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Ptolemy III Euergetes

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Ptolemy III Euergetes

Ptolemy III Euergetes
King of Egypt
Gold coin depicting Ptolemy III issued by Ptolemy IV to honor his deified father
Reign 246–222 BCE
Predecessor Ptolemy II
Successor Ptolemy IV
Consort Berenice II
Issue Ptolemy IV, Arsinoe III, Alexander, Magas, Berenice
Greek Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης
Ancient Egyptian Iwaennetjerwysenwy Sekhemankhre Setepamun[1]
Dynasty Ptolemaic
Father Ptolemy II
Mother Arsinoe I

Ptolemy III Euergetes (Greek: Πτολεμαῖος Εὐεργέτης, Ptolemaĩos Euergétēs, reigned 246–222 BC) was the third king of the Ptolemaic dynasty in Egypt.

Family

Euergetes ("Benefactor") was the eldest son of Ptolemy II Philadelphus and his first wife, Arsinoe I, and came to power in 246 BC upon the death of his father. He married Berenice of Cyrene in the year corresponding to 244/243 BC; and their children were:

  • Arsinoe III, born in ca 246/245 BC. She later married her brother Ptolemy IV
  • Ptolemy IV Philopator, born ca 244 BC
  • Possibly Lysimachus. The name of the son is not known, but he is said to have been born in ca 243 BC.[2]
  • Alexander, born in c. 242 BC [3]
  • Magas, was born in ca 241 BC. Scalded to death in his bath by Theogos or Theodotus, at the orders of Ptolemy IV.[4]
  • Berenice, probably born in ca 239 BC and died a year later.[5]

Reign

Statue of Ptolemy III in the guise of Hermes wearing the chlamys cloak. Ptolemaic Egypt.

Ptolemy III Euergetes was responsible for the first known example of a series of decrees published as bilingual inscriptions on massive stone blocks in three writing systems. His stone stela is the Canopus Stone of 238 BC. Other well-known examples are the Memphis Stele (Memphis Stone), bearing the Decree of Memphis, about 218 BC, passed by his son, Ptolemy IV, as well as the famous Rosetta Stone erected by Ptolemy Epiphanes, his grandson, in 196 BC.

Bronze coin issued by Ptolemy III depicting Zeus-Amun (obverse) and traditional Ptolemaic eagle (reverse). Ptolemy III did not issue coins with his own image.

Ptolemy III's stone contains decrees about priestly orders, and is a memorial for his daughter Berenice. But two of its 26 lines of hieroglyphs decree the use of a leap day added to the Egyptian calendar of 365 days, and the associated changes in festivals.

He is also credited with the foundation of the Serapeum.

Due to a falling out at the Seleucid court, Ptolemy's eldest sister Berenice Phernophorus was murdered along with her infant son. In response Ptolemy III invaded Syria.[6] During this war, the Third Syrian War, he occupied Antioch and even reached Babylon.[7] In exchange for a peace in 241 BC, Ptolemy was awarded new territories on the northern coast of Syria, including Seleucia Pieria, the port of Antioch. The Ptolemaic kingdom reached the height of its power.

This war is cryptically alluded to in Daniel 11:7-9.[8]

Legacy

Ptolemy III's reign was also marked by trade with other contemporaneous polities. In the 1930s, excavations by Mattingly at a fortress close to Port Dunford (the likely Nikon of antiquity) in present-day southern Somalia yielded a number of Ptolemaic coins. Among these pieces were 17 copper mints from the Ptolemy III to Ptolemy V dynasties, as well as late Imperial Rome and Mamluk Sultanate coins.[9]

Ancestry

See also

References

  1. ^ Clayton (2006) p. 208
  2. ^ Lysimachus by Chris Bennett
  3. ^ ALexander by Chriss Bennett
  4. ^ Magas by Chris Bennett
  5. ^ Berenice by Chris Bennett
  6. ^ Bevan
  7. ^ See the Ptolemy III chronicle
  8. ^ The Elephant in the Greek and Roman World, H. H. Scullard, p. 133.
  9. ^ Hildegard Temporini (ed.) (1978). Politische Geschichte: (Provinzien und Randvölker: Mesopotamien, Armenien, Iran, Südarabien, Rom und der Ferne Osten)], Part 2, Volume 9. Walter de Gruyter. p. 977.  

Bibliography

External links

  • Ptolemy Euergetes I at LacusCurtius — (Chapter VI of E. R Bevan's House of Ptolemy, 1923)
  • Ptolemy III — (Royal Egyptian Genealogy)
  • Ptolemy III Euergetes entry in historical sourcebook by Mahlon H. Smith
  • Bust of Ptolemy III from Herculaneum - now in the Museo Nazionale, Naples.
Ptolemy III Euergetes
Born: Unknown Died: 246 BC
Preceded by
Ptolemy II Philadelphus
Pharaoh of Egypt
246–222 BC
Succeeded by
Ptolemy IV Philopator
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