World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Proteales

Article Id: WHEBN0000247002
Reproduction Date:

Title: Proteales  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Eudicots, APG III system, Taxobox/testcases, Banksia, Nelumbo nucifera
Collection: Angiosperm Orders, Proteales, Proteales of Australia
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Proteales

Proteales
Protea cynaroides
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
Order: Proteales
Juss. ex Bercht. & J.Presl[1]
Families

Nelumbonaceae (lotus)
Platanaceae (plane trees)
Proteaceae

Proteales is the botanical name of an order of flowering plants consisting of two (or three) families. The Proteales have been recognized by almost all taxonomists.

Contents

  • Families 1
  • Classification 2
    • Cronquist 2.1
    • Dahlgren and Thorne 2.2
    • Engler 2.3
    • Wettstein 2.4
  • References 3

Families

The APG II system of 2003 also recognizes this order, and places it in the clade eudicots with this circumscription:

  • order Proteales

with "+ ..." = optionally separate family (that may be split off from the preceding family).

The APG III system of 2009 followed this same approach, but favored the narrower circumscription of the three families, firmly recognizing three families in Proteales: Nelumbonaceae, Platanaceae, and Proteaceae.[1] The Angiosperm Phylogeny Website, however, suggests the addition of Sabiaceae, which was not placed in an order in the eudicots in the APG III system, would be sensible.[2]

Well-known members of the Proteales include the proteas of South Africa, the banksias and macadamias of Australia, the London plane, and the sacred lotus. The origins of the order are clearly ancient, with evidence of diversification in the mid-Cretaceous, over 100 million years ago. Of interest are the current family distributions, with the Proteaceae a mostly Southern Hemisphere family, while the Platanaceae and Nelumbonaceae are Northern Hemisphere plants.

Classification

This represents a slight change from the APG system of 1998, which firmly did accept family Platanaceae as separate, using this circumscription of the order:

  • order Proteales
  • family Nelumbonaceae
  • family Platanaceae
  • family Proteaceae

Cronquist

The Cronquist system of 1981 recognized such an order and placed it in subclass Rosidae in class Magnoliopsida [=dicotyledons]. It used this circumscription:

  • order Proteales

Dahlgren and Thorne

The Dahlgren system and Thorne system (1992) recognized such an order and placed it in superorder Proteanae in subclass Magnoliidae [=dicotyledons]. These systems used this circumscription:

  • order Proteales
  • family Proteaceae

Engler

The Engler system, in its update of 1964, also recognized this order and placed it in subclass Archichlamydeae of class Dicotyledoneae. It used this circumscription:

  • order Proteales
  • family Proteaceae

Wettstein

The Wettstein system, last revised in 1935, also recognized this order and placed it in the Monochlamydeae in subclass Choripetalae of class Dicotyledones. It used this circumscription:

  • order Proteales
  • family Proteaceae

References

  1. ^ a b Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (2009), "An update of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group classification for the orders and families of flowering plants: APG III", Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society 161 (2): 105–121,  
  2. ^ Stevens, P. F. (2001 onwards). Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. Version 12, July 2012 [and more or less continuously updated since]. Proteales. Accessed online: 9 June 2013.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.