World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Phosphate mineral

Article Id: WHEBN0002277648
Reproduction Date:

Title: Phosphate mineral  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Mineralogy, Apatite, Vivianite, Pyromorphite, Carbonatite, Diadochite, Hydroxylapatite, Herderite, Lazulite, Struvite
Collection:
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Phosphate mineral

Phosphate minerals are those minerals that contain the tetrahedrally coordinated phosphate (PO43-) anion along with the freely substituting arsenate (AsO43-) and vanadate (VO43-). Chlorine (Cl-), fluorine (F-), and hydroxide (OH-) anions also fit into the crystal structure.

The phosphate class of minerals is a large and diverse group, however, only a few species are relatively common.

Examples

Phosphate minerals include:

Applications

Phosphate rock is a general term that refers to rock with high concentration of phosphate minerals, most commonly of the apatite group. It is the major resource mined to produce phosphate fertilisers for the agriculture sector. Phosphate is also used in animal feed supplements, food preservatives, anti-corrosion agents, cosmetics, fungicides, ceramics, water treatment and metallurgy.

The largest use of minerals mined for their phosphate content is the production of fertilizer.

Phosphate minerals are often used for control of rust and prevention of corrosion on ferrous materials applied with conversion coatings.

Nickel–Strunz Classification -08- Phosphates

IMA-CNMNC proposes a new hierarchical scheme (Mills et al., 2009). This list uses it to modify the Classification of Nickel–Strunz (mindat.org, 10 ed, pending publication).

  • Abbreviations:
    • "*" - discredited (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "?" - questionable/doubtful (IMA/CNMNC status).
    • "REE" - Rare-earth element (Sc, Y, La, Ce, Pr, Nd, Pm, Sm, Eu, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, Er, Tm, Yb, Lu)
    • "PGE" - Platinum-group element (Ru, Rh, Pd, Os, Ir, Pt)
    • 03.C Aluminofluorides, 06 Borates, 08 Vanadates (04.H V[5,6] Vanadates), 09 Silicates:
      • Neso: insular (from Greek νησος nēsos, island)
      • Soro: grouping (from Greek σωροῦ sōros, heap, mound (especially of corn))
      • Cyclo: ring
      • Ino: chain (from Greek ις [genitive: ινος inos], fibre)
      • Phyllo: sheet (from Greek φύλλον phyllon, leaf)
      • Tekto: three-dimensional framework
  • Nickel–Strunz code scheme: NN.XY.##x
    • NN: Nickel–Strunz mineral class number
    • X: Nickel–Strunz mineral division letter
    • Y: Nickel–Strunz mineral family letter
    • ##x: Nickel–Strunz mineral/group number, x add-on letter

Class: phosphates

  • 08.A Phosphates, etc. without additional anions, without H2O
    • 08.AA With small cations (some also with larger ones): 05 Berlinite, 05 Rodolicoite; 10 Beryllonite, 15 Hurlbutite, 20 Lithiophosphate, 25 Nalipoite, 30 Olympite
    • 08.AB With medium-sized cations: 05 Farringtonite; 10 Ferrisicklerite, 10 Heterosite, 10 Natrophilite, 10 Lithiophilite, 10 Purpurite, 10 Sicklerite, 10 Simferite, 10 Triphylite; 15 Chopinite, 15 Sarcopside; 20 Beusite, 20 Graftonite
    • 08.AC With medium-sized and large cations: 10 IMA2008-054, 10 Alluaudite, 10 Hagendorfite, 10 Ferroalluaudite, 10 Maghagendorfite, 10 Varulite, 10 Ferrohagendorfite*; 15 Bobfergusonite, 15 Ferrowyllieite, 15 Qingheiite, 15 Rosemaryite, 15 Wyllieite, 15 Ferrorosemaryite; 20 Maricite, 30 Brianite, 35 Vitusite-(Ce); 40 Olgite?, 40 Bario-olgite; 45 Ferromerrillite, 45 Bobdownsite, 45 Merrillite-(Ca)*, 45 Merrillite, 45 Merrillite-(Y)*, 45 Whitlockite, 45 Tuite, 45 Strontiowhitlockite; 50 Stornesite-(Y), 50 Xenophyllite, 50 Fillowite, 50 Chladniite, 50 Johnsomervilleite, 50 Galileiite; 55 Harrisonite, 60 Kosnarite, 65 Panethite, 70 Stanfieldite, 90 IMA2008-064
    • 08.AD With only large cations: 05 Nahpoite, 10 Monetite, 15 Archerite, 15 Biphosphammite; 20 Phosphammite, 25 Buchwaldite; 35 Pretulite, 35 Xenotime-(Y), 35 Xenotime-(Yb); 45 Ximengite, 50 Monazite-(Ce), 50 Monazite-(La), 50 Monazite-(Nd), 50 Monazite-(Sm), 50 Brabantite?
  • 08.B Phosphates, etc. with Additional Anions, without H2O
    • 08.BA With small and medium-sized cations: 05 Vayrynenite; 10 Hydroxylherderite, 10 Herderite; 15 Babefphite
    • 08.BB With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 £ 1:1: 05 Amblygonite, 05 Natromontebrasite?, 05 Montebrasite?, 05 Tavorite; 10 Zwieselite, 10 Triplite, 10 Magniotriplite?, 10 Hydroxylwagnerite; 15 Joosteite, 15 Stanekite, 15 Triploidite, 15 Wolfeite, 15 Wagnerite; 20 Satterlyite, 20 Holtedahlite; 25 Althausite; 30 Libethenite, 30 Zincolibethenite; 35 Tarbuttite; 40 Barbosalite, 40 Hentschelite, 40 Scorzalite, 40 Lazulite; 45 Trolleite, 55 Phosphoellenbergerite; 90 Zinclipscombite, 90 Lipscombite, 90 Richellite
    • 08.BC With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1: 10 Plimerite, 10 Frondelite, 10 Rockbridgeite
    • 08.BD With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 05 Pseudomalachite, 05 Reichenbachite, 10 Gatehouseite, 25 Ludjibaite
    • 08.BE With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1: 05 Augelite, 10 Grattarolaite, 15 Cornetite, 30 Raadeite, 85 Waterhouseite
    • 08.BF With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 0.5:1: 05 Arrojadite, 05 Arrojadite-(BaFe), 05 Arrojadite-(KFe), 05 Arrojadite-(NaFe), 05 Arrojadite-(SrFe), 05 Arrojadite-(KNa), 05 Arrojadite-(PbFe), 05 Arrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(KNa), 05 Fluorarrojadite-(BaFe), 05 Ferri-arrojadite-(BaNa), 05 Dickinsonite, 05 Dickinsonite-(KNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(KMnNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(KNaNa), 05 Dickinsonite-(NaNa); 10 Samuelsonite, 15 Griphite, 20 Nabiasite
    • 08.BG With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.5:1: 05 Bearthite, 05 Goedkenite, 05 Tsumebite; 10 Melonjosephite, 15 Tancoite
    • 08.BH With medium-sized and large cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 = 1:1: 05 Thadeuite; 10 Lacroixite, 10 Isokite, 10 Panasqueiraite; 15 Drugmanite; 20 Bjarebyite, 20 Kulanite, 20 Penikisite, 20 Perloffite, 20 Johntomaite; 25 Bertossaite, 25 Palermoite; 55 Jagowerite, 60 Attakolite
    • 08.BK With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.): 05 Brazilianite, 15 Curetonite, 25 Lulzacite
    • 08.BL With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1: 05 Corkite, 05 Hinsdalite, 05 Orpheite, 05 Woodhouseite, 05 Svanbergite; 10 Kintoreite, 10 Benauite, 10 Crandallite, 10 Goyazite, 10 Springcreekite, 10 Gorceixite; 10 Lusungite?, 10 Plumbogummite, 10 Ferrazite?; 13 Eylettersite, 13 Florencite-(Ce), 13 Florencite-(La), 13 Florencite-(Nd), 13 Waylandite, 13 Zairite; 15 Viitaniemiite, 20 Kuksite, 25 Pattersonite
    • 08.BM With medium-sized and large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 4:1: 10 Paulkellerite, 15 Brendelite
    • 08.BN With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 0.33:1: 05 IMA2008-068, 05 Phosphohedyphane, 05 IMA2008-009, 05 Alforsite, 05 Apatite*, 05 Apatite-(CaOH), 05 Apatite-(CaCl), 05 Apatite-(CaF), 05 Apatite-(SrOH), 05 Apatite-(CaOH)-M, Carbonate-fluorapatite?, 05 Carbonate-hydroxylapatite?, 05 Belovite-(Ce), 05 Belovite-(La), 05 Fluorcaphite, 05 Pyromorphite, 05 Hydroxylpyromorphite, 05 Deloneite-(Ce), 05 Kuannersuite-(Ce), 10 Arctite
    • 08.BO With only large cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 1:1: 05 Nacaphite, 10 Petitjeanite, 15 Smrkovecite, 25 Heneuite, 30 Nefedovite, 40 Artsmithite
  • 08.C Phosphates without Additional Anions, with H2O
    • 08.CA With small and large/medium cations: 05 Fransoletite, 05 Parafransoletite; 10 Ehrleite, 15 Faheyite; 20 Gainesite, 20 Mccrillisite, 20 Selwynite; 25 Pahasapaite, 30 Hopeite, 40 Phosphophyllite; 45 Parascholzite, 45 Scholzite; 65 Gengenbachite, 70 Parahopeite
    • 08.CB With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1: 05 Serrabrancaite, 10 Hureaulite
    • 08.CC With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1.5: 05 Garyansellite, 05 Kryzhanovskite, 05 Landesite, 05 Phosphoferrite, 05 Reddingite
    • 08.CD With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:2: 05 Kolbeckite, 05 Metavariscite, 05 Phosphosiderite; 10 Strengite, 10 Variscite; 20 Ludlamite
    • 08.CE With only medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O £ 1:2.5: 10 Newberyite, 20 Phosphorrosslerite; 25 Metaswitzerite, 25 Switzerite; 35 Bobierrite; 40 Arupite, 40 Baricite, 40 Vivianite, 40 Pakhomovskyite; 50 Cattiite, 55 Koninckite; 75 IMA2008-046, 75 Malhmoodite; 80 Santabarbaraite, 85 Metavivianite
    • 08.CF With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O > 1:1: 05 Tassieite, 05 Wicksite, 05 Bederite; 10 Haigerachite
    • 08.CG With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O = 1:1: 05 Collinsite, 05 Cassidyite, 05 Fairfieldite, 05 Messelite, 05 Hillite, (05 Uranophane-beta but Uranophane 09.AK.15); 20 Phosphogartrellite
    • 08.CH With large and medium-sized cations, RO4:H2O < 1:1: 10 Anapaite, 20 Dittmarite, 20 Niahite, 25 Francoanellite, 25 Taranakite, 30 Schertelite, 35 Hannayite, 40 Hazenite, 40 Struvite, 40 Struvite-(K), 45 Rimkorolgite, 50 Bakhchisaraitsevite, 55 IMA2008-048
    • 08.CJ With only large cations: 05 Stercorite, 10 Mundrabillaite, 10 Swaknoite, 15 Nastrophite, 15 Nabaphite, 45 Brockite, 45 Grayite, 45 Rhabdophane-(Ce), 45 Rhabdophane-(La), 45 Rhabdophane-(Nd), 45 Tristramite, 50 Brushite, 50 Churchite-(Dy)*, 50 Churchite-(Nd), 50 Churchite-(Y), 50 Ardealite, 60 Dorfmanite, 70 Catalanoite, 80 Ningyoite
  • 08.D Phosphates
    • 08.DA With small (and occasionally larger) cations: 05 Moraesite, 10 Footemineite, 10 Ruifrancoite, 10 Guimaraesite, 10 Roscherite, 10 Zanazziite, 10 Atencioite, 10 Greifensteinite; 15 Uralolite, 20 Weinebeneite, 25 Tiptopite, 30 Veszelyite, 35 Kipushite, 40 Spencerite, 45 Glucine
    • 08.DB With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1: 05 Diadochite, 10 Vashegyite, 15 Schoonerite, 20 Sinkankasite, 25 Mitryaevaite, 30 Sanjuanite, 50 Giniite, 55 Sasaite, 60 Mcauslanite, 65 Goldquarryite, 70 Birchite
    • 08.DC With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:1 and < 2:1: 05 Nissonite; 15 Kunatite, 15 Earlshannonite, 15 Whitmoreite; 17 Kleemanite, 20 Bermanite, 207? Oxiberaunite*, 22 Kovdorskite; 25 Ferrostrunzite, 25 Ferristrunzite, 25 Metavauxite, 25 Strunzite; 27 Beraunite; 30 Gordonite, 30 Laueite, 30 Sigloite, 30 Paravauxite, 30 Ushkovite, 30 Ferrolaueite, 30 Mangangordonite, 30 Pseudolaueite, 30 Stewartite, 30 Kastningite, 35 Vauxite, 37 Vantasselite, 40 Cacoxenite; 45 Gormanite, 45 Souzalite; 47 Kingite; 50 Wavellite, 50 Allanpringite, 52 Kribergite, 60 Nevadaite
    • 08.DD With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 15 Aheylite, 15 Chalcosiderite, 15 Faustite, 15 Planerite, 15 Turquoise; 20 Ernstite, 20 Childrenite, 20 Eosphorite
    • 08.DE With only medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 3:1: 05 Senegalite, 10 Fluellite, 20 Zapatalite, (35 Alumoakermanite, Mindat.org: 09.BB.10), 35 Aldermanite
    • 08.DF With only medium-sized cations, (OH,etc.):RO4 > 3:1: 05 Hotsonite-VII, 05 Hotsonite-VI; 10 Bolivarite, 10 Evansite, 10 Rosieresite, 25 Sieleckiite, 40 Gladiusite
    • 08.DG With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 0.5:1: 05 Sampleite
    • 08.DH With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 < 1:1: 05 Minyulite; 10 Leucophosphite, 10 Spheniscidite, 10 Tinsleyite; 15 Kaluginite*, 15 Keckite, 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnFe), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnMg), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMnMn), 15 Jahnsite-(MnMnMn)*, 15 Jahnsite-(CaFeFe), 15 Jahnsite-(NaFeMg), 15 Jahnsite-(CaMgMg), 15 Jahnsite-(NaMnMg), 15 Rittmannite, 15 Whiteite-(MnFeMg), 15 Whiteite-(CaFeMg), 15 Whiteite-(CaMnMg); 20 Manganosegelerite, 20 Overite, 20 Segelerite, 20 Wilhelmvierlingite, 20 Juonniite; 25 Calcioferrite, 25 Kingsmountite, 25 Montgomeryite, 25 Zodacite; 30 Lunokite, 30 Pararobertsite, 30 Robertsite, 30 Mitridatite; 35 Matveevite?, 35 Mantienneite, 35 Paulkerrite, 35 Benyacarite, 40 Xanthoxenite, 55 Englishite
    • 08.DJ With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 1:l: 05 Johnwalkite, 05 Olmsteadite, 10 Gatumbaite, 20 Meurigite-Na, 20 Meurigite-K, 20 Phosphofibrite, 25 Jungite, 30 Wycheproofite, 35 Ercitite, 40 Mrazekite
    • 08.DK With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 1:1 and < 2:1: 15 Matioliite, 15 IMA2008-056, 15 Dufrenite, 15 Burangaite, 15 Natrodufrenite; 20 Kidwellite, 25 Bleasdaleite, 30 Matulaite, 35 Krasnovite
    • 08.DL With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 = 2:1: 05 Foggite; 10 Cyrilovite, 10 Millisite, 10 Wardite; 15 Petersite-(Y), 15 Calciopetersite; 25 Angastonite
    • 08.DM With large and medium-sized cations, (OH, etc.):RO4 > 2:1: 05 Morinite, 15 Melkovite, 25 Gutsevichite?, 35 Delvauxite
    • 08.DN With only large cations: 05 Natrophosphate, 10 Isoclasite, 15 Lermontovite, 20 Vyacheslavite
    • 08.DO With CO3, SO4, SiO4: 05 Girvasite, 10 Voggite, 15 Peisleyite, 20 Perhamite, 25 Saryarkite-(Y), 30 Micheelsenite, 40 Parwanite, 45 Skorpionite
  • 08.E Uranyl Phosphates
    • 08.EA UO2:RO4 = 1:2: 05 Phosphowalpurgite, 10 Parsonsite, 15 Ulrichite, 20 Lakebogaite
    • 08.EB UO2:RO4 = 1:1: 05 Autunite, 05 Uranocircite, 05 Torbernite, 05 Xiangjiangite, 05 Saleeite; 10 Bassetite, 10 Meta-autunite, 10 Metauranocircite, 10 Metatorbernite, 10 Lehnerite, 10 Przhevalskite; 15 Chernikovite, 15 Meta-ankoleite, 15 Uramphite; 20 Threadgoldite, 25 Uranospathite, 30 Vochtenite, 35 Coconinoite, 40 Ranunculite, 45 Triangulite, 50 Furongite, 55 Sabugalite
    • 08.EC UO2:RO4 = 3:2: 05 Francoisite-(Ce), 05 Francoisite-(Nd), 05 Phuralumite, 05 Upalite; 10 Kivuite?, 10 Yingjiangite, 10 Renardite, 10 Dewindtite, 10 Phosphuranylite; 15 Dumontite; 20 Metavanmeersscheite, 20 Vanmeersscheite; 25 Althupite, 30 Mundite, 35 Phurcalite, 40 Bergenite
    • 08.ED Unclassified: 05 Moreauite, 10 Sreinite, 15 Kamitugaite
  • 08.F Polyphosphates
    • 08.FA Polyphosphates, without OH and H2O; dimers of corner-sharing RO4 tetrahedra: 20 Pyrocoproite*, 20 Pyrophosphite*
    • 08.FC Polyphosphates, with H2O only: 10 Canaphite, 20 Arnhemite*, 25 Wooldridgeite, 30 Kanonerovite
  • 08.X Unclassified Strunz Phosphates
    • 08.XX Unknown: 00 Sodium-autunite, 00 Pseudo-autunite*, 00 Cheralite-(Ce)?, 00 Laubmannite?, 00 Spodiosite?, 00 Sodium meta-autunite, 00 Kerstenite?, 00 Lewisite, 00 Coeruleolactite, 00 Viseite, 00 IMA2009-005

See also

References

  • Hurlbut, Cornelius S.; Klein, Cornelis, 1985, Manual of Mineralogy, 20th ed., John Wiley and Sons, New York ISBN 0-471-80580-7
  • Webmineral - Dana
  • - Australian Mineral Atlas

Template:Phosphate minerals Template:Strunz

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.