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Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge

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Title: Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge  
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Subject: Descent of Elizabeth II from William the Conqueror, Prince Frederick, Duke of York and Albany, Mary of Teck, William IV of the United Kingdom, Duke of Cambridge
Collection: 1774 Births, 1850 Deaths, British Army Commanders of the Napoleonic Wars, British Army Personnel of the French Revolutionary Wars, British Field Marshals, Burials at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle, Chancellors of the University of St Andrews, Dukes of Cambridge, Hanoverian Princes, House of Hanover, King's German Legion, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of St Michael and St George, Knights Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath, Knights Grand Cross of the Royal Guelphic Order, Knights of the Garter, People from Westminster, Princes of Great Britain, Princes of the United Kingdom
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Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge

Prince Adolphus
Duke of Cambridge
Successor Prince George
Born (1774-02-24)24 February 1774
Buckingham House, London
Died 8 July 1850(1850-07-08) (aged 76)
Cambridge House, Piccadilly
Burial 10 January 1930
Windsor
Spouse Princess Augusta of Hesse-Cassel
Issue George, Duke of Cambridge
Augusta, Grand Duchess of Mecklenburg
Mary Adelaide, Duchess of Teck
Full name
Adolphus Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father George III
Mother Charlotte of Mecklenburg-Strelitz
Occupation Military

The Prince Adolphus, 1st Duke of Cambridge William IV. He was the great-great-grandfather of the current monarch, Elizabeth II.

Contents

  • Early life 1
  • Military career 2
  • Marriage 3
  • Viceroy 4
  • Later life 5
  • Titles, styles, honours and arms 6
    • Titles and styles 6.1
    • Honours 6.2
    • Arms 6.3
  • Issue 7
  • Ancestors 8
  • See also 9
  • External links 10
  • References 11

Early life

Prince Adolphus was born in February 1774 at Buckingham House, then known as the "Queen's House",[1] in the City and Liberty of Westminster, now within Greater London. He was the youngest son of George and Charlotte to survive childhood.

On 24 March 1774, the young prince was christened in the Great Council Chamber at Earl of Jersey, Extra Lord of the Bedchamber, stood proxy) and Princess Wilhelmina of Orange (the wife of his first cousin once-removed, for whom Elizabeth Howard, Dowager Countess of Effingham, former Lady of the Bedchamber to Queen Charlotte, stood proxy).[2]

He was tutored at home until summer 1786, when he was sent to the University of Göttingen in Germany, along with his brothers Prince Ernest (created Duke of Cumberland in 1799) and Prince Augustus (created Duke of Sussex in 1801).[1]

Prince Adolphus aged four, with his two younger sisters Mary and Sophia in 1778

Military career

He was made honorary Colonel-in-Chief of the Hanoverian Guard Foot Regiment 1789–1803, but his military training began in 1791, when he and Prince Ernest went to Hanover to study under the supervision of the Hanoverian commander Field Marshal Wilhelm von Freytag. He remained on Freytag's staff during the Flanders Campaign in 1793. His first taste of action was at Famars on 23 May. He was wounded and captured at the Battle of Hondschoote 6 September, but was quickly rescued. As a Hanovarian General-Major, he commanded a Hessian brigade under his paternal great-uncle, General Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn in Autumn 1794, then commanded the Hanovarian Guards during the retreat through Holland. Remaining in Germany, he commanded a brigade of the Corps of Observation, 22 October 1796 – 12 January 1798. He was made a British army colonel in 1794, and lieutenant general 24 August 1798. In 1800 – stationed in the Electorate of Hanover – he attended the founding of a village (part of the settlement of the moorlands north of Bremen), which was named for him: Adolphsdorf (since 1974 a component locality of Grasberg).[3]

During the of the War of the Second Coalition against France (1799–1802), he traveled to Berlin in 1801, in order to prevent the impending Prussian occupation of the Electorate.[1] France demanded it, as it was stipulated in the Peace of Basel (1795), obliging Prussia to ensure the Holy Roman Empire's neutrality in all the latter's territories north of the demarcation line at the river Main, including Hanover. Regular Hanoverian troops, therefore, had been commandeered to join the multilateral so-called "Demarcation Army." His efforts were in vain.[1] In 1803, he was senior army commander, and replaced Wallmoden as commander on the Weser on 1 June. With the advance of French forces on one side and 24,000 Prussian soldiers on the other, the situation was hopeless. Cambridge refused to become involved in discussions of capitulation, handed over his command to Hammerstein (Ompteda claims he was forced to resign [4]), and withdrew to England. A plan to recruit additional soldiers in Hanover to be commanded by the Prince had also failed.

In 1803, he was appointed as commander-in-chief of the newly founded Knight of the Garter on 6 June 1786, and created him Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, and Baron Culloden on 17 November 1801.[1]

The Duke served as colonel-in-chief of the Coldstream Regiment of Foot Guards (Coldstream Guards after 1855) from September 1805, and as colonel-in-chief of the 60th (The Duke of York's Own Rifle Corps) Regiment of Foot from January 1824. After the collapse of Napoleon's empire, he was Military Governor of Hanover from 4 November 1813 – 24 October 1816, then Governor General of Hanover from 24 October 1816 – 20 June 1837 (viceroy from 22 February 1831). He was made Field Marshal 26 November 1813. While he was Viceroy, the Duke became patron of the Cambridge-Dragoner ("Cambridge Dragoons") Regiment of the Hanoverian army. This regiment was stationed in Celle, and their barracks, the Cambridge-Dragoner Kaserne, were used by the Bundeswehr until 1995. The "March of the Hannoversches Cambridge-Dragoner-Regiment" is part of the Bundeswehr's traditional music repertoire.

Marriage

After the death of Adelaide of Saxe-Meiningen. The way was cleared for the Duke of Cambridge to find a bride for himself.

The Duke of Cambridge was married first at Kassel, Hesse on 7 May and then at Buckingham Palace on 1 June 1818 to his second cousin Augusta (25 July 1797 – 6 April 1889), the third daughter of Prince Frederick of Hesse.

He was, as is shown in the list of issue below, the maternal grandfather of Elizabeth II.

Viceroy

From 1816 to 1837, the Duke of Cambridge served as William IV.[1] When his niece, Queen Victoria succeeded to the British throne on 20 June 1837, the 123-year union of the crowns of Great Britain (the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 1801) and Hanover ended, due to Hanover being under Salic Law.[1] The Duke of Cumberland became King Ernest Augustus I of Hanover and the Duke of Cambridge returned to Britain.[1]

Later life

The Duke of Cambridge died on 8 July 1850 at Titles, styles, honours and arms

Coat of Arms of Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge, used from 1801 until his death.

Titles and styles

  • 24 February 1774 – 17 November 1801: His Royal Highness The Prince Adolphus
  • 17 November 1801 – 8 July 1850: His Royal Highness The Duke of Cambridge

His full style at death was Field Marshal His Royal Highness The Prince Adolphus Frederick, Duke of Cambridge, Earl of Tipperary, Baron Culloden, Knight of the Royal Guelphic Order

Honours

British Honours

Overseas Honours

Arms

The Duke's arms were the Royal Arms of the House of Hanover, with a three point label of difference. The first and third points containing two hearts, and the centre point bearing a red cross. His arms were adopted by his youngest daughter, Princess Mary Adelaide, and her heirs included them in their arms quartered with the arms of the Duke of Teck.

Issue

The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge had three children:

Name Birth Death Notes
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge 26 March 1819 17 March 1904 married 1847, Sarah Louisa Fairbrother; had issue (this marriage was contracted in contravention of the Royal Marriages Act and was not recognized in Law).
Princess Augusta of Cambridge 19 July 1822 4 December 1916 married 1843, Friedrich Wilhelm, Grand Duke of Mecklenberg-Strelitz; had issue
Princess Mary Adelaide of Cambridge 27 November 1833 27 October 1897 married 1866, Francis, Duke of Teck; had issue, including Mary of Teck, later Queen consort of the United Kingdom.

Ancestors

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge at Oxford Dictionary of National Biography
  2. ^ Yvonne's Royalty Home Page: Royal Christenings
  3. ^ Johannes Kessels, "Fast wie eine Königsfamilie: Neue Majestäten heißen alle Helmke oder Kück", in: Wümme-Zeitung; 2. Juni 2009.
  4. ^ Ompteda, p. 131
  5. ^ Cambridge Mausoleum
Prince Adolphus, Duke of Cambridge
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 24 February 1774 Died: 8 July 1850
Court offices
Preceded by
General von Bülow
as Governor, with the Privy Council 
Viceroy of Hanover
1811–1837
Succeeded by
Ernest Augustus I
as King, due to the end of the
personal union with the UK 
Military offices
Preceded by
Prince Frederick, Duke of
York and Albany
Colonel of the Coldstream Guards
1805–1850
Succeeded by
The Earl of Strafford
Academic offices
Preceded by
The 1st Viscount Melville
Chancellor of the University of St Andrews
1811–1814
Succeeded by
The 2nd Viscount Melville
Other offices
Preceded by
Prince Frederick, Duke of
York and Albany
President of the Foundling Hospital
1827–1850
Succeeded by
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Honorary titles
Preceded by
Sir Thomas Maitland
St Michael and St George
Grand Master of the Order of

1825–1850
Succeeded by
Prince George, Duke of Cambridge
Peerage of the United Kingdom
New creation Duke of Cambridge
4th creation
1801–1850
Succeeded by
Prince George


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