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Photorefractive keratectomy

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Title: Photorefractive keratectomy  
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Photorefractive keratectomy

Photorefractive keratectomy
Photorefractive keratectomy at U.S. Naval Medical Center San Diego.
ICD-9-CM 11

Photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) and laser-assisted sub-epithelial keratectomy (or laser epithelial keratomileusis[1]) (LASEK) are laser eye surgery procedures intended to correct a person's vision, reducing dependency on glasses or contact lenses. LASEK and PRK permanently change the shape of the anterior central cornea using an excimer laser to ablate (remove by vaporization) a small amount of tissue from the corneal stroma at the front of the eye, just under the corneal epithelium. The outer layer of the cornea is removed prior to the ablation. A computer system tracks the patient's eye position 60 to 4,000 times per second, depending on the brand of laser used, redirecting laser pulses for precise placement. Most modern lasers will automatically center on the patient's visual axis and will pause if the eye moves out of range and then resume ablating at that point after the patient's eye is re-centered.

The outer layer of the cornea, or epithelium, is a soft, rapidly regrowing layer in contact with the tear film that can completely replace itself from limbal stem cells within a few days with no loss of clarity. The deeper layers of the cornea, as opposed to the outer epithelium, are laid down early in life and have very limited regenerative capacity. The deeper layers, if reshaped by a laser or cut by a microtome, will remain that way permanently with only limited healing or remodelling. With PRK, the corneal epithelium is removed and discarded, allowing the cells to regenerate after the surgery. The procedure is distinct from LASIK (laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis), a form of laser eye surgery where a permanent flap is created in the deeper layers of the cornea.


  • Eligibility 1
  • Possible complications 2
    • Dry eyes 2.1
    • Halos, starbusts and refractive errors 2.2
  • Comparison to LASIK 3
  • Types 4
  • Pilots 5
  • U.S. Army Special Operations 6
  • History 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9


Up to 80% of the myopic population may physically qualify for PRK. There are a number of basic criteria which a person should satisfy:

  • Normal ocular health
  • Age 18 years or older
  • Stable refraction error (no noticeable change in the last year) correctable to 20/40 or better
  • Between −1.00 to −12.00 diopters of Myopia
  • Not pregnant at the time of surgery
  • Realistic expectations of the final results (with a complete understanding of the benefits, as well as the possible risks)
  • Pupil size 6 mm or less in a dark room is ideal (but some newer lasers may be acceptable for larger pupils)
  • Assessment of allergies, (e.g., pollen) where allergy may complicate the eyelid margins following surgery leading to dry eye.

There are also some pre-existing conditions that may complicate or preclude the treatment.

Possible complications

Some complications that can be temporary or permanent include:

  • Dry eyes[2]
  • Recurrent erosions during sleep
  • Long healing period
  • Pain[3]
  • Glare, halos, or starburst aberrations
  • Increased ocular straylight
  • Under- or over-correction
  • Recurrence of myopia
  • Corneal haze
  • Scarring
  • Reduced best corrected visual acuity
  • Reduced acuity in low light
  • Increased sensitivity

Dry eyes

As with other forms of refractive surgery, keratoconjunctivitis sicca, colloquially referred to as 'dry eye,' is the most common complication of PRK, and can be permanent. In more advanced cases, recurrent erosions occur during sleeping from adherence of the corneal epithelium to the upper eyelid with rapid eye movement. Adjuvant polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) with high Omega-3 content before and after surgery improves sicca, possibly due to their anti-inflammatory effects. Foods containing PUFAs include flax and fish oil.[4] Brush PRK to denude the epithelium, instead of alcohol based techniques, also result in quantitatively lower ocular dryness after surgery. The amount of corneal hazing after surgery is also decreased with brush technique.[5] The platelet activating factor LAU-0901 has shown effect in mitigating dry eye in mouse models.[6] Rabbit models have also shown improvement with topical nerve growth factor (NGF) in combination with docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).[7] Mitomycin C worsens post-surgical dry eye.[8]

PRK may be performed on one eye at a time to assess the results of the procedure and ensure adequate vision during the healing process. Activities requiring good binocular vision may have to be suspended between surgeries and during the sometimes extended healing periods.

Halos, starbusts and refractive errors

PRK can be associated with glare, halos, and starburst aberrations, which can occur with postoperative corneal haze during the healing process. Night halos are seen more often in revisions with small ablation zone size.[9] With more recent developments in laser technology, this is less common after 6 months though symptoms can persist beyond a year in some cases. A dilute concentration of the chemotherapeutic agent, Mitomycin-C, can be applied briefly at the completion of surgery to reduce risk of hazing, although with increased risk of sicca.[8]

Predictability of the resulting refractive correction after healing is not totally exact, particularly for those with more severe myopia. This can lead to under/over-correction of the refractive error. In the case of the over-correction, premature presbyopia is a possibility. Experienced surgeons employ a custom-profile algorithm to further enhance predictability in their results.

In 1 to 3% of cases, loss of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) can result, due to decentered ablative zones or other surgical complications. PRK results in improved BCVA about twice as often as it causes loss. Decentration is becoming less and less of a problem with more modern lasers using sophisticated eye centering and tracking methods.

Comparison to LASIK

A systematic review that compared PRK and LASIK concluded that LASIK has shorter recovery time and less pain.[10] The two techniques after a period of one year have similar results.[10]

When LASEK is compared to LASIK, LASIK has better outcomes with corneal haze while LASEK has a low rate of flap complications than LASIK.[11]


  • ASA (Advanced Surface Ablation) LASEK

Uses Amoils Brush and gas cooling to reduce the pain


Uses mitomycin in an attempt to reduce post-operative haze but is of dubious effectiveness.[12] Possible long-term side effects are unknown.[13]


Operation of an aircraft is a visually demanding activity performed in an environment that is not always user friendly. Currently, over 50% of the civilian pilot population uses some form of visual correction. Aviators considering PRK should know that clinical trials claiming success rates of 90% or higher are based on criteria of patients' post-operative refractive errors of 20/40 or better, not 20/20 or better, uncorrected visual acuity.

Some PRK patients have reported dissatisfaction with their vision under low ambient lighting (dusk/nighttime) conditions. Pilots who experience postoperative vision problems could be further compromised by the variations in lighting common to the aviation environment. In addition, exposure to intense UV radiation has been associated with late-onset corneal haze and recurrence of myopia.

The U.S. Federal Aviation Administration will consider applicants with PRK once they are fully healed and stabilized, provided there are no complications and all other visual standards are met. Pilots should be aware, however, that potential employers, such as commercial airlines and private companies, may have policies that consider refractive surgery a disqualifying condition. Also, civilians who wish to fly military aircraft should know that there are restrictions on those who have had corrective surgery. The Army now permits flight applicants who have undergone PRK or LASIK. Uncomplicated, successful corneal refractive surgery does not require a waiver and is noted as information only. [14]

The Navy and Marines will routinely grant a waiver for pilots or student naval aviators, as well as naval flight officers, UAS operators and aircrew, to fly after PRK and LASIK, assuming preoperative refractive standards are met, no complications in the healing process were encountered, asymptomatic with regard to significant haloes, glare or dry eye, off all medications, and passing their standard vision tests. In one study, 967 of 968 naval aviators having PRK returned to duty involving flying after the procedure. In fact, the U.S. Navy now offers free PRK and LASIK surgery at the National Naval Medical Center to Naval Academy Midshipmen who intend to pursue career paths requiring good uncorrected vision, including flight school and special operations training.

The U.S. Air Force approves the use of PRK and LASIK.[15] Since 2000 the USAF has conducted PRK for aviators at the Wilford Hall Medical Center. More airmen were allowed over the years and in 2004 the USAF approved Lasik for aviators, with limits on the type of aircraft they could fly. Then in 2007 those limits were lifted.[16] Most recently in 2011 the USAF expanded the program, making it easier for more airmen to qualify for the surgery. Current airmen (Active Duty and Air Reserve Components who are eligible) are authorized surgery at any DOD Refractive Surgery Center. Those airmen not eligible, are still able to get the surgery done at their own expense by a civilian surgeon, but must first be approved (Approval is based on the same USAF-RS program[17]). Others that do not fall into those categories (i.e. applicants who are seeking a pilot slot) can still elect to have the surgery done, but must follow the criteria in accordance with the USAF Waiver Guide.[18] Those applicants will be evaluated at the ACS during their Medical Flight Screening appointment to determine if they meet waiver criteria. Applicants are strongly encouraged to read the references contained within this article as information obtained from sources other than those listed could lead to disqualification for a pilot candidate.

In the majority of patients, PRK has proven to be a safe and effective procedure for the correction of myopia. PRK is still evolving with other countries currently using refined techniques and alternative procedures. Many of these procedures are under investigation in the U.S. Given that PRK is not reversible, a patient considering PRK is recommended to contact an eye-care practitioner for assistance in making an informed decision concerning the potential benefits and liabilities that may be specific to him or her.

U.S. Army Special Operations

In the U.S.A. candidates who have had PRK can get a blanket waiver for the Special Forces Qualification, Combat Diving Qualification and Military Free Fall courses. PRK and LASIK are both waived for Airborne, Air Assault and Ranger schools. However, those who have had LASIK must enroll in an observational study, if a slot is available, to undergo training in Special Forces qualification. LASIK is disqualifying/non-waiverable for several United States Army Special Operations Command (USASOC) schools (HALO, SCUBA, SERE) per Army Regulation 40-501.[19]


The first PRK procedure was performed in 1987 by Dr. Theo Seiler, then at the Free University Medical Center in Berlin, Germany.[20] The first procedure similar to LASEK was performed at Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary in 1996 by ophthalmologist, refractive surgeon, Dimitri Azar.[21] Dr. Massimo Camellin, an Italian surgeon, was the first to write a scientific publication about the new surgical technique in 1998, coining the term LASEK for laser epithelial keratomileusis.[22]


  1. ^ "Laser epithelial keratomileusis (LASEK)" Accessed June 30, 2008.
  2. ^ "Side Effects of Laser Eye Surgery". 2011-012-18. Retrieved 2011-12-19. 
  3. ^ Stein R, Stein H, Cheskes A, Symons S. Photorefractive keratectomy and postoperative pain. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 1994 March 15; 117(3):403-405.
  4. ^ Ong, NH; Purcell, TL; Roch-Levecq, AC; Wang, D; Isidro, MA; Bottos, KM; Heichel, CW; Schanzlin, DJ (2013). "Epithelial healing and visual outcomes of patients using omega-3 oral nutritional supplements before and after photorefractive keratectomy: A pilot study". Cornea 32 (6): 761–5.  
  5. ^ Sia, RK; Ryan, DS; Stutzman, RD; Psolka, M; Mines, MJ; Wagner, ME; Weber, ED; Wroblewski, KJ; Bower, KS (2012). "Alcohol versus brush PRK: Visual outcomes and adverse effects". Lasers in surgery and medicine 44 (6): 475–81.  
  6. ^ Esquenazi, S; He, J; Li, N; Bazan, NG; Esquenazi, I; Bazan, HE (2009). "A novel platelet activating factor receptor antagonist reduces cell infiltration and expression of inflammatory mediators in mice exposed to desiccating conditions after PRK". Clinical & developmental immunology 2009: 138513.  
  7. ^ Esquenazi, S; Bazan, HE; Bui, V; He, J; Kim, DB; Bazan, NG (2005). "Topical combination of NGF and DHA increases rabbit corneal nerve regeneration after photorefractive keratectomy". Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science 46 (9): 3121–7.  
  8. ^ a b Kymionis, GD; Tsiklis, NS; Ginis, H; Diakonis, VF; Pallikaris, I (2006). "Dry eye after photorefractive keratectomy with adjuvant mitomycin C". Journal of refractive surgery 22 (5): 511–3.  
  9. ^ Rajan, Madhavan S.; Jaycock, Philip; O'Brart, David; Nystrom, Helene Hamberg; Marshall, John (2004). "A long-term study of photorefractive keratectomy". Ophthalmology 111 (10): 1813–24.  
  10. ^ a b Shortt, AJ; Allan, BD; Evans, JR (31 January 2013). "Laser-assisted in-situ keratomileusis (LASIK) versus photorefractive keratectomy (PRK) for myopia.". The Cochrane database of systematic reviews 1: CD005135.  
  11. ^ Zhao, LQ; Zhu, H; Li, LM (2014). "Laser-Assisted Subepithelial Keratectomy versus Laser In Situ Keratomileusis in Myopia: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.". ISRN ophthalmology 2014: 672146.  
  12. ^ De Benito-Llopis, L; Teus, MA; Sánchez-Pina, JM (2008). "Comparison between LASEK with mitomycin C and LASIK for the correction of myopia of -7.00 to -13.75 D". Journal of refractive surgery 24 (5): 516–23.  
  13. ^
  14. ^ "CORNEAL REFRACTIVE SURGERY (ICD9 V802A/V802B)" (PDF). January 2006. Retrieved August 16, 2013. 
  15. ^ Tan, Michelle (February 28, 2011). "Eye surgery opens pilot training to wider pool".  
  16. ^ "Flying jobs now open to LASIK patients".  
  17. ^ "US Air Force Refractive Surgery Program Site" Accessed Aug 9, 2011 Archived July 27, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  18. ^ "USAF Waiver Guide" Accessed Aug 9, 2011
  19. ^ "Standards of Medical Fitness" (PDF). United States Army Medical Services. United States Department of the Army. 4 August 2011. Retrieved 15 August 2012. 
  20. ^ "PRK – Photorefractive Keratectomy" Accessed March 17, 2010 Archived February 23, 2011 at the Wayback Machine
  21. ^ Taneri, Suphi; Zieske, James D.; Azar, Dimitri T. (2004). "Evolution, techniques, clinical outcomes, and pathophysiology of LASEK: Review of the literature". Survey of Ophthalmology 49 (6): 576–602.  
  22. ^ Camellin M. LASEK: nuova tecnica di chirurgia rifrattiva mediante laser ad eccimeri. Viscochirurgia 1998;39-43

External links

  • PRK surgery (with corneal scar) video in St. Lukes International Eye Institute - Quezon City, Philippines
  • LASIK, Epi-LASIK & LASEK: Eye Digest Reviews
  • DA Medical Waiver Memorandum
  • What is PRK?
  • Medical Comparison PRK vs LASIK
  • A resource page for transepithelial PRK
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