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Post-9/11

The post-9/11 period is the time after the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks, characterized by heightened suspicion of non-Americans in the United States, increased government efforts to address terrorism, and a more aggressive American foreign policy.

Contents

  • Political consequences 1
    • Department of Homeland Security 1.1
  • Societal consequences 2
    • Suspicion 2.1
    • Discriminatory backlash 2.2
    • Safety concerns 2.3
    • Censorship 2.4
  • See also 3
  • References 4

Political consequences

The attacks led to significant and widespread changes in U.S. politics and foreign policy. Domestically, both parties rallied around President PATRIOT Act and supporting the War in Afghanistan.

There has been a rise in prosecutions under new or strengthened anti-terrorism legislation. Much of this legislation has been funded by western countries. Since 9/11 and as of 2011, there have been 119,044 anti-terror arrests and 35,117 convictions in 66 countries. By contrast, before 9/11 there were only a few hundred terrorism convictions each year.[2]

In recent years, the war in Afghanistan, once viewed largely as a "just war", has lost popularity. As of 2011, more than 60% of Americans oppose the war.[3]

Department of Homeland Security

The United States government created the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) in response to the September 11 attacks. DHS is a cabinet-level department of the federal government of the United States charged with protecting the territory of the United States from terrorist attacks and responding to natural disasters.

With approximately 184,000 employees, DHS is the third-largest cabinet department in the U.S. federal government, after the Department of Defense and the Department of Veterans Affairs. Homeland security policy is coordinated at the White House by the Homeland Security Council. Other agencies with significant homeland security responsibilities include the Department of Health and Human Services, the Department of Justice, and the Department of Energy.

Societal consequences

Suspicion

In the U.S., many activities of foreigners or American citizens, which, prior to 9/11, would be viewed innocently (or as just eccentric), are now viewed with suspicion, especially in regards to the behavior of anyone who looks "Arab" in terms of clothing or skin color.[4] Six Muslim imams were removed from a U.S. airliner when they prayed before the flight and showed "suspicious behavior".[5] Various government agencies and police forces in the U.S. have asked people to watch people around them and report "unusual" behavior, and signs posted in all public places request citizens to report anything out of the ordinary. The United States Department of Homeland Security has advised citizens to "be vigilant, take notice of your surroundings, and report suspicious items or activities to local authorities immediately."[6]

Discriminatory backlash

Since the September 11 attacks, Arab, Muslim, Sikh, and South-Asian Americans – as well as those perceived to be members of these groups – have been victims of threats, vandalism and arson in the United States.[7]

Safety concerns

Some Americans are afraid of traveling by plane and therefore they are instead traveled by car. This resulted in an estimated 1,595 additional highway deaths in the ensuing year.[8]

Censorship

Films and television programs produced before 2001 that feature the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center or events similar to 9/11 have been edited in re-airings on television. One such example is an episode of The Simpsons, "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson," the main setting of which is the World Trade Center.[9][10]

After 9/11, Clear Channel Communications (an owner of over 1,000 radio stations in the U.S.) released a list of songs deemed "inappropriate". The songs were not banned outright, but stations were advised not to play them.[11]

The New York-based band Dream Theater released a live album titled "Live Scenes from New York" on September 11, 2001. The cover art depicted the Manhattan skyline, including the World Trade Center towers in flames. It was immediately recalled, and the artwork altered.

Another New York-based band, The Strokes, originally had "New York City Cops" as the ninth track on their 2001 breakthrough debut album Is This It. The album, initially released in June of that year in Australia, was released stateside on October 9, with "New York City Cops" removed and replaced with the newer "When It Started" as a result of the September 11 attacks.

In an act of self-censorship, American rock band Jimmy Eat World changed the title of their third album, Bleed American, to a self-titled album, after the September 11 attacks.

British band Bush were forced to change the name of their single 'Speed Kills' to The People That We Love. They also changed the original artwork for their album Golden State before it was released which originally depicted a picture of a plane in mid-air.

The music video for a song called 'Piece By Piece' by British band Feeder was also changed. The original video depicted animated characters of the band playing in a New York skyscraper with the world trade center in the background and planes flying near by. The band later jump from the window of the building.[12]

See also

References

  1. ^ President Bush Outlines Iraqi Threat, Cincinnati, Ohio, October 7, 2002
  2. ^ "AP IMPACT: 35,000 worldwide convicted for terror". Yahoo News. 4 September 2011. 
  3. ^ "CNN Poll: U.S. opposition to Afghanistan war remains high". CNN. 
  4. ^ "Poll: Suspicion of Arabs, Arab-Americans deepen". USA Today. September 16, 2001. 
  5. ^ Muslims pulled from flight may sue passengers – News – MSNBC.com
  6. ^ DHS | Report Incidents
  7. ^ Civil Rights Division National Origin Working Group Initiative to Combat Post-Terrorism Discrimination
  8. ^ Gardner, Daniel (2008). The Science of Fear: Why We Fear the Things We Shouldn't—and Put Ourselves in Greater Danger. Dutton Adult. p. 3.  
  9. ^ Oakley, Bill (2006). The Simpsons season 9 DVD commentary for the episode "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 
  10. ^ Weinstein, Josh (2006). The Simpsons season 9 DVD commentary for the episode "The City of New York vs. Homer Simpson" (DVD). 20th Century Fox. 
  11. ^ http://www.snopes.com/rumors/radio.htm Urban Legends Reference Pages: Radio, Radio. Published September 18, 2001. Accessed February 10, 2008.
  12. ^ "Feeder FAQ". 
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