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SIL International

SIL International
Formation 1934 (1934)
Type Scientific institute
Purpose Research in linguistics, promote literacy, language preservation
Headquarters Dallas, Texas, United States
Key people
William Cameron Townsend (founder)
John Watters (president)
Website (English)
Formerly called
Summer Institute of Linguistics

SIL International (formerly known as the Summer Institute of Linguistics) is a languages, especially those that are lesser-known, in order to expand linguistic knowledge, promote literacy, translate the Christian Bible into local languages, and aid minority language development.

The organization was founded by Presbyterian minister Wycliffe Bible Translators, also founded by Townsend to translate the Bible into the languages where they were working. SIL gradually extended its work to other regions of the world where indigenous languages were spoken, including Papua New Guinea, Southeast Asia and Africa. While initially SIL's staff only received basic training in linguistics and anthropology, gradually the organization came to be professionalized and today many have advanced degrees.

SIL has more than 6,000 members from over 50 countries. Based on their language documentation work, SIL publishes a database, Ethnologue, of its research into the world's languages. SIL also develops and publishes software programs for language documentation, such as FLEx|FieldWorks Language Explorer (FLEx) and Lexique Pro. SIL also holds formal consultative status with the United Nations, and has been recognized by UNESCO for their contributions in Asia.[1]

SIL has been criticized by anthropologists and indigenous rights activists for having negative influences on communities where they work, by changing local cultural patterns and by creating conflicts within indigenous communities. Starting in the 1980s, several countries stopped their official collaboration with SIL. SIL did not consider these accusations valid.

Its headquarters are located in Dallas, Texas.


  • History 1
  • Contributions 2
  • Methodological contributions 3
    • Ethnologue and ISO 639-3 codes 3.1
    • Software 3.2
  • Recognitions 4
  • Criticism 5
  • Regional offices 6
    • Africa 6.1
    • Americas 6.2
    • Asia 6.3
    • Oceania 6.4
  • See also 7
  • Notes 8
  • References 9
  • External links 10


The organization was founded by

External links

  • .
  • Brend, Ruth Margaret, and Kenneth Lee Pike (eds.): The Summer Institute of Linguistics: Its Works and Contributions (Walter De Gruyter 1977), ISBN 90-279-3355-3.
  • .
  • .
  • Cobbs, Elizabeth A. "Thy Will Be Done: The Conquest of the Amazon: Nelson Rockefeller and Evangelism in the Age of Oil – book reviews" (Christian Century, November 1, 1995)
  • This book contains allegations of Rockefeller's use of American missionaries, and in particular, the Summer Institute of Linguistics, who cooperated in conducting surveys, transporting CIA agents and indirectly assisting in the genocide of tribes in the Amazon basin.
  • .
  • Gow, Peter: An Amazonian Myth and Its History (Oxford University Press 2001), ISBN 0-19-924195-3 / ISBN 0-19-924196-1.
  • This article describes SIL's collaboration with US oil corporations and military governments in South America in the 1950s and 1960s.
  • Lewis, Norman: The Missionaries (London, Secker and Warburg 1988; McGraw-Hill Companies 1989), ISBN 0-07-037613-1.
  • Mantilla, Castro, and Maria Dolores: El Trabajo del ILV en Bolivia, 1954–1980, Informe Final (The Work of SIL in Bolivia, 1954–1980, Final Report; La Paz, Ministerio de Desarollo Humano 1996). This report in Spanish contains a detailed chart of SIL activities in Latin American countries.
  • Orlandi, Eni Pucinelli: Sprache, Glaube, Macht: "Ethik und Sprachenpolitik / Language, Faith, Power: Ethics and Language Policy", in: Brigitte Schlieben-Lange (ed.): Zeitschrift für Literaturwissenschaft und Linguistik 116, Katechese, Sprache, Schrift (University of Siegen / J.B. Metzler 1999) The author presents a discourse analysis of the practices of SIL.
  • Perkins, John: Confessions of an Economic Hit Man (Plume Publishers 2006), ISBN 0-452-28708-1. Contains references to alleged SIL missionary activities and displacement of indigenous peoples in South America.
  • .
  • Criticism of alleged SIL missionary activities.
  • Willibrand, W. A: Oklahoma Indians and the Summer Institute of Linguistics (1953).
  • .


  1. ^ Appeal: SIL (Summer Institute of Linguistics) International
  2. ^
  3. ^ Clarke 2001, p. 182.
  4. ^ Bonner 1999, p. 20.
  5. ^ Yashar 2005, p. 118.
  6. ^ Yashar 2005, p. 146.
  7. ^ Cleary & Steigenga 2004, p. 36.
  8. ^ a b .
  9. ^ .
  10. ^ .
  11. ^ .
  12. ^ .
  13. ^ .
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ .
  21. ^ .
  22. ^ .
  23. ^ .
  24. ^ .
  25. ^ a b Hvalkof & Aaby 1981.
  26. ^ Errington 2008, pp. 153-162.
  27. ^ Stoll 1982.
  28. ^ Hart 1973.
  29. ^ Colby & Dennett 1995.
  30. ^ . In Hvalkof & Aaby 1981b, pp. 121–32.
  31. ^ .
  32. ^ Olson 2009.
  33. ^ a b Dobrin 2009.
  34. ^ .
  35. ^ .
  36. ^ .


See also


  • [36]
  • Philippines: Manila
  • India: The partner organisation of SIL in India was the Indian Institute of Cross Cultural Communication — IICCC, Nashik. The Institute trains Christians in the areas of linguistics and anthropological research besides translation.




Besides the headquarters in Dallas, SIL has offices and locally incorporated affiliated organizations in the following countries:[8]

Regional offices

SIL did not consider these accusations valid, rejecting their involvement in ethnocide, because they claimed that efforts to change cultural patterns is not equivalent to destroying cultures, and because all their work is based on voluntary participation of indigenous peoples.[31][32][33] SIL also argue that they are in fact are actively protecting endangered languages by promoting them within the speech community and providing mother-tongue literacy training.[34][33]

It has also been alleged that the Summer Institute of Linguistics cooperated with the American government during the Cold War, supporting counterinsurgency efforts in different Latin American countries, as well as the work of U.S. corporations working to displace indigenous populations from exploitable land resources.[27][28] One book, "Thy Will Be Done" by Colby and Dennett claim that the SIL collaborated with Nelson Rockefeller in conducting surveys, transporting CIA agents and indirectly assisting in the genocide of tribes in the Amazon basin.[29] In the 1981 book "Is God an American" a group of anthropologists described the work of SIL in Latin America and Africa, arguing that it was contributing to ethnocide of indigenous groups by supporting government policies of cultural assimilation.[25][30]

The organization's focus on language description, language development and Bible translation, and the missionary activities carried out by many of its field workers, have been criticized by linguists and anthropologists who argue that SIL is in essence a missionary organization, and that by aiming to change indigenous cultures, they exacerbate the problems that cause language endangerment and death.[24][25][26]


[23] UNESCO Literacy Prizes have been awarded to SIL's work in a number of countries: Australia (1969), Cameroon (1986), Papua New Guinea (1979), Philippines (1991).[22] SIL's work has received appreciation and recognition in a number of international settings. In 1973, SIL was awarded the

SIL holds formal consultative status with non-governmental organization status in many countries.

The 1947 Summer Meeting of the Linguistic Society of America passed a resolution that the work of SIL "should be strongly commended by our Society and welcomed as one of the most promising developments in applied linguistics in this country."[20]


SIL has long been a pioneer in the field of software for linguistic research. Several pieces of software are available.[14] Adapt It is a tool for translating text from one language into a related language after performing limited linguistic analysis.[15] In the field of lexicon collection, ShoeBox and the newer ToolBox (Field Linguist’s Toolbox)[16] have largely been replaced by FieldWorks Language Explorer (FLEx Windows and Linux)[17] for linguists, and WeSay (also Windows and Linux)[18] for non-professionals. Graphite is a smart-font technology and rendering system.[19]


The Ethnologue, a guide to the world's languages, is published by SIL. The 16th edition of the Ethnologue was published in 2009 and uses the ISO 639-3 standard, which assigns 3-letter codes to languages; these were derived in part from the 3-letter codes that were used in the Ethnologue's 15th edition. SIL is the registration authority for the ISO 639-3 standard. The 15th edition, which was published in 2005, includes 7299 codes. A 16th edition was released in the middle of 2009, and a 17th in 2013.

Ethnologue and ISO 639-3 codes

Methodological contributions

SIL also presents the fruits of some of its research through the International Museum of Cultures.[13] Located in Dallas, it was developed by linguists and anthropologists associated with SIL International for the purpose of celebrating peoples of diverse cultures in an effort to promote greater appreciation and understanding of cultural differences.

SIL provides instructors and instructional materials for linguistics programs at several major institutions of higher learning around the world. In the United States, these include Biola University, Moody Bible Institute, Houghton College, University of North Dakota, the Graduate Institute of Applied Linguistics and Dallas Theological Seminary. Other universities with SIL programmes include Trinity Western University in Canada, Charles Darwin University in Australia, and Universidad Ricardo Palma in Lima, Peru.

Another focus of SIL is literacy work, particularly in indigenous languages. SIL assists local, regional and national agencies that are developing formal and informal education in vernacular languages. These cooperative efforts enable new advances in the complex field of educational development in multilingual and multicultural societies.[12]

SIL's focus has not been on the development of new linguistic theories, but tagmemics, though no longer promoted by SIL, was developed by Kenneth Pike, who also coined the words emic and etic, more widely used today in anthropology.

SIL's principal contribution to linguistics has been the data that has been gathered and analysed from over 1,000 minority and endangered languages,[9] many of which had not been previously studied academically. SIL endeavors to share both the data and the results of analysis in order to contribute to the overall knowledge of language. This has resulted in publications on languages such as Hixkaryana and Pirahã which have challenged the universality of some linguistic theories. SIL's work has resulted in over 20,000 technical publications, all of which are listed in the SIL Bibliography.[10] Most of these are a reflection of linguistic fieldwork.[11]


SIL's current president is Dr. John Watters, who took the office in 2008, after serving as executive director from 2000 to 2007.

From the 1950s to 1987, SIL training was hosted by the University of Oklahoma in Norman. The agreement between the university and SIL was terminated in 1987 after a controversy about SIL being involved in missionary activities and its relationship with Latin American governments. SIL training is now offered in many locations around the world.

In 1979, SIL's agreement with the Mexican government was officially terminated after critiques from anthropologists regarding the combination of education and missionary activities in indigenous communities, though SIL continued to be active in that country.[3] At a conference of the Inter-American Indian Institute in Mérida, Yucatán, in November 1980, delegates denounced the Summer Institute of Linguistics, charging that it was using a scientific name to conceal its Protestant agenda and an alleged capitalist view that was alien to indigenous traditions.[4] This led to the agreement with the Ecuadorean government being terminated in 1980,[5] although a token presence remained. In the early 1990s, the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador (CONAIE) demanded the expulsion of SIL from the country.[6] SIL was also expelled from Brazil, Ecuador, Mexico and Panama, and restricted in Colombia and Peru.[7] SIL currently operates in many of those countries.[8]

Having initiated the collaboration with the Mexican ministry of education, Townsend started SIL International as a small summer training session in Sulphur Springs, Arkansas in 1934 to missionaries in basic linguistic, anthropological and translation principles. Through the following decades the SIL linguists worked with providing literacy education to indigenous people of Mexico, while simultaneously working with the Wycliffe Bible Translators on Bible translation. One of the students at the first summer institute in its second year 1935 was Kenneth Lee Pike (1912–2000), who was to become the foremost figure in the history of SIL. He served as SIL's president from 1942 to 1979, then as president emeritus until his death in 2000.


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