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Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

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Title: Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A  
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Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1
Identifiers
Symbols  ; ASBABP2; DIPLA1; IGFBP-4ase; PAPA; PAPP-A; PAPPA1
External IDs GeneCards:
EC number
RNA expression pattern
Orthologs
Species Human Mouse
Entrez
Ensembl
UniProt
RefSeq (mRNA)
RefSeq (protein)
Location (UCSC)
PubMed search

Pappalysin-1 also known as pregnancy-associated plasma protein A is a protein that in humans is encoded by the PAPPA gene. Pappalysin-1 is used in screening tests for Down syndrome.[1][2]

Contents

  • Function 1
  • Interactions 2
  • References 3
  • Further reading 4
  • External links 5

Function

This gene encodes a secreted metalloproteinase which cleaves insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBPs). It is thought to be involved in local proliferative processes such as wound healing and bone remodeling. Low plasma level of this protein has been suggested as a biochemical marker for pregnancies with aneuploid fetuses (fetuses with an abnormal number of chromosomes).[2] For example, low PAPPA may be seen in prenatal screening for Down syndrome.[1] Low levels may alternatively predict issues with the placenta, resulting in adverse complications such as intrauterine growth restriction, preeclampsia, placental abruption, premature birth, or fetal death.

Interactions

Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A has been shown to interact with Major basic protein.[3][4][5]

References

  1. ^ a b Breathnach FM, Malone FD (2007). "Screening for  
  2. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: PAPPA pregnancy-associated plasma protein A, pappalysin 1". 
  3. ^ Overgaard MT, Haaning J, Boldt HB, Olsen IM, Laursen LS, Christiansen M, Gleich GJ, Sottrup-Jensen L, Conover CA, Oxvig C (October 2000). "Expression of recombinant human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and identification of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein as its physiological inhibitor". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (40): 31128–33.  
  4. ^ Overgaard MT, Sorensen ES, Stachowiak D, Boldt HB, Kristensen L, Sottrup-Jensen L, Oxvig C (January 2003). "Complex of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the proform of eosinophil major basic protein. Disulfide structure and carbohydrate attachment". J. Biol. Chem. 278 (4): 2106–17.  
  5. ^ Oxvig C, Sand O, Kristensen T, Gleich GJ, Sottrup-Jensen L (June 1993). "Circulating human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is disulfide-bridged to the proform of eosinophil major basic protein". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (17): 12243–6.  


Further reading

  • Sinosich MJ, Zakher A (1992). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A interaction with heparin: a critical appraisal.". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 32 (2): 72–7.  
  • Bischof P, Tseng L (1986). "In vitro release of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A) by human endometrial cells.". American journal of reproductive immunology and microbiology : AJRIM 10 (4): 139–42.  
  • Bolton AE, Pinto-Furtado LG, Andrew CE, Chapman MG (1986). "Measurement of the pregnancy-associated proteins, placental protein 14 and pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in human seminal plasma.". Clinical reproduction and fertility 4 (3): 233–40.  
  • Sinosich MJ, Saunders DM (1987). "Potential role of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A in human reproduction.". J. Reprod. Immunol. 10 (1): 55–65.  
  • Tornehave D, Chemnitz J, Teisner B, et al. (1985). "Immunohistochemical demonstration of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) in the syncytiotrophoblast of the normal placenta at different gestational ages.". Placenta 5 (5): 427–31.  
  • McIntyre JA, Hsi B, Faulk WP, et al. (1982). "Immunological studies of the human placenta: functional and morphological analysis of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A).". Immunology 44 (3): 577–83.  
  • Bischof P, Geinoz A, Herrmann WL, Sizonenko PC (1984). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPP-A) specifically inhibits the third component of human complement (C3).". Placenta 5 (1): 1–7.  
  • Schindler AM, Bischof P (1984). "Histochemical localization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein A in fetal, infant, and adult organs and comparison between antisera.". Gynecol. Obstet. Invest. 18 (2): 88–94.  
  • Kristensen T, Oxvig C, Sand O, et al. (1994). "Amino acid sequence of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A derived from cloned cDNA.". Biochemistry 33 (6): 1592–8.  
  • Durham SK, Kiefer MC, Riggs BL, Conover CA (1994). "Regulation of insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 by a specific insulin-like growth factor binding protein 4 proteinase in normal human osteoblast-like cells: implications in bone cell physiology.". J. Bone Miner. Res. 9 (1): 111–7.  
  • Bonno M, Oxvig C, Kephart GM, et al. (1994). "Localization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and colocalization of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A messenger ribonucleic acid and eosinophil granule major basic protein messenger ribonucleic acid in placenta.". Lab. Invest. 71 (4): 560–6.  
  • Oxvig C, Haaning J, Kristensen L, et al. (1995). "Identification of angiotensinogen and complement C3dg as novel proteins binding the proform of eosinophil major basic protein in human pregnancy serum and plasma.". J. Biol. Chem. 270 (23): 13645–51.  
  • Zorin NA, Zhabin SG, Semenkov NN (1995). "Interaction of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A with serine proteinases.". Clin. Chim. Acta 239 (1): 47–55.  
  • Silahtaroglu AN, Tümer Z, Kristensen T, et al. (1993). "Assignment of the human gene for pregnancy-associated plasma protein A (PAPPA) to 9q33.1 by fluorescence in situ hybridization to mitotic and meiotic chromosomes.". Cytogenet. Cell Genet. 62 (4): 214–6.  
  • Oxvig C, Sand O, Kristensen T, et al. (1993). "Circulating human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A is disulfide-bridged to the proform of eosinophil major basic protein.". J. Biol. Chem. 268 (17): 12243–6.  
  • Haaning J, Oxvig C, Overgaard MT, et al. (1996). "Complete cDNA sequence of the preproform of human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A. Evidence for expression in the brain and induction by cAMP.". Eur. J. Biochem. 237 (1): 159–63.  
  • Lawrence JB, Oxvig C, Overgaard MT, et al. (1999). "The insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-dependent IGF binding protein-4 protease secreted by human fibroblasts is pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 96 (6): 3149–53.  
  • Overgaard MT, Oxvig C, Christiansen M, et al. (1999). "Messenger ribonucleic acid levels of pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and the proform of eosinophil major basic protein: expression in human reproductive and nonreproductive tissues.". Biol. Reprod. 61 (4): 1083–9.  
  • Overgaard MT, Haaning J, Boldt HB, et al. (2000). "Expression of recombinant human pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A and identification of the proform of eosinophil major basic protein as its physiological inhibitor.". J. Biol. Chem. 275 (40): 31128–33.  
  • Hourvitz A, Widger AE, Filho FL, et al. (2001). "Pregnancy-associated plasma protein-A gene expression in human ovaries is restricted to healthy follicles and corpora lutea.". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 85 (12): 4916–20.  

External links

  • The MEROPS online database for peptidases and their inhibitors: M43.004


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