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Princess Mary of Great Britain


Princess Mary of Great Britain

Mary of Great Britain
Portrait by George Desmarées
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel
Tenure 1 February 1760[1] – 14 January 1772
Spouse Frederick II, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel
Issue William I, Elector of Hesse
Prince Charles
Prince Frederick
House House of Hanover
Father George II of Great Britain
Mother Caroline of Ansbach
Born (1723-03-05)5 March 1723 (New Style)
Leicester House, Westminster, London, England, Kingdom of Great Britain
Died 14 January 1772(1772-01-14) (aged 48)
Hanau, Germany
Burial 1 February 1772
Hanau, Germany
Religion Anglicanism

Princess Mary of Great Britain (5 March 1723 – 14 January 1772) was the second-youngest daughter of Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel as the wife of Landgrve Frederick II.

Early life

Princess Mary

Princess Mary was born at Caroline of Ansbach, daughter of Johann Friedrich, Margrave of Brandenburg-Ansbach.[2]

Her father succeeded, as George II, on 11 June 1727, and she became HRH The Princess Mary.


A marriage was negotiated with Landgrave Frederick of Hesse-Kassel, the only son and heir of William VIII, Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel.[3] For the marriage, Parliament voted Mary £40,000.[3]

They married by proxy at the Chapel Royal of St. James's Palace in London on 8 May, then in person on 28 June 1740 at Kassel.[2] The marriage was unhappy, and Frederick was said to be "brutal" and "a boor". In late 1746, Mary made an extended trip to Britain to escape his maltreatment. The couple separated in 1754 on Frederick's conversion to Roman Catholicism. They had four sons, three of whom survived to adulthood.[3] In 1756, Mary moved to Denmark, to take care of the children of her sister, Louise of Great Britain, who had died in 1751. She took her children with her; they were raised at the royal court and her sons were married to Danish princesses. Her husband succeeded his father as Landgrave of Hesse-Kassel in 1760, and so Mary was technically Landgravine consort for the last twelve years of her life, despite her estrangement from her husband.

Mary died on 14 or 16 January 1772, aged 48 at Hanau, Germany.[2]

Titles, styles, honours and arms

Titles and styles

  • 5 March 1723 – 11 June 1727: Her Royal Highness Princess Mary[4]
  • 11 June 1727 – 8 May 1740: Her Royal Highness The Princess Mary
  • 8 May 1740 – 25 March 1751: Her Royal Highness Princess Frederick of Hesse-Kassel
  • 25 March 1751 - 1 February 1760: Her Royal Highness The Hereditary Princess of Hesse-Kassel
  • 1 February 1760 – 14 January 1772: Her Royal Highness The Landgravine of Hesse-Kassel


On 30 August 1727, as a child of the sovereign, Mary was granted use of the arms of the realm, differenced by a label argent of three points, each bearing a canton gules.[5]


Name Birth Death Notes
Prince William of Hesse-Kassel 1741 1742 died in infancy
William I, Elector of Hesse 1743 1821 married, 1763, Wilhelmina Caroline of Denmark and Norway; had issue
Prince Charles of Hesse-Kassel 1744 1836 married, 1766, Louise of Denmark; had issue
Prince Frederick of Hesse-Kassel 1747 1837 married, 1786, Caroline of Nassau-Usingen; had issue



  1. ^ The Peerage – Landgrave William VIII
  2. ^ a b c d  
  3. ^ a b c Williamson, David (2004). "Mary, Princess (1723–1772)". Oxford Dictionary of National Biography.  
  4. ^ The London Gazette refers to her as "Princess Mary"
  5. ^ Marks of Cadency in the British Royal Family


External links

  • Henry Churchyard "Royal Genealogies, Part 10"
  • Sam Sloan "Big Combined Family Trees (pafg751)"
Princess Mary of Great Britain
Cadet branch of the House of Welf
Born: 5 March 1723 Died: 14 January 1772
German royalty
Title last held by
Ulrika Eleonora of Sweden
Landgravine consort of Hesse-Kassel
1 February 1760 – 14 January 1772
Title next held by
Philippine of Brandenburg-Schwedt
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