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Pearl Buck

 

Pearl Buck

Pearl S. Buck
ca. 1972.
Born Pearl Sydenstricker
(1892-06-26)June 26, 1892
Hillsboro, West Virginia, United States
Died March 6, 1973(1973-03-06) (aged 80)
Danby, Vermont, United States
Occupation Writer, Teacher
Nationality American
Notable award(s)

Pulitzer Prize
1932

Nobel Prize in Literature
1938
Spouse(s) John Lossing Buck (1917–1935)
Richard Walsh (1935–1960) until his death

Signature

Pearl Sydenstricker Buck (June 26, 1892 – March 6, 1973), also known by her Chinese name Sai Zhenzhu (Chinese: ; pinyin: Sài Zhēnzhū), was an American writer and novelist. As the daughter of missionaries, Buck spent most of her life before 1934 in China. Her novel The Good Earth was the best-selling fiction book in the U.S. in 1931 and 1932 and won the Pulitzer Prize in 1932. In 1938 she was awarded the Nobel Prize in Literature "for her rich and truly epic descriptions of peasant life in China and for her biographical masterpieces." [1]

After her return to the United States in 1935, she continued her prolific writing career, and became a prominent advocate of the rights of women and minority groups, and wrote widely on Asian cultures, becoming particularly well known for her efforts on behalf of Asian and mixed race adoption.

Early life


Pearl Sydenstricker was born in Hillsboro, West Virginia, to Caroline Stulting (1857–1921) and Absalom Sydenstricker. Her parents, Southern Presbyterian missionaries, traveled to China soon after their marriage on July 8, 1880, but returned to the United States for Pearl's birth. When Pearl was three months old, the family returned to China, first in Huai'an and then in 1896 moved to Zhenjiang (then often known as Jingjiang or, in the Postal Romanization, Tsingkiang), near Nanking.[2]

Of her siblings who survived into adulthood, Edgar Sydenstricker (1881-1936) had a distinguished career in epidemiology as an official with the Milbank Memorial Fund [3] and Grace Sydenstricker Yaukey (1899-1994) was a writer who wrote young adult books and books about Asia under the pen-name Cornelia Spencer.


She recalled in her memoir that she lived in "several worlds," one a "small, white, clean Presbyterian world of my parents," and the other the "big, loving merry not-too-clean Chinese world," and there was no communication between them.[4] The Boxer Uprising greatly affected the family; their Chinese friends deserted them, and Western visitors decreased. Her father, convinced that no Chinese could wish him harm, stayed behind as the rest of the family went to Shanghai for safety. A few years later, Pearl was enrolled in Miss Jewell's School there, and was dismayed at the racist attitudes of the other students, few of whom could speak any Chinese. Both of her parents felt strongly that Chinese were their equals (they forbade the use of the word "heathen"), and she was raised in a bilingual environment, tutored in English by her mother, in the local dialect by her Chinese playmates, and in classical Chinese by a Chinese scholar named Mr. Kung. She also read voraciously, especially, in spite of her father's disapproval, the novels of Charles Dickens, which she later said she read through once a year for the rest of her life.[5]

In 1911, Pearl left China to attend Randolph-Macon Woman's College in Lynchburg, Virginia, US,[6] graduating Phi Beta Kappa in 1914 and a member of Kappa Delta Sorority. From 1914 to 1933, she served as a Presbyterian missionary, but her views later became highly controversial during the Fundamentalist–Modernist Controversy, leading to her resignation.[7]

Career in China

In 1914, Pearl returned to China. She married an agricultural economist missionary John Lossing Buck, on May 13, 1917, and they moved to Suzhou, Anhui Province, a small town on the Huai River (not to be confused with the better-known Suzhou in Jiangsu Province). This region she describes in her books The Good Earth and Sons.

From 1920 to 1933, the Bucks made their home in Nanjing, on the campus of the University of Nanking, where both had teaching positions. Buck taught English literature at the private, church-run University of Nanking 金陵大學, Ginling College 金陵女子大学 and at the National Central University 國立中央大學. In 1920, the Bucks had a daughter, Carol, afflicted with phenylketonuria. In 1921, Buck's mother died of a tropical disease, sprue, and shortly afterward her father moved in. In 1924, they left China for John Buck's year of sabbatical and returned to the United States for a short time, during which Pearl Buck earned her Master's degree from Cornell University. In 1925, the Bucks adopted Janice (later surnamed Walsh). That autumn, they returned to China.[7]

The tragedies and dislocations that Buck suffered in the 1920s reached a climax in March 1927, during the "Nanking Incident." In a confused battle involving elements of Chiang Kai-shek's Nationalist troops, Communist forces, and assorted warlords, several Westerners were murdered. Since her father Absalom insisted, as he had in 1900 in the face of the Boxers, the family decided to stay in Nanjing until the battle reached the city. When violence broke out, a poor Chinese family invited them to hide in their hut while the family house was looted. The family spent a day terrified and in hiding, after which they were rescued by American gunboats. They traveled to Shanghai and then sailed to Japan, where they stayed for a year, after which they moved back to Nanjing. Pearl later said that this year in Japan showed her that not all Japanese were militarists. When she returned from Japan in late 1927, Pearl devoted herself in earnest to the vocation of writing. Friendly relations with prominent Chinese writers of the time, such as Xu Zhimo and Lin Yutang, encouraged her to think of herself as a professional writer. She wanted to fulfill the ambitions denied to her mother, but she also needed money to support herself if she left her marriage, which had become increasingly lonely, and since the mission board could not provide it, she also needed money for Carol’s specialized care. Pearl went once more to the States in 1929 to find long-term care for Carol, and while there, Richard Walsh, editor at John Day publishers in New York, accepted her novel East Wind: West Wind. She and Richard began a relationship that would end in marriage and many years of professional teamwork. Back in Nanking, she retreated every morning to the attic of her university bungalow and within the year completed the manuscript for The Good Earth.[8]

When John Lossing Buck took the family to Ithaca the next year, Pearl accepted an invitation to address a luncheon of Presbyterian women at the Astor Hotel in New York City. Her talk was titled “Is There a Case for the Foreign Missionary?” and her answer was a barely qualified “no.” She told her American audience that she welcomed Chinese to share her Christian faith, but argued that China did not need an institutional church dominated by missionaries who were too often ignorant of China and arrogant in their attempts to control it. When the talk was published in Harper's magazine,[9] the scandalized reaction led Pearl to resign her position with the Presbyterian Board. In 1934, Pearl left China, never to return, while John Lossing Buck remained and later remarried.[10]

Career in the United States

In 1935 the Bucks were divorced, and she later married Richard Walsh. He offered her advice and affection which, her biographer concludes, "helped make Pearl's prodigious activity possible." The couple lived in Pennsylvania until his death in 1960.[8]

During the Cultural Revolution, Buck, as a preeminent American writer of Chinese village life, was denounced as an "American cultural imperialist." Buck was "heartbroken" when she was prevented from visiting China with Richard Nixon in 1972.

Pearl S. Buck died of lung cancer on March 6, 1973, in Danby, Vermont and was interred in Green Hills Farm in Perkasie, Pennsylvania. She designed her own tombstone. The grave marker is inscribed with Chinese characters representing the name Pearl Sydenstricker.[11]

The Nobel Prize in Literature

In 1938 the Nobel Prize committee in awarding the prize said

By awarding this year's Prize to Pearl Buck for the notable works which pave the way to a human sympathy passing over widely separated racial boundaries and for the studies of human ideals which are a great and living art of portraiture, the Swedish Academy feels that it acts in harmony and accord with the aim of Alfred Nobel's dreams for the future.[12]

In her speech to the Academy, she took as her topic "The Chinese Novel." She explained "I am an American by birth and by ancestry," but went on to say "My earliest knowledge of story, of how to tell and write stories, came to me in China." After an extensive discussion of classic Chinese novels, especially Romance of Three Kingdoms, All Men Are Brothers, and Dream of the Red Chamber, she concluded that in China, "the novelist did not have the task of creating art but of speaking to the people." Her own ambition, she continued, had not been trained toward "the beauty of letters or the grace of art." In China, the task of the novelist differed from the western artist: "to farmers he must talk of their land, and to old men he must speak of peace, and to old women he must tell of their children, and to young men and women he must speak of each other." And like the Chinese novelist, she concluded, "I have been taught to want to write for these people. If they are reading their magazines by the million, then I want my stories there rather than in magazines read only by a few.[13]

Humanitarian efforts

Buck was highly committed to a range of issues that were largely ignored by her generation. Many of her life experiences and political views are described in her novels, short stories, fiction, children's stories, and the biographies of her parents entitled Fighting Angel (on Absalom) and The Exile (on Carrie). She wrote on a diverse variety of topics including women's rights, Asian cultures, immigration, adoption, missionary work, and war.

In 1949, outraged that existing

In the late 1960s, Buck toured West Virginia to raise money to preserve her family farm in Hillsboro, WV. Today The Pearl S. Buck Birthplace is a historic house museum and cultural center.[15] She hoped the house would "belong to everyone who cares to go there," and serve as a "gateway to new thoughts and dreams and ways of life."[16]

Long before it was considered fashionable or politically safe to do so, Buck challenged the American public by gambling on topics such as racism, sex discrimination and the plight of the thousands of babies born to Asian women left behind and unwanted wherever American soldiers were based in Asia. During her life Buck combined the multiple careers of wife, mother, author, editor and political activist.[17]

Legacy

Many contemporary reviewers were positive, and praised her "beautiful prose," even though her "style is apt to degenerate into overrepetition and confusion."[18] Robert Benchley wrote a parody of "The Good Earth" that focused on just these qualities, to excellent effect. Peter Conn, in his biography of Buck, argues that despite the accolades awarded to her, Buck's contribution to literature has been mostly forgotten or deliberately ignored by America's cultural gatekeepers.[19] Kang Liao argues that Buck played a "pioneering role in demythologizing China and the Chinese people in the American mind."[20] Phyllis Bentley, in an overview of Buck's work published in 1935, was altogether impressed: "But we may say at least that for the interest of her chosen material, the sustained high level of her technical skill, and the frequent universality of her conceptions, Mrs. Buck is entitled to take rank as a considerable artist. To read her novels is to gain not merely knowledge of China but wisdom about life."[21] These works aroused considerable popular sympathy for China, and helped foment poor relations with Japan.[22]

Anchee Min, author of a fictionalized life of Pearl Buck, broke down upon reading Buck's work, because she had portrayed the Chinese peasants "with such love, affection and humanity".[23]

Buck was honored in 1983 with a 5¢ Great Americans series postage stamp issued by the United States Postal Service[24] In 1999 she was designated a Women's History Month Honoree by the National Women's History Project.[25]

(赛珍珠故居) Buck's former residence at Nanjing University is now the Sai Zhenzhu Memorial House along the West Wall of the university's north campus. U.S. President George H.W. Bush toured the Pearl S. Buck House in October 1998. He expressed that he, like millions of other Americans, had gained an appreciation for the Chinese through Buck's writing.[26]

Pearl Buck contributed a great deal to the rapid expansion of feminism in America as well as China. Because of her position as a white middle-class woman, Pearl Buck was able to shape American perceptions of China more effectively and positively than other feminists, and other missionaries. With Buck’s Christian values and westernized civic roles she worked hard to enlighten and educate women throughout her life. Thanks to her education, fluency in English, Christian background, and her dual-culture experiences in China and the United States, this woman had a dramatic impact on the way many Americans perceived China during the late 1930s.

Buck also embodied the China mystique for the Americans during 1930s and 1940s, which allowed for others to see the cross-cultural experiences providing evidence for acceptance and tolerance for western thinking. Pearl Buck undertook active roles in recasting earlier forms of orientalist attitudes toward Asia and the Asians in the United States. Because Buck had transnational identification with both China and the United States, which gave them all the authority of being China experts and they acted as bridges between the two cultures. Pearl’s novel, East Wind, West Wind allotted western feminism to find its way into Chinese culture in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. It was her efforts to foster Chinese women's liberation through her writing, and to serve as a translator that both empowered and silenced many women's voices and experiences in the process. Buck urges us to continue our efforts to build and draw on transcultural relations, and our practices and experiences that must be understood as culturally and historically situated.

Selected bibliography

See also WorldCat Authority Page for a fuller listing.

Autobiographies

  • My Several Worlds: A Personal Record. (New York: John Day, 1954).
  • A Bridge For Passing (New York: John Day, 1962)

Biographies

Novels

  • East Wind:West Wind (1929)
  • The House of Earth
  • The Mother (1933)
  • All Men Are Brothers (1933) A translation of the Chinese classical prose epic Water Margin.
  • This Proud Heart (1938)
  • The Patriot (1939)
  • Other Gods (1940)
  • China Sky (1941)
  • Dragon Seed (1942)
  • The Promise (1943)
  • China Flight (1943)
  • The Townsman (1945) – as John Sedges
  • Portrait of a Marriage (1945)
  • Pavilion of Women (1946)
  • The Angry Wife (1947) – as John Sedges
  • Peony (1948)
  • The Big Wave (1948)
  • A Long Love (1949) – as John Sedges
  • The Bondmaid (1949) First Published in Great Britain
  • Kinfolk (1950)
  • God's Men (1951)
  • The Hidden Flower (1952)
  • Come, My Beloved (1953)
  • Voices in the House (1953) – as John Sedges
  • Imperial Woman (1956)
  • Letter from Peking (1957)
  • Command the Morning (1959)
  • Satan Never Sleeps (1962; see 1962 film Satan Never Sleeps)
  • The Living Reed (1963)
  • Death in the Castle (1965)
  • The Time Is Noon (1966)
  • Matthew, Mark, Luke and John (1967)
  • The New Year (1968)
  • The Three Daughters of Madame Liang (1969)
  • Mandala (1970)
  • The Goddess Abides (1972)
  • All Under Heaven (1973)
  • The Rainbow (1974)
  • The Eternal Wonder (believed to have been written shortly before her death, due to be published in October 2013)[27]

Non-fiction

  • The Chinese Novel: Nobel Lecture Delivered before the Swedish Academy at Stockholm, December 12, 1938. (New York: John Day, 1939).
  • Of Men and Women (1941)
  • What America Means to Me. (New York: John Day, 1943). Essays.
  • Talk about Russia (with Masha Scott) (1945)
  • Tell the People: Talks with James Yen About the Mass Education Movement. (New York: John Day, 1945).
  • How It Happens: Talk about the German People, 1914–1933, with Erna von Pustau (1947)
  • with Eslanda Goode Robeson. American Argument. (New York: John Day, 1949).
  • The Child Who Never Grew (1950)
  • The Man Who Changed China: The Story of Sun Yat-sen (1953) for young readers
  • For Spacious Skies (1966)
  • The People of Japan (1966)
  • The Kennedy Women (1970)
  • China as I See It (1970)
  • The Story Bible (1971)
  • Pearl S. Buck's Oriental Cookbook (1972)

Long and short stories

  • The First Wife and Other Stories (1933)
  • Today and Forever: Stories of China (1941)
  • Twenty-Seven Stories (1943)
  • Far and Near: Stories of Japan, China, and America (1949)
  • "A Certain Star" (1957)
  • Fourteen Stories (1961)
  • Hearts Come Home and Other Stories (1962)
  • Stories of China (1964)
  • Escape at Midnight and Other Stories (1964)
  • The Good Deed (1969)
  • Once Upon a Christmas (1972)
  • East and West Stories (1975)
  • Secrets of the Heart: Stories (1976)
  • The Lovers and Other Stories (1977)
  • Mrs. Stoner and the Sea and Other Stories (1978)
  • The Woman Who Was Changed and Other Stories (1979)
  • "Christmas Day in the Morning"
  • "The Refugee"
  • "The Chinese Children Next Door" (for children)
  • ″The Enemy"
  • "The Frill"
  • "The Golden Flower"

Awards

Museums and historic houses

Several historic sites work to preserve and display artifacts from Pearl's profoundly multicultural life:

Further reading

  • Peter J. Conn. Pearl S. Buck: A Cultural Biography. Cambridge England ; New York: Cambridge University Press, 1996. ISBN 0521560802
  • Hilary Spurling, Burying the Bones: Pearl Buck in China (London: Profile, 2010) ISBN 9781861978288
  • Nora B. Stirling, Pearl Buck, a Woman in Conflict (Piscataway, NJ: New Century Publishers, 1983)
  • Elizabeth Johnston Lipscomb, Frances E. Webb and Peter J. Conn, eds., The Several Worlds of Pearl S. Buck: Essays Presented at a Centennial Symposium, Randolph-Macon Woman's College, March 26–28, 1992. Westport, CT: Greenwood Press, Contributions in Women's Studies, 1994. ISBN 0313291527
  • Liao Kang. Pearl S. Buck: A Cultural Bridge across the Pacific. (Westport, CT, London: Greenwood, Contributions to the Study of World Literature 77, 1997). ISBN 0-313-30146-8.
  • Xi Lian. The Conversion of Missionaries: Liberalism in American Protestant Missions in China, 1907-1932. (University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1997). ISBN 027101606X
  • Mari Yoshihara. Embracing the East: White Women and American Orientalism. (New York: Oxford University Press, 2003). ISBN 019514533X
  • Karen J. Leong. The China Mystique: Pearl S. Buck, Anna May Wong, Mayling Soong, and the Transformation of American Orientalism. (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2005). ISBN 0520244222
  • Theodore F. Harris ((in consultation with Pearl S. Buck), Pearl S. Buck: a Biography (John Day, June 1969. ISBN 978-0-381-98113-6 )
  • Theodore F. Harris ((in consultation with Pearl S. Buck), Pearl S. Buck; a biography. Volume two: Her philosophy as expressed in her letters (John Day, January 1971. ASIN B002BAA2PU )

See also

Notes

External links

  • The Pearl S. Buck Birthplace in Pocahontas County West Virginia
  • Pearl S. Buck International
  • English)
  • Official Nobel Prize Website: Brief Biography
  • University of Pennsylvania website dedicated to Pearl S. Buck
  • Brief biography at Kirjasto (Pegasos)
  • Internet Movie Database
  • National Trust for Historic Preservation on the Pearl S. Buck House Restoration
  • Pearl Buck interviewed by Mike Wallace on The Mike Wallace Interview February 8, 1958

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