.; Crossley, A.; Morgan, D. M. (1961). "The fatty acid composition of human depot fat".  
  13. ^ Lipids of human milk and infant formulas: a review
  14. ^ Fatty acid biosynthesis - Reference pathway
  15. ^ US Soil Association standard 50.5.3
  16. ^ Diet, Nutrition and the Prevention of Chronic Diseases, WHO Technical Report Series 916, Report of a Joint WHO/FAO Expert Consultation, World Health Organization, Geneva, 2003, p. 88 (Table 10)
  17. ^ Benoit SC, Kemp CJ, Elias CF, Abplanalp W, Herman JP, Migrenne S, Lefevre AL, Cruciani-Guglielmacci C, Magnan C, Yu F, Niswender K, Irani BG, Holland WL, Clegg DJ (2009). "Palmitic acid mediates hypothalamic insulin resistance by altering PKC-θ subcellular localization in rodents".  

References

See also

Rats fed a diet of 20% palmitic acid and 80% carbohydrate for extended periods showed alterations in central nervous system control of insulin secretion, and suppression of the body's natural appetite-suppressing signals from leptin and insulin (the key hormones involved in weight regulation).[17]

According to the [16] Retinyl palmitate is an antioxidant and a source of vitamin A added to low fat milk to replace the vitamin content lost through the removal of milk fat. Palmitate is attached to the alcohol form of vitamin A, retinol, to make vitamin A stable in milk.

Health effects

Recently, a long-acting antipsychotic medication, paliperidone palmitate (marketed as INVEGA Sustenna), used in the treatment of schizophrenia, has been synthesized using the oily palmitate ester as a long-acting release carrier medium when injected intramuscularly. The underlying method of drug delivery is similar to that used with decanoic acid to deliver long-acting depot medication, in particular, neuroleptics such as haloperidol decanoate.

Hydrogenation of palmitic acid yields cetyl alcohol, which is used to produce detergents and cosmetics.

used in military actions. napalm salt is used as a thickening agent of aluminium The [15] Because it is inexpensive and adds texture to processed foods (

Palmitic acid is used to produce soaps, cosmetics, and release agents. These applications utilize sodium palmitate, which is commonly obtained by saponification of palm oil. To this end, palm oil, rendered from palm tree (species Elaeis Guineensis), is treated with sodium hydroxide (in the form of caustic soda or lye), which causes hydrolysis of the ester groups. This procedure affords glycerol and sodium palmitate.

Applications

Excess carbohydrates in the body are converted to palmitic acid. Palmitic acid is the first fatty acid produced during fatty acid synthesis and the precursor to longer fatty acids. As a consequence, palmitic acid is a major body component of animals. In humans, one analysis found it to comprise 21–30% (molar) of human depot fat,[12] and it is a major, but highly variable, lipid component of human breast milk.[13] Palmitate negatively feeds back on acetyl-CoA carboxylase (ACC), which is responsible for converting acetyl-CoA to malonyl-CoA, which in turn is used to add to the growing acyl chain, thus preventing further palmitate generation.[14] In biology, some proteins are modified by the addition of a palmitoyl group in a process known as palmitoylation. Palmitoylation is important for membrane localisation of many proteins.

Biochemistry

Palmitic acid is naturally produced by a wide range of other plants and organisms, typically at low levels. It is naturally present in butter, cheese, milk and meat also as well as cocoa butter, soybean oil and sunflower oil. The cetyl ester of palmitic acid (cetyl palmitate) occurs in spermaceti.

Palmitic acid was discovered by Edmond Frémy in 1840, in saponified palm oil.[10] This remains the primary industrial route for its production, with the triglycerides (fats) in palm oil being hydrolysed by high temperature water (above 200 °C or 390 °F) and the resulting mixture fractionally distilled to give the pure product.[11]

Occurrence and production

Contents

  • Occurrence and production 1
  • Biochemistry 2
  • Applications 3
  • Health effects 4
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Aluminium salts of palmitic acid and naphthenic acid were combined during World War II to produce napalm. The word "napalm" is derived from the words naphthenic acid and palmitic acid.

of palmitic acid. The palmitate anion is the observed form of palmitic acid at physiologic pH (7.4). esters and salts is a term for the Palmitate), but can also be found in meats, cheeses, butter, and dairy products. palm oil (palm treesCOOH. As its name indicates, it is a major component of the oil from 14)2(CH3 is CHchemical formula Its [9]

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