World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Pennsylvania House of Representatives elections, 2014

 

Pennsylvania House of Representatives elections, 2014

The 2014 elections for the Pennsylvania House of Representatives were held on November 4, 2014, with all districts being contested. The primary elections were held on May 20, 2014.[1] The term of office for those elected in 2014 began when the House of Representatives convened in January 2015. Pennsylvania State Representatives are elected for two-year terms, with all 203 seats up for election every two years.[2] The Republicans gained eight seats to expand their majority in the chamber over the Democrats.[3]

Make-up of the House of Representatives following the 2014 elections

Affiliation Members
Republican 119 (+8)
Democratic 84 (-8)
Total 203

2014 General election

District Party Incumbent Status Party Candidate Votes %
1 Democratic Pat Harkins Re-elected


Democratic Pat Harkins 9,146 100.00
2 Democratic Florindo Fabrizio Re-elected


Democratic Florindo Fabrizio 11,214 100.00
3 Democratic Ryan Bizzarro Re-elected


Democratic Ryan Bizzarro 13,115 64.71
Republican Luke Lofgren 7,175 35.29
4 Republican Curt Sonney Re-elected


Republican Curt Sonney 10,762 63.73
Democratic Curtis Smith 6,124 36.27
5 Republican Greg Lucas Ran for State Senate


Republican Barry Jozwiak 11,367 63.29
Democratic Frederick Sheeler 6,594 36.71
6 Republican Brad Roae Re-elected


Republican Brad Roae 11,960 63.88
Democratic Juanita Shutsa 6,763 36.12
7 Democratic Mark Longietti Re-elected


Democratic Mark Longietti 14,930 100.00
8 Republican Dick Stevenson Retired


Republican Tedd Nesbit 14,098 100.00
9 Democratic Chris Sainato Re-elected


Democratic Chris Sainato 10,085 66.85
Republican Gary Cangey 5,002 33.15
10 Democratic Jaret Gibbons Re-elected


Democratic Jaret Gibbons 10,820 100.00
11 Republican Brian Ellis Re-elected


Republican Brian Ellis 14,290 100.00
12 Republican Daryl Metcalfe Re-elected


Republican Daryl Metcalfe 12,458 61.71
Democratic Lisa Zucco 7,731 38.29
13 Republican John Lawrence Re-elected


Republican John Lawrence 10,280 62.91
Democratic Ann Schott 6,061 37.19
14 Republican Jim Marshall Re-elected


Republican Jim Marshall 17,597 100.00
15 Republican Jim Christiana Re-elected


Republican Jim Christiana 12,585 69.42
Democratic Paul Cain 5,545 30.58
16 Democratic Rob Matzie Re-elected


Democratic Rob Matzie 13,013 100.00
17 Republican Michele Brooks Retired


Republican Parke Wentling 11,197 67.32
Democratic Wayne Hanson 5,535 32.68
18 Republican Gene DiGirolamo Re-elected


Republican Gene DiGirolamo 11,551 100.00
19 Democratic Jake Wheatley Re-elected


Democratic Jake Wheatley 9,404 86.65
Republican Mark Brentley 1,449 13.35
20 Democratic Adam Ravenstahl Re-elected


Democratic Adam Ravenstahl 9,997 60.74
Republican Thomas Fodi 6,463 39.26
21 Democratic Dom Costa Re-elected


Democratic Dom Costa 13,992 100.00
22 Democratic Erin Molchany Re-districted


Democratic Peter Schweyer 4,538 70.18
Republican Steven Ramos Santos 9,292 29.82
23 Democratic Dan Frankel Re-elected


Democratic Dan Frankel 13,246 100.00
24 Democratic Ed Gainey Re-elected


Democratic Ed Gainey 15,600 100.00
25 Democratic Joe Markosek Re-elected


Democratic Joe Markosek 10,480 60.61
Republican John Ritter 6,811 39.39
26 Republican Tim Hennessey Re-elected


Republican Tim Hennessey 12,870 100.00
27 Democratic Dan Deasy Re-elected


Democratic Dan Deasy 12,309 100.00
28 Republican Mike Turzai Re-elected


Republican Mike Turzai 17,146 100.00
29 Republican Bernie O'Neill Re-elected


Republican Bernie O'Neill 15,863 100.00
30 Republican Hal English Re-elected


Republican Hal English 18,390 100.00
31 Democratic Steve Santarsiero Re-elected


Democratic Steve Santarsiero 13,323 58.02
Republican David Gibbon 9,639 41.98
32 Democratic Tony DeLuca Re-elected


Democratic Tony DeLuca 15,093 100.00
33 Democratic Frank Dermody Re-elected


Democratic Frank Dermody 8,668 53.02
Republican Sean Watson 7,681 46.98
34 Democratic Paul Costa Re-elected


Democratic Paul Costa 14,639 100.00
35 Democratic Marc Gergely Re-elected


Democratic Marc Gergely 10,048 71.30
Republican Kenneth Peoples 4,045 28.70
36 Democratic Harry Readshaw Re-elected


Democratic Harry Readshaw 12,205 100.00
37 Republican Mindy Fee Re-elected


Republican Mindy Fee 14,078 77.53
Democratic Brian Kresge 4,081 22.47
38 Democratic Bill Kortz Re-elected


Democratic Bill Kortz 13,998 100.00
39 Republican Rick Saccone Re-elected


Republican Rick Saccone 11,8055 60.35
Democratic Lisa Stout Bashioum 7,755 39.65
40 Republican John Maher Re-elected


Republican John Maher 18,007 100.00
41 Republican Ryan Aument Elected to State Senate


Republican Brett Miller 13,196 59.40
Democratic Alice Yoder 9,020 40.60
42 Democratic Dan Miller Re-elected


Democratic Dan Miller 14,213 100.00
43 Republican Keith Greiner Re-elected


Republican Keith Greiner 12,412 71.04
Democratic Steven Stone 5,061 28.96
44 Republican Mark Mustio Re-elected


Republican Mark Mustio 14,108 100.00
45 Democratic Nick Kotik Re-elected


Democratic Nick Kotik 11,130 60.96
Republican Benjamin Gross 7,127 39.04
46 Democratic Jesse White Defeated


Republican Jason Ortitay 10,747 56.36
Democratic Jesse White 8,323 43.64
47 Republican Keith Gillespie Re-elected


Republican Keith Gillespie 14,659 100.00
48 Democratic Brandon Neuman Re-elected


Democratic Brandon Neuman 10,168 58.73
Republican Sonia Stopperich 7,145 41.27
49 Democratic Peter Daley Re-elected


Democratic Peter Daley 8,557 56.43
Republican Donald Cook 6,608 43.57
50 Democratic Pam Snyder Re-elected


Democratic Pam Snyder 11,517 100.00
51 Democratic Tim Mahoney Re-elected


Democratic Timothy S. Mahoney 10,206 100.00
52 Democratic Deberah Kula Retired


Republican Ryan Warner 8,255 52.91
Democratic Andrew Boni 7,347 47.09
53 Republican Bob Godshall Re-elected


Republican Bob Godshall 11,038 62.65
Democratic Dorothy Miller 6,581 37.35
54 Republican Eli Evankovich Re-elected


Republican Eli Evankovich 13,720 69.47
Democratic Patrick Leyland 6,029 30.53
55 Democratic Joe Petrarca Re-elected


Democratic Joe Petrarca 9,731 62.04
Republican Brian Panichelli 5,953 37.96
56 Republican George Dunbar Re-elected


Republican George Dunbar 15,653 100.00
57 Republican Tim Krieger Re-elected


Republican Tim Krieger 12,734 69.19
Democratic Donna McClellan 5,671 30.81
58 Democratic Ted Harhai Re-elected


Democratic Ted Harhai 8,760 50.82
Republican Thomas Logan 8,478 49.18
59 Republican Mike Reese Re-elected


Republican Mike Reese 16,421 100.00
60 Republican Jeff Pyle Re-elected


Republican Jeff Pyle 14,531 100.00
61 Republican Kate Harper Re-elected


Republican Kate Harper 13,744 60.74
Democratic Suzan Leonard 8,882 39.26
62 Republican Dave Reed Re-elected


Republican Dave Reed 10,747 65.42
Democratic Kevin Freeburg 5,681 34.58
63 Republican Donna Oberlander Re-elected


Republican Donna Oberlander 13,742 100.00
64 Republican Lee James Re-elected


Republican Lee James 13,127 100.00
65 Republican Kathy Rapp Re-elected


Republican Kathy Rapp 10,341 64.78
Democratic Toby Anderson 5,622 35.22
66 Republican Sam Smith Retired


Republican Cris Dush 11,777 72.06
Democratic Robert Santik 4,567 27.94
67 Republican Martin Causer Re-elected


Republican Martin Causer 12,169 100.00
68 Republican Matt Baker Re-elected


Republican Matt Baker 13,385 82.21
Democratic Jonathan Ruth 2,896 17.79
69 Republican Carl Walker Metzgar Re-elected


Republican Carl Walker Metzgar 17,861 100.00
70 Democratic Matt Bradford Re-elected


Democratic Matt Bradford 10,573 100.00
71 Democratic Bryan Barbin Re-elected


Democratic Bryan Barbin 9,674 51.89
Republican James Rigby 8,968 48.11
72 Democratic Frank Burns Re-elected


Democratic Frank Burns 11,354 62.57
Republican Philip Rice 6,792 37.43
73 Democratic Gary Haluska Retired


Republican Tommy Sankey 14,971 100.00
74 Republican Tommy Sankey Re-districted


Republican Harry Lewis 8,236 53.79
Democratic Joshua Maxwell 7,074 46.21
75 Republican Matt Gabler Re-elected


Republican Matt Gabler 13,262 74.21
Democratic John Donahue 4,610 25.79
76 Democratic Mike Hanna Re-elected


Democratic Mike Hanna 10,926 100.00
77 Democratic Scott Conklin Re-elected


Democratic Scott Conklin 7,179 84.14
Libertarian Charles Martin 1,353 15.86
78 Republican Jesse Topper Re-elected


Republican Jesse Topper 14,972 100.00
79 Republican John McGinnis Re-elected


Republican John McGinnis 10,685 100.00
80 Republican Jerry Stern Retired


Republican Judy Ward 11,001 67.69
Democratic Jason Lynn 5,251 32.31
81 Republican Mike Fleck Defeated


Republican Rich Irvin 10,420 53.99
Democratic Mike Fleck 8,881 46.01
82 Republican Adam Harris Re-elected


Republican Adam Harris 12,888 100.0
83 Democratic Rick Mirabito Defeated


Republican Jeff Wheeland 8,382 55.26
Democratic Rick Mirabito 6,785 44.74
84 Republican Garth Everett Re-elected


Republican Garth Everett 13,750 79.89
Democratic Kristen Hayes 3,462 20.11
85 Republican Fred Keller Re-elected


Republican Fred Keller 10,895 69.17
Democratic Michael Sundberg 4,857 30.83
86 Republican Mark Keller Re-elected


Republican Mark Keller 14,112 100.00
87 Republican Glen Grell Re-elected


Republican Glen Grell 19,685 100.00
88 Republican Sheryl Delozier Re-elected


Republican Sheryl Delozier 16,716 100.00
89 Republican Rob Kauffman Re-elected


Republican Rob Kauffman 13,717 100.00
90 Republican Todd Rock Retired


Republican Paul Schemel 12,148 81.72
Independent William Hornbarger 2,718 18.28
91 Republican Dan Moul Re-elected


Republican Dan Moul 14,052 100.00
92 Republican Mike Regan Re-elected


Republican Mike Regan 17,941 100.00
93 Republican Ron Miller Retired


Republican Kristen Phillips-Hill 16,031 100.00
94 Republican Stan Saylor Re-elected


Republican Stan Saylor 12,499 72.33
Democratic David Colon 7,781 27.67
95 Democratic Kevin Schreiber Re-elected


Democratic Kevin Schreiber 8,461 100.00
96 Democratic Mike Sturla Re-elected


Democratic Mike Sturla 8,029 100.00
97 Republican Steven Mentzer Re-elected


Republican Steven Mentzer 14,746 64.50
Democratic Charles Hample 8,117 35.50
98 Republican Dave Hickernell Re-elected


Republican Dave Hickernell 12,063 69.20
Democratic Anthony Crocamo 4,699 26.96
Green Ryan Hazel 669 3.84
99 Republican Gordon Denlinger Ran for State Senate


Republican David Zimmerman 9,974 71.30
Democratic Ryan Sanguinito 4,014 28.70
100 Republican Bryan Cutler Re-elected


Republican Bryan Cutler 11,138 100.00
101 Republican Mauree Gingrich Re-elected


Republican Mauree Gingrich 12,138 71.67
Democratic Patricia Stephens 4,799 28.33
102 Republican RoseMarie Swanger Retired


Republican Russ Diamond 7,668 48.00
Democratic Jake Long 4,446 27.83
Independent Robert McAteer 3,861 24.17
103 Democratic Patty Kim Re-elected


Democratic Patty Kim 10,512 100.00
104 Republican Sue Helm Re-elected


Republican Sue Helm 12,199 55.89
Democratic Gene Stilp 9,629 44.11
105 Republican Ron Marsico Re-elected


Republican Ron Marsico 15,432 67.62
Democratic Kelly Jean McEntee 7,391 32.38
106 Republican John Payne Re-elected


Republican John Payne 14,727 100.00
107 Republican Kurt Masser Re-elected


Republican Kurt Masser 11,054 77.78
Libertarian John Burd 3,157 22.22
108 Republican Lynda Schlegel-Culver Re-elected


Republican Lynda Schlegel-Culver 13,068 100.00
109 Republican David Millard Re-elected


Republican David Millard 10,645 100.00
110 Republican Tina Pickett Re-elected


Republican Tina Pickett 13,356 100.00
111 Republican Sandra Major Re-elected


Republican Sandra Major 12,546 75.66
Democratic John Heptig 4,035 24.34
112 Democratic Kevin Haggerty Defeated in primary


Democratic Frank Farina 14,162 100.00
113 Democratic Marty Flynn Re-elected


Democratic Marty Flynn 11,537 74.58
Republican Marcel Lisi 3,932 25.42
114 Democratic Sid Michaels Kavulich Re-elected


Democratic Sid Michaels Kavulich 12,981 66.95
Republican Melanie Madiera 6,407 33.05
115 Democratic Frank Farina Re-districted


Republican David Parker 5,903 52.62
Democratic Maureen Madden 5,315 47.38
116 Republican Tarah Toohil Re-elected


Republican Tarah Toohil 11,710 100.00
117 Republican Karen Boback Re-elected


Republican Karen Boback 12,429 72.97
Democratic Laura Dickson 4,603 27.03
118 Democratic Mike Carroll Re-elected


Democratic Mike Carroll 12,209 100.00
119 Democratic Jerry Mullery Re-elected


Democratic Jerry Mullery 9,995 100.00
120 Democratic Phyllis Mundy Retired


Republican Aaron Kaufer 9,514 56.01
Democratic Eileen Cipriani 7,472 43.99
121 Democratic Eddie Day Pashinski Re-elected


Democratic Eddie Day Pashinski 6,928 67.75
Libertarian Betsy Summers 3,298 32.25
122 Republican Doyle Heffley Re-elected


Republican Doyle Heffley 10,427 64.49
Democratic Patricia Borger 5,741 35.51
123 Democratic Neal Goodman Re-elected


Democratic Neal Goodman 11,290 100.0
124 Republican Jerry Knowles Re-elected


Republican Jerry Knowles 15,532 100.00
125 Republican Mike Tobash Re-elected


Republican Mike Tobash 14,017 100.00
126 Democratic Mark Rozzi Re-elected


Democratic Mark Rozzi 10,687 100.00
127 Democratic Tom Caltagirone Re-elected


Democratic Tom Caltagirone 5,156 100.00
128 Republican Mark Gillen Re-elected


Republican Mark Gillen 15,264 100.00
129 Republican Jim Cox Re-elected


Republican Jim Cox 14,085 100.00
130 Republican David Maloney Re-elected


Republican David Maloney 11,117 62.00
Democratic David Kessler 6,851 38.00
131 Republican Justin Simmons Re-elected


Republican Justin Simmons 12,055 61.06
Democratic Michael Beyer 7,688 38.94
132 Democratic Mike Schlossberg Re-elected


Democratic Mike Schlossberg 7,899 100.00
133 Democratic Dan McNeill Re-elected


Democratic Dan McNeill 7,568 55.09
Republican David Molony 6,170 44.91
134 Republican Ryan Mackenzie Re-elected


Republican Ryan Mackenzie 14,448 100.00
135 Democratic Steve Samuelson Re-elected


Democratic Steve Samuelson 9,387 100.00
136 Democratic Bob Freeman Re-elected


Democratic Bob Freeman 9,131 100.00
137 Republican Joe Emrick Re-elected


Republican Joe Emrick 11,825 100.00
138 Republican Marcia Hahn Re-elected


Republican Marcia Hahn 12,898 66.32
Democratic Leslie Altieri 6,551 33.68
139 Republican Mike Peifer Re-elected


Republican Mike Peifer 12,828 100.00
140 Democratic John Galloway Re-elected


Democratic John Galloway 11,530 100.00
141 Democratic Tina Davis Re-elected


Democratic Tina Davis 10,233 70.61
Republican Joseph Lippolis 4,260 29.39
142 Republican Frank Farry Re-elected


Republican Frank Farry 14,758 65.20
Democratic Regina Kiley 7,878 34.80
143 Republican Marguerite Quinn Re-elected


Republican Marguerite Quinn 17,107 100.00
144 Republican Kathy Watson Re-elected


Republican Kathy Watson 14,907 100.00
145 Republican Paul Clymer Retired


Republican Craig Staats 11,268 58.74
Democratic Karen Chellew 7,914 41.26
146 Democratic Mark Painter Defeated


Republican Tom Quigley 8,840 52.15
Democratic Mark Painter 8,111 47.85
147 Republican Marcy Toepel Re-elected


Republican Marcy Toepel 13,064 100.00
148 Democratic Mary Jo Daley Re-elected


Democratic Mary Jo Daley 14,726 61.97
Republican Ed Flocco 9,039 38.03
149 Democratic Tim Briggs Re-elected


Democratic Tim Briggs 13,716 100.00
150 Republican Mike Vereb Re-elected


Republican Mike Vereb 11,964 63.89
Democratic David McKenzie 6,763 36.11
151 Republican Todd Stephens Re-elected


Republican Todd Stephens 13,541 100.00
152 Republican Tom Murt Re-elected


Republican Tom Murt 14,905 100.00
153 Democratic Madeleine Dean Re-elected


Democratic Madeleine Dean 16,984 100.00
154 Democratic Steve McCarter Re-elected


Democratic Steve McCarter 17,553 73.50
Republican Robert Gillies 8,143 26.50
155 Republican Becky Corbin Re-elected


Republican Becky Corbin 12,809 60.29
Democratic James Burns 8,435 39.71
156 Republican Dan Truitt Re-elected


Republican Dan Truitt 12,429 59.82
Democratic Sandra Snyder 8,350 40.18
157 Republican Warren Kampf Re-elected


Republican Warren Kampf 11,694 55.05
Democratic Marian Moscowitz 9,547 44.95
158 Republican Chris Ross Re-elected


Republican Chris Ross 11,350 58.26
Democratic Susan Rzucidlo 8,130 41.74
159 Democratic Thaddeus Kirkland Re-elected


Democratic Thaddeus Kirkland 9,281 70.51
Republican Michael Ciach 3,881 29.49
160 Republican Steve Barrar Re-elected


Republican Steve Barrar 13,303 62.61
Democratic Whitney Hoffman 7,944 37.39
161 Republican Joe Hackett Re-elected


Republican Joe Hackett 12,916 55.93
Democratic Leanne Krueger-Braneky 10,176 44.07
162 Republican Nick Miccarelli Re-elected


Republican Nick Miccarelli 17,902 100.00
163 Republican Nick Micozzie Retired


Republican James Santora 11,644 53.55
Democratic Vincent Rongione 10,100 46.45
164 Democratic Margo Davidson Re-elected


Democratic Margo Davidson 12,272 80.06
Republican Mohammad Siddiqui 8,339 19.94
165 Republican Bill Adolph Re-elected


Republican Bill Adolph 15,765 64.66
Democratic Charles Hadley 8,615 35.34
166 Democratic Greg Vitali Re-elected


Democratic Greg Vitali 14,325 63.11
Republican Sarah Armstrong 8,375 36.89
167 Republican Duane Milne Re-elected


Republican Duane Milne 13,439 61.39
Democratic Anne Crowley 8,453 38.61
168 Republican Tom Killion Re-elected


Republican Tom Killion 16,397 100.00
169 Democratic Ed Neilson Re-districted


Republican Kate Klunk 14,347 100.00
170 Democratic Brendan Boyle Re-elected


Democratic Brendan Boyle 10,707 100.00
171 Republican Kerry Benninghoff Re-elected


Republican Kerry Benninghoff 16,735 100.00
172 Democratic Kevin Boyle Re-elected


Democratic Kevin Boyle 11,499 100.00
173 Democratic Mike McGeehan Retired


Democratic Michael Driscoll 8,360 67.05
Republican Michael Tomlinson 4,109 32.95
174 Democratic John Sabatina Re-elected


Democratic John Sabatina 10,617 100.00
175 Democratic Mike O'Brien Re-elected


Democratic Mike O'Brien 12,394 100.00
176 Republican Mario Scavello Elected to State Senate


Republican Jack Rader 8,217 60.26
Democratic Hope Smith 5,420 39.74
177 Republican John Taylor Re-elected


Republican John Taylor 9,042 100.00
178 Republican Scott Petri Re-elected


Republican Scott Petri 17,098 100.00
179 Democratic James Clay Defeated in primary


Democratic Jason Dawkins 9,867 100.00
180 Democratic Angel Cruz Re-elected


Democratic Angel Cruz 5,827 100.00
181 Democratic Curtis Thomas Re-elected


Democratic Curtis Thomas 12,988 100.00
182 Democratic Brian Sims Re-elected


Democratic Brian Sims 15,808 100.00
183 Republican Julie Harhart Re-elected


Republican Julie Harhart 10,261 60.94
Democratic Terri Powell 5,061 30.06
Independent Michael Molovinsky 1,515 9.00
184 Democratic Bill Keller Re-elected


Democratic Bill Keller 11,758 100.00
185 Democratic Maria Donatucci Re-elected


Democratic Maria Donatucci 14,208 100.00
186 Democratic Jordan Harris Re-elected


Democratic Jordan Harris 16,070 100.00
187 Republican Gary Day Re-elected


Republican Gary Day 13,045 100.00
188 Democratic Jim Roebuck Re-elected


Democratic Jim Roebuck 13,030 88.97
Republican Ernest Adkins 1,615 11.03
189 Republican Rosemary Brown Re-elected


Republican Rosemary Brown 8,033 63.07
Democratic Elizabeth Forrest 4,704 36.93
190 Democratic Vanessa Brown Re-elected


Democratic Vanessa Brown 16,446 95.73
Green Glenn Davis 734 4.27
191 Democratic Ronald Waters Re-elected


Democratic Ronald Waters 14,948 100.00
192 Democratic Louise Bishop Re-elected


Democratic Louise Bishop 18,829 100.00
193 Republican Will Tallman Re-elected


Republican Will Tallman 12,889 73.98
Democratic Paul Bart 4,534 26.02
194 Democratic Pamela DeLissio Re-elected


Democratic Pamela DeLissio 12,981 71.70
Republican William Pounds 5,124 28.30
195 Democratic Michelle Brownlee Re-elected


Democratic Michelle Brownlee 16,887 100.00
196 Republican Seth Grove Re-elected


Republican Seth Grove 15,396 100.00
197 Democratic J. P. Miranda Defeated in primary


Democratic Leslie Acosta 10,754 100.00
198 Democratic Rosita Youngblood Re-elected


Democratic Rosita Youngblood 16,978 100.00
199 Republican Stephen Bloom Re-elected


Republican Stephen Bloom 11,368 64.81
Democratic Jill Bartoli 6,172 35.19
200 Democratic Cherelle Parker Re-elected


Democratic Cherelle Parker 24,726 100.00
201 Democratic Stephen Kinsey Re-elected


Democratic Stephen Kinsey 17,617 100.00
202 Democratic Mark Cohen Re-elected


Democratic Mark Cohen 9,209 100.00
203 Democratic Dwight Evans Re-elected


Democratic Dwight Evans 17,485 100.00

Source: Pennsylvania Department of State[3]

References

  1. ^
  2. ^ Wikisource:Constitution of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania 1874/Article 2
  3. ^ a b
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.