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Robert James Manion

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Title: Robert James Manion  
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Subject: John Campbell Elliott, Charles Gavan Power, Donald Matheson Sutherland, 17th Canadian Parliament, John Munro (Canadian politician)
Collection: 1881 Births, 1943 Deaths, Alumni of the University of Edinburgh, Canadian Ministers of Railways and Canals, Canadian People of Irish Descent, Canadian Physicians, Canadian Roman Catholics, Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada (1867–1942), Leaders of the Opposition (Canada), Liberal-Unionist Mps in Canada, Members of the House of Commons of Canada from Ontario, Members of the Queen's Privy Council for Canada, People from Thunder Bay, Postmasters General of Canada, Recipients of the Military Cross, Unionist Party (Canada) Mps
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Robert James Manion

The Hon.
Robert James Manion
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Fort William and Rainy River
In office
Preceded by District was created in 1914
Succeeded by District was abolished in 1924
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for Fort William
In office
Preceded by District was created in 1924
Succeeded by Dan McIvor
Member of the Canadian Parliament
for London
In office
Preceded by Frederick Cronyn Betts
Succeeded by Joseph Allan Johnston
Leader of the Official Opposition
In office
Preceded by R. B. Bennett
Succeeded by Richard Hanson
Personal details
Born (1881-11-19)November 19, 1881
Pembroke, Ontario
Died July 2, 1943(1943-07-02) (aged 61)
Political party Conservative

Robert James Manion, PC, MC (November 19, 1881, Pembroke, Ontario – July 2, 1943, Ottawa) was leader of the Conservative Party of Canada from 1938 until 1940.

Of Irish Catholic descent, Manion studied medicine at Queen's University, Kingston, Ontario and at the University of Edinburgh before settling in his hometown of Fort William, Ontario where his parents had lived since 1888. In 1915, he enrolled with the Canadian Army Medical Corps. Attached to the 21st Canadian Battalion, he was awarded the Military Cross for heroism at the battle of Vimy Ridge.

He was elected to the Canadian House of Commons during the conscription election of 1917 as a Unionist Member of Parliament (MP) for Fort William, Ontario. A member of the Liberal Party before the war, he supported Conservative Prime Minister Robert Borden's pro-conscription Union government that was formed as a result of the Conscription Crisis of 1917. Manion remained with the Conservative Party after the war. The new prime minister, Arthur Meighen, appointed him Minister of Soldiers' Civil Re-establishment in 1921. He spent most of the 1920s on the opposition benches, except for a few months in 1926 when he served as a minister in the second Meighen administration, including the position of Postmaster-General.

Following the federal election of 1930, the new Conservative Prime minister R. B. Bennett appointed Manion Minister of Railways and Canals. However, the economic crisis of the Great Depression destroyed the Bennett government, and Manion, with many others, lost his seat in the 1935 election. According to historian Roy Piovesana, Manion's loss was partly attributable to his failure to cultivate his Fort William riding. Despite not having a seat, Manion won the 1938 Conservative leadership convention with backing of an "improbable coalition"[1] of Orange Order delegates from Ontario and delegates from Quebec.

Conservative Party members hoped that his Catholicism and marriage to a French-Canadian, Yvonne Desaulniers, would help the party in Quebec where the perception of the Tories as being anti-French and anti-Catholic Orangemen had hurt their prospects. Manion entered the House of Commons through a by-election in 1938 in London. He subsequently campaigned against conscription despite the fact that he had joined the Unionists in 1917 because he favoured the draft.

Manion moved the Conservatives to the left and was criticized as a socialist due to his call for action against unemployment and his desire to, in his words, "bring a greater measure of social justice to all our citizens."[1]

He hoped to come to power due to the unpopularity of the King government and his brokerage of an agreement with the Union Nationale Premier of Quebec, Maurice Duplessis in which he promised federal funds for unemployment relief in Quebec in exchange for the Union Nationale's support for the Conservatives in the federal election. The onset of World War II and the re-emergence of conscription as an issue in Canada stymied Manion's hopes. In the 1939 Quebec election the federal Liberals warned that the Duplessis government's support for Manion would lead to conscription, despite Manion's claims that he opposed mandatory military enlistment.[1]

The defeat of the government of Maurice Duplessis in Quebec dashed Manion's hopes of building an electoral alliance with the conservative premier. As well, his stand against conscription turned much of the Tory base in Ontario against the leader.

King had promised Manion that he would not call an election due to the war but reversed his pledge and called a March 1940 general election taking Manion's Tories by surprise and unprepared.[1] They campaigned under the name "National Government" with the platform of forming a wartime coalition government. The renamed Tories were unable to make any gains from their 1935 result, and Manion failed to win his seat, leading to his resignation as party leader two months later. Manion was subsequently appointed director of Civilian Air Raid Defence. He died in 1943.

See also


  • Manion, Robert James. A surgeon in arms. Toronto: McClelland, Goodchild & Stewart, 1918.
  • Manion, R.J. Life is an adventure. Toronto : Ryerson Press, 1936.
  • Naugler, Harold Adelbert. R.J. Manion and the Conservative Party 1938-1940. M.A. thesis 1966, Queen's University, Kingston, Ont.
  • Piovesana, Roy H. Robert J. Manion member of Parliament for Fort William 1917-1935. Thunder Bay : Thunder Bay Historical Museum Society, 1990.
  1. ^ a b c d Plamaondon, Bob, "A Compassionate Conservative", National Post, April 8, 2009

External links

  • Robert James Manion – Parliament of Canada biography
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