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Republic of the Mountainous Armenia

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Republic of the Mountainous Armenia

Template:Infobox former country/autocat
Republic of Mountainous Armenia
Լեռնահայաստան

1921
 

Flag

Capital Goris (de facto)[1]
Languages Armenian (de facto)
Government Not specified
Commander Garegin Nzhdeh
History
 -  Sovietization of Armenia 2 December 1920
 -  February Uprising 18 Feb – 2 Apr 1921
 -  Declared 26 April 1921
 -  Disestablished 13 July 1921

Mountainous Armenia Լեռնահայաստան Leřnahayastan), officially the Republic of Mountainous Armenia (Լեռնահայաստանի Հանրապետութիւն Leřnahayastani Hanrapetut’yun) was an anti-Soviet Armenian state in roughly corresponding with the territory that is now the present-day Armenian provinces of Vayots Dzor and Syunik, and some parts of the present-day Nagorno-Karabakh Republic.

Mountainous Armenia was established by the Armenian Revolutionary Federation forces under command of Garegin Nzhdeh after the suppression of the February Uprising in April 1921. It existed until mid-July.

Background

Turkish–Armenian War

On 20 September 1920, the Turkish General Kazım Karabekir invaded the borders of the First Republic of Armenia, which was delineated by the United States. In response, the Armenia declared war on Turkey on September 24 and the Turkish-Armenian War began. In the regions of Oltu, Sarıkamış, Kars, Alexandropol (Gyumri) Armenian forces clashed with those of Turkey. This proved disastrous for the Armenians.

On November 18, an armistice was concluded, and then a peace treaty, the Treaty of Alexandropol, on 2 December 1920 between the Governments of Turkey and Armenia.

Sovietization of Armenia

Armenia gave way to communist power in late 1920.

The Soviet 11th Red Army's invasion of the First Republic of Armenia started on the 29th of November 1920. The actual transfer of power took place on December 2 in Yerevan, when the Armenian leadership approved an ultimatum presented to it by the Soviet plenipotentiary Boris Legran. Armenia agreed to join the Soviet sphere, while Soviet Russia agreed to protect its remaining territory from the advancing Turkish army. The Soviets also pledged to take steps to rebuild the army, to protect the Armenians and not to persecute non-communists, although the final condition of this pledge was reneged when the Dashnaks were forced out of the country. The Soviet Government proposed the annexation of the Nagorno-Karabagh and Syunik regions of Armenia to Soviet Azerbaijan. This step was strongly rejected by Garegin Nzhdeh, who declared Syunik as a self-governing region in December 1920. On January 1921 Drastamat Kanayan sent a telegram to Njdeh, suggesting allowing the sovietisation of Syunik, through which they could gain the support of the Bolshevik government in solving the problems of the Armenian lands. Njdeh again proved himself as a long-sighted politician, he did not depart from Syunik and continued his struggle against the Red Army and Soviet Azerbaijan.[2]

Declaration

On 18 February 1921, the Dashnaks led an anti-Soviet rebellion in Yerevan and seized power. The ARF controlled Yerevan and the surrounding regions for almost 42 days before being defeated by the numerically superior Red Army troops later in April 1921. The leaders of the rebellion then retreated into the Syunik region.

On 26 April 1921, the 2nd Pan-Zangezurian congress, held in Tatev, announced the independence of the self-governing regions of Daralakyaz (Vayots Dzor), Zangezur, and Mountainous Artsakh, under the name of the Republic of Mountainous Armenia and later on 1 June 1921, it was renamed the Republic of Armenia.[3]

Policies

The city of Goris became the capital of the unrecognized state, and Garegin Nzhdeh was chosen as prime minister and minister of defence. Later, in July, Simon Vratsian took the office as prime minister while Nzhdeh became the governor and the general commander. Nzhdeh actively engaged in liberation of Zangezur from the Azeri population.[4]

Between April and July 1921, the Red Army conducted massive military operations in the region, attacking Syunik from the north and east. After months of fierce battles with the Red Army, the Republic of Mountainous Armenia capitulated in July 1921 following Soviet Russia's promises to keep the mountainous region as a part of Soviet Armenia. After losing the battle, Garegin Nzhdeh, his soldiers, and many prominent Armenian intellectuals, including leaders of the first Independent Republic of Armenia, crossed the border into neighboring Persian city of Tabriz.

See also

References

  • Հայոց Գաղափարաբանության Հենասյուները from noravank.am
  • Other Armenian States from freenet.am
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