World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

President of the People's Republic of China

Article Id: WHEBN0047747524
Reproduction Date:

Title: President of the People's Republic of China  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Soong Ching-ling, Politics of China, China, Jiang Zemin, Xi Jinping
Collection: 1954 Establishments in China, 1975 Disestablishments, 1982 Establishments in China, China Politics-Related Lists, Figurehead, Presidents of the People's Republic of China
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

President of the People's Republic of China

President of the
People's Republic of China
中华人民共和国主席
Incumbent
Xi Jinping

since 14 March 2013
Style Mr. President (主席)
Residence Zhongnanhai (informal)
Seat Beijing
Nominator the Presidium of the National People's Congress
Appointer the National People's Congress
Term length Five Years, renewable
once consecutively
Inaugural holder Mao Zedong
as the first Provisional Chairman
in 1912

Li Xiannian
as the first President under
the 1982 Constitution
Formation 1 October 1949
18 June 1983
Website Presidency
President of the People's Republic of China
Simplified Chinese 中华人民共和国主席
Traditional Chinese 中華人民共和國主席
Literal meaning Chinese People Republic Chairperson
Alternative Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 国家主席
Traditional Chinese 國家主席
Literal meaning State Chairperson

The President of the People's Republic of China (PRC) is the head of state of the People's Republic of China (PRC). On paper, the presidency is a largely ceremonial office with limited powers. However, in recent years the General Secretary of the Communist Party has also served simultaneously as President, and his election to the post marks his ascension as paramount leader of the country.[1] The office is classified as an institution of the state rather than an administrative post.[2]

The office was first established in the PRC Constitution of 1954 and successively held by Mao Zedong and Liu Shaoqi. Liu fell into political disgrace during the Cultural Revolution and the office was abolished. The office was officially scrapped under the Constitution of 1975, then reinstated in the Constitution of 1982, but with reduced powers. The official English-language translation of the title was "Chairman"; after 1982, this translation was changed to "President", although the Chinese title remains unchanged.[2]

Under the present Chinese constitution, the Presidency is a prestigious but largely ceremonial position holding few powers in its own right, most significantly the right to nominate the Premier. Most of the few powers the President does possess are subject to the approval of the National People's Congress, by whom the President is elected by for up to two terms of five years each.[3]

However, since the presidency of Jiang Zemin, every President has also simultaneously held the positions of CPC General Secretary and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, which, unlike the Presidency, wield significant power. As a result of this convention, the President, the de jure head of state, also controls the Chinese Communist Party, state and military, therefore being China's de facto "paramount leader". That is to say, present-day paramount leaders hold the office of President, but the President is not necessarily the paramount leader, as was the case between 1959 and 1993.

The current President is Xi Jinping, who took office on 14 March 2013.

Contents

  • Qualifications and election 1
  • Powers and duties 2
  • Figurehead 3
  • Political ranking 4
  • History 5
  • List of presidents 6
  • President's Spouse 7
  • Living former presidents 8
  • See also 9
  • Notes 10
  • References 11
  • External links 12

Qualifications and election

This article is part of a series on the
politics and government of
China

According to the current Constitution of the People's Republic of China, the President must be a Chinese citizen with full electoral rights who has reached the age of 45. The President's term of office is the same as the term of the National People's Congress (currently five years), and the president and vice-president are both limited to two consecutive terms.[4]

The President is elected by the National People's Congress (NPC), China's highest state body, which also has the power to remove the President and other state officers from office. Elections and removals are decided by a simple majority vote.[5]

According to the Organic Law of the NPC, the President is nominated by the NPC

  • The President's Official Website (English)

External links

  1. ^ Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
  2. ^ It is listed as such in the current Constitution; it is thus equivalent to organs such as the State Council, rather than to offices such as that of the Premier.
  3. ^ Krishna Kanta Handique State Open University, EXECUTIVE: THE PRESIDENT OF THE CHINESE REPUBLIC.
  4. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Section 2, Article 79.
  5. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Articles 62, 63.
  6. ^ Article 13 "Organic Law of the National People's Congress of the PRC" . Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  7. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 84.
  8. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 62, Section 5. The NPC does no itself have the power to nominate the Premier.
  9. ^ Yew, Chiew Ping; Gang Chen (2010-03-13). China's National People's Congress 2010: Addressing Challenges With No Breakthrough in Legislative Assertiveness (PDF). Background Brief. Singapore: East Asian Institute. Retrieved 2013-07-03. 
  10. ^ Weng, Byron (1982-09-01). "Some Key Aspects of the 1982 Draft Constitution of the People's Republic of China". The China Quarterly (91): 492–506. Retrieved 2013-01-26. 
  11. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 81.
  12. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 82.
  13. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, 1954, Articles 40–42.
  14. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 43.
  15. ^ Constitution of the People's Republic of China, Article 44.
  16. ^ Summary of the Decisions of the 33rd Meeting of the NPC Standing Committee
  17. ^ Cohen, Jerome Alan (1978-12-01). "China's Changing Constitution". The China Quarterly (76): 794–841.  

References

  1. ^ The office of the President is a prestigious one. The President is the Head of the State. The Constitution of 1982 restores powers and functions of the President for the first time after the office was abolished during the Cultural Revolution. The President is a largely ceremonial position.[1]
  2. ^ In Chinese the President of the PRC is termed zhǔxí while the Presidents of other countries are termed zǒngtǒng. Furthermore zhǔxí continues to have the meaning of "chairman" in a generic context.

Notes

See also

President Term of office Date of birth
Jiang Zemin 1993–2003 (1926-08-17) 17 August 1926
Hu Jintao 2003–2013 (1942-12-21) 21 December 1942

As of June 2016, there are two living former presidents:

Living former presidents

Spouse President Tenure
1 Jiang Qing Mao Zedong 1 October 1949 – 27 April 1959
2 Wang Guangmei Liu Shaoqi 27 April 1959 – 31 October 1968
3 Lin Jiamei Li Xiannian 18 June 1983 – 8 April 1988
4 Li Bozhao Yang Shangkun 8 April 1988 – 27 March 1993
5 Wang Yeping Jiang Zemin 27 March 1993 – 15 March 2003
6 Liu Yongqing Hu Jintao 15 March 2003 – 14 March 2013
7 Peng Liyuan Xi Jinping 14 March 2013 – Incumbent

Since the first president, seven had a spouse during term of office.

President's Spouse

Other Heads of State
Chairmen/Presidents

List of presidents

In the 1990s, the experiment of separating party and state posts, which led to conflict during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, was terminated. In 1993, the post of President was taken by Jiang Zemin, who as General Secretary of the Communist Party and Chairman of the Central Military Commission, became the undisputed top leader of the party and the state. When Jiang Zemin stepped down in 2003, the offices of General Secretary and President were once again both given to one man, then Vice-President Hu Jintao, the first Vice President to assume the office. In turn, Hu vacated both offices for Xi Jinping in 2012 and 2013.

In this Constitution, the President was conceived of as a figurehead of state with actual state power resting in the hands of the General Secretary of the Communist Party and the Premier, and all three posts were designed to be held by separate people. The President therefore held minor responsibilities such as greeting foreign dignitaries and signing the appointment of embassy staff, and did not intervene in the affairs of the State Council or the Party. In the original 1982 Constitution plan, the Party would develop policy, the state would execute it, and the power would be divided to prevent a cult of personality from forming as it did with the case of Mao Zedong. Thus in 1982, China perceivably had four main leaders: Hu Yaobang, the Party General Secretary; Zhao Ziyang, the Premier; Li Xiannian, the President; and Deng Xiaoping, the "Paramount Leader", holding title of the CMC Chairman and was overall commander-in-chief of the armed forces. The current political structure of Vietnam is similar to the structure China followed in the 1980s.

When the 4th NPC was convened in 1975, its main act was to adopt a new Constitution which eliminated the office of State Chairman and emphasized instead the leadership of the Communist Party over the state, including an article that made the Party Chairman Supreme Commander of the country's armed forces.[17] The 5th NPC was convened two years early, in 1978, and a third Constitution was adopted, which also lacked the office of State Chairman. A draft of a fourth Constitution was published in 1982, which was adopted without significant amendment at the 6th NPC in 1983, and as a result, the office of State Chairman of the PRC became that of President of the PRC as per the official English translation.

As Chairman of the Communist Party of China, Mao Zedong was elected State Chairman at the founding session of the National People's Congress. At the 2nd NPC in 1959, Mao was succeeded by Liu Shaoqi, first Vice Chairman of the Communist Party, in the position. Liu was reelected as State Chairman at the 3rd NPC in Jan 1965. However, in 1966, Mao launched the Cultural Revolution and by August 1966 Mao and his supporters succeeding in removing Liu from his position as party Vice Chairman. A few months later Liu was apparently placed under house arrest, and after a prolonged power struggle, on October 31, 1968, the 12th Plenum of the 8th Communist Party Congress stripped Liu Shaoqi of all his party and non-party position, including that of State Chairman. This was in violation of the Constitution, which required a vote by the NPC to remove the State Chairman. In fact, during the Cultural Revolution the NPC itself ceased to operate; the last meeting of its Standing Committee was on July 7, 1966, when it voted to postpone its next session.[16] The NPC and its Standing Committee did not meet again until 1975, and during that period the office of State Chairman was vacant.

The Supreme State Conference was also unique to the 1954 Constitution. It was abolished under the 1975 Constitution and later Constitutions have not included a similar body. [15] The State Chairman's governmental powers were defined in the 1954 Constitution as follows: "The Chairman of the People's Republic of China, whenever necessary, convenes a Supreme State Conference (

The powers of the 1954 office differed from those of the current office in two areas: military and governmental. The State Chairman's military powers were defined in the 1954 Constitution as follows: "The Chairman of the People's Republic of China commands the armed forces of the state, and is Chairman of the National Defence Council (Chinese: 国防委员会)."[14] The National Defence Council was unique to the 1954 Constitution, and was mandated as the civil command for the People's Liberation Army. It was abolished under the 1975 Constitution.

The office of State Chairman (the original English translation, as noted above) was first established under China's 1954 Constitution. The ceremonial powers of the office were largely identical to those in the current Constitution.[13]

History

For President Liu Shaoqi, he was also the first Vice Chairman of the Communist Party of China, ranked second in the Communist Party of China, behind Chairman Mao Zedong. For President Li Xiannian, he was also the 5th ranked member of the Politburo Standing Committee, after CPC General Secretary and Premier. For President Yang Shangkun, he was not a member of Politburo Standing Committee, but he ranked third after General Secretary Zhao Ziyang and Deng Xiaoping. Since Jiang Zemin, the President is also the General Secretary of the Communist Party of China, ranking first in Party and State.

Political ranking

The President has similar duties in foreign affairs, including appointment and recall of representatives abroad, and ratification and abrogation of treaties and agreements concluded with foreign states. The President exercises these powers in accordance with the decisions of the Standing Committee of the NPC, so that these are also formal powers only.[12]

In addition to nominating the Premier, the President also has the power to promulgate statutes, confer state medals and titles, issue pardons, proclaim war, and issue mobilization orders. However, since the President exercises these powers in accordance with the decisions of the NPC or its Standing Committee, and is not empowered to reject any of these measures, these are formal powers only.[11]

Once the NPC has approved the Premier, the President then issues his official appointment. As head of government, the Premier has the power to appoint the entire State Council of the People's Republic of China, subject to NPC approval. The President then issues the appointments for the Vice-Premiers, State Council members and Ministers for all departments.

Figurehead

In theory, the President has discretion over the selection of the Premier, though in practice the Premier has historically been selected through the top-level discussions of the Communist Party of China. Upon the nomination of the Premier, the NPC convenes to confirm the nomination, but since only one name is on the ballot, it can only approve or reject. To date, it has never rejected a personnel nomination.[9] Since the Premier, the head of government in China, is the most important political appointment in the Chinese government, the nomination power, under some circumstances, may give the President real political influence.[10]

Under the current Constitution of the People's Republic of China, instated in 1982 with minor revisions in later years, the President has the power to promulgate laws, select and dismiss the Premier of the State Council as well as the ministers of the State Council, grant presidential pardons, declares a state of emergency, issue mass mobilization orders, and issue state honours. In addition, the President names and dismisses ambassadors to foreign countries, signs and annuls treaties with foreign entities. According to the Constitution, all of these powers require the approval or confirmation of the National People's Congress. The President also conducts state visits on behalf of the People's Republic. Under the constitution the "state visit" clause is the only presidential power that does not stipulate any form of oversight from the National People's Congress. As the vast majority of presidential powers are dependent on the ratification of the NPC, the President is, in essence, a symbolic post without any direct say in the governance of state. It is therefore conceived to mainly function as an symbolic institution of the state rather than an office with true executive powers.[8]

Powers and duties

In the event that the office of President falls vacant, the Vice-President succeeds to the office. In the event that both offices fall vacant, the Chairman of the NPC Standing Committee temporarily acts as President until the NPC can elect a new President and Vice-President.[7]

. Like all officers of state elected by the NPC, the President is elected from a one name ballot. General Secretary reserves the post of President for its current Communist Party of China In practice, however, the ruling [6]

This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.