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Partial agonist

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Title: Partial agonist  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
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Subject: Pharmacology, Intrinsic activity, Serotonin antagonist and reuptake inhibitor, Agonist, Cariprazine
Collection: Pharmacodynamics, Pharmacology
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Partial agonist


In pharmacology, partial agonists are drugs that bind to and activate a given receptor, but have only partial efficacy at the receptor relative to a full agonist. They may also be considered ligands which display both agonistic and antagonistic effects - when both a full agonist and partial agonist are present, the partial agonist actually acts as a competitive antagonist, competing with the full agonist for receptor occupancy and producing a net decrease in the receptor activation observed with the full agonist alone.[1] Clinically, partial agonists can be used to activate receptors to give a desired submaximal response when inadequate amounts of the endogenous ligand are present, or they can reduce the overstimulation of receptors when excess amounts of the endogenous ligand are present.[2]

Some currently common drugs that have been classed as partial agonists at particular receptors include buspirone, aripiprazole, buprenorphine, and norclozapine. Examples of ligands activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma as partial agonists are honokiol and falcarindiol.[3][4]

See also


  1. ^ Calvey, Norman; Williams, Norton (2009). "Partial agonists". Principles and Practice of Pharmacology for Anaesthetists. p. 62.  
  2. ^ Zhu, Bao Ting (2005). "Mechanistic explanation for the unique pharmacologic properties of receptor partial agonists". Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy 59 (3): 76–89.  
  3. ^ Atanasov, Atanas G.; Wang, Jian N.; Gu, Shi P.; Bu, Jing; Kramer, Matthias P.; Baumgartner, Lisa; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Ladurner, Angela; Malainer, Clemens; Vuorinen, Anna; Noha, Stefan M.; Schwaiger, Stefan; Rollinger, Judith M.; Schuster, Daniela; Stuppner, Hermann; Dirsch, Verena M.; Heiss, Elke H. (2013). "Honokiol: A non-adipogenic PPARγ agonist from nature". Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1830 (10): 4813–9.  
  4. ^ Atanasov, Atanas G.; Blunder, Martina; Fakhrudin, Nanang; Liu, Xin; Noha, Stefan M.; Malainer, Clemens; Kramer, Matthias P.; Cocic, Amina; Kunert, Olaf; Schinkovitz, Andreas; Heiss, Elke H.; Schuster, Daniela; Dirsch, Verena M.; Bauer, Rudolf (2013). "Polyacetylenes from Notopterygium incisum–New Selective Partial Agonists of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma". PLoS ONE 8 (4): e61755.  
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