Sacred College of Cardinals

The College of Cardinals is the body of all cardinals of the Catholic Church.[1]

A function of the college is to advise the Pope about church matters when he summons them to an ordinary consistory.[2] It also convenes on the death or resignation of a pope as a papal conclave to elect a successor.[3] The college has no ruling power except during the sede vacante (papal vacancy) period, and even then its powers are extremely limited by the terms of the current law, which is laid down in the Apostolic constitution Universi Dominici Gregis and the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State.

Historically, cardinals were the clergy of the city of Rome, serving the Bishop of Rome as the Pope, who had clerical duties in parishes of the city. The College has its origins in the events surrounding the crowning of Henry IV as King of Germany and Holy Roman Emperor at the age of six, after the unexpected death of Henry III in 1056. Until this moment secular authorities had significant influence over who was to be appointed Pope, and the Holy Roman Emperor in particular had the special ability to appoint him. This was significant as the aims and views of the Holy Roman Emperor and the Church did not always coincide. Members of what was to become known as the Gregorian Reform took advantage of the new King and his lack of power, and in 1059 declared that the election of the Pope was an affair only for the Church. This was part of a larger power struggle, which became known as the Investiture Controversy, as the Church attempted to gain more control over their clergy, and in doing so gain more influence in the lands and governments they were appointed to. Theological implications aside, its creation represented a significant shift in the balance of power in the Early Medieval world. From the beginning of the 12th century, the College of Cardinals started to meet as such, when the cardinal bishops, cardinal priests, and cardinal deacons ceased acting as separate groups.[4]

The Dean of the College of Cardinals and the Sub-Dean are the president and vice-president of the college. Both are elected by and from the cardinals holding suburbicarian dioceses, but the election requires Papal confirmation. Except for presiding, the dean has no power of governance over the cardinals, instead acting as primus inter pares (first among equals).

The Secretary of State, the prefects of the Congregations of the Roman Curia, the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church, the Vicar General of Rome, and the Patriarchs of Venice and Lisbon, are usually Cardinals, with few, usually temporary, exceptions. The Fundamental Law of Vatican City State requires that appointees to the state's legislative body, the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State, be cardinals.[5]

Origins

The Church cites Acts 6 as the formation of the Sacred College of Cardinals. Specifically, the seven assistants, Stephen, Philip, Nicanor, Timon, Nicholas, Parmenas, and Prochorus, selected by the Apostles to relieve them of the more mundane tasks of the Church so that they might concentrate more on prayer, contemplation, and preaching. As early as the third century, these assistants were defined as critical supporters of the papacy, and by the fourth century, the title of Cardinal was applied to these consultors of the Pope.[6]

The word cardinal itself is derived from the Latin Carda, translated as "hinge". The cardinals were believed to facilitate a relationship between the theological and governmental roles of the hierarchy of the Church as a sort of pivot; on them hung the relationship between Christ and His Church on Earth, headed by the pope. This definition of helper has not changed over the years, and popes have not ceased to depend on the College for advice on doctrine and government.[7]

Towards the end of the 600s, the title of Cardinal had become synonymous with an honor, and was no longer reserved to men who served the pope as special assistants. Sts. Augustine and Ambrose applied the term to truths of life and Christian virtues respectively. In 845 the Council of Meaux "required Bishops to establish Cardinal titles or parishes in their towns and outlining districts."[8] At the same time, the popes began referring to the cardinal priests of Rome to serves as legates and delegates within Rome at ceremonies, synods, councils, etc., as well as abroad on diplomatic missions and councils. Those who were assigned to the latter roles were given the titles of Legatus a latere (Cardinal Legate) and Missus Specialis (Special Missions).[9]

During the pontificate of Stephen V (816-17), the three classes of the College that are present today began to form. Stephen decreed that all cardinal-bishops were bound to say Mass on rotation at the high altar at St. Peter's Basilica, one per Sunday. The first class to form was that of the cardinal-deacons, direct theological descendants of the original seven ordained in Acts 6, followed by the cardinal-priests, and finally, the cardinal-bishops.[10]

The College played an integral part in various reforms within the Church as well, as early as the pontificate of Pope Leo X (1050). In 759, the third Lateran Council declared that only Cardinals could assume the papacy, a requirement that has since lapsed. In 1130, under Urban II, all the classes were permitted to take part in papal elections; up to this point, only cardinal-bishops had this role.[10]

By the end of the 1300s, the practice of solely Italian cardinals had ceased. Between the 1300s and 1600s, there was much struggle for the College between the cardinals of the day and the reigning popes. The most effective way for a pope to increase his power was to increase the number of cardinals, promoting those who had nominated him. Those cardinals in power saw these actions as an attempt to weaken their influence. In 1517, Pope Leo X added another thirty-one cardinals, bringing the total to sixty-five so that he could have a supportive majority among the cardinalate. Paul IV brought the total to seventy. Pius IV raised an additional six. By the papacy of Sixtus V, the number was set at seventy, divided among fourteen cardinal-deacons, fifty cardinal-priests, and six cardinal-bishops.[10]

Choosing the Pope

Under the terms of Pope Paul VI's motu proprio Ingravescentem Aetatem, cardinals who had reached the age of 80 before the conclave opened had no vote in papal elections. The current rules for the election of the Roman Pontiff, those in Pope John Paul II's Universi Dominici Gregis of 22 February 1996, state that cardinals who have reached the age of 80 before the day the see becomes vacant do not have a vote.[3]

Although the

Members of the College of Cardinals

The following is the list of all living Cardinals as of 19 October 2013. Cardinals are shown in order of precedence, based on seniority by date of appointment. Paulo Evaristo Arns is the most senior member of the College by length of service (the Protopriest); he is the last surviving from the 1973 consistory. Angelo Sodano, however, has the highest precedence as a Cardinal Bishop and Dean of the College of Cardinals.

Joachim Meisner will be the next Cardinal to lose, on 25 December 2013, his right to participate in any conclave called to fill a vacancy of the Holy See arising after that date. As of 19 October 2013, there are a total of 201 cardinals, of whom 109 are under age 80. Of those 109, 43 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 66 by Pope Benedict XVI. As of October 2013, the oldest living Cardinal is Fiorenzo Angelini.

115 of the 117 Cardinals under the age of 80 at the time of Pope Benedict XVI's resignation participated in the conclave to elect his successor. The two Cardinal electors who did not participate in the conclave were Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja (for health reasons) and Keith O'Brien (for personal reasons). Of the 115 Cardinals who participated in the conclave that elected Pope Francis, 48 were appointed by Pope John Paul II, and 67 by Pope Benedict XVI.

Most of the Cardinals are from the Latin Church; those who are from the Eastern Catholic Churches have their church explicitly indicated.

Within the College of Cardinals, there are three categories, the highest-ranked Cardinal Bishops, then Cardinal Priests, and finally Cardinal Deacons. Within each category the Cardinals are ranked by seniority of appointment.

Despite these titles, in fact since the pontificate of Pope John XXIII almost all Cardinals who were not already bishops at the time their appointment was announced have been ordained bishops prior to the conclusion of the formal installation, though from the late twentieth century Jesuit priests made cardinals when already over 80 have usually petitioned not to become bishops and have received permission in this sense.


Italian cardinals as percentage of total College of Cardinals (1903–2013)
February 2013 22.60
April 2005 17.09
October 1978 22.50
August 1978 22.80
1963 35.36
1958 35.80
1939 54.80
1922 51.60
1914 50.76
1903 56.25



2013 World Representation in the College of Cardinals
Region Total Population Catholics  % Catholic  % of Catholic total  % of College of Cardinals
Africa 885,103,542 135,211,325 15.27% 12.57% 8.17%
Asia and Middle East 3,889,093,723 123,851,272 3.18% 11.51% 9.62%
Europe 750,072,510 283,916,457 37.85% 26.37% 57.65%
Central America 42,883,849 32,317,384 75.36% 3.00% 1.00%
North America and Caribbean 472,952,469 192,274,838 40.65% 17.88% 12.98%
South America 371,363,897 299,570,011 80.66% 27.87% 10.58%
Oceania 30,686,468 7,747,654 25.24% 0.72% 1.92%



College of Cardinals (2013)
Appointed Name Country Born Age Title(s)
Cardinals of the Order of Bishops
Titular Bishops of Seven Suburbicarian Sees
Angelo Sodano 23 November 1927 86 Bishop of Ostia and Cardinal Bishop of Albano, Dean of the College of Cardinals, Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus, Cardinal since 28 June 1991.
Roger Etchegaray 25 September 1922 91 Cardinal Bishop of Porto-Santa Rufina, Vice-Dean of the College of Cardinals, President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace, Cardinal since 30 June 1979.
Giovanni Battista Re 30 January 1934 80 Cardinal Bishop of Sabina-Poggio Mirteto, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Bishops, Cardinal since 21 February 2001.
Francis Arinze 1 November 1932 81 Cardinal Bishop of Velletri-Segni, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, Cardinal since 25 May 1985.
Tarcisio Bertone 2 December 1934 79 Cardinal Bishop of Frascati, Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church and Cardinal Secretary of State Emeritus, Cardinal since 21 October 2003.
José Saraiva Martins 6 January 1932 82 Cardinal Bishop of Palestrina, Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints, Cardinal since 21 February 2001.
Patriarchs of Eastern Catholic Churches
Nasrallah Pierre Sfeir 15 May 1920 94 Patriarch Emeritus of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church), Cardinal since 28 February 1994.
Emmanuel III Delly 6 October 1927 86 Patriarch Emeritus of Babylon (Chaldean Catholic Church), Cardinal since 24 November 2007.
Antonios Naguib 18 March 1935 79 Patriarch Emeritus of Alexandria (Coptic Catholic Church), Cardinal since 20 November 2010.
Bechara Boutros al-Rahi 25 February 1940 74 Patriarch of Antioch (Maronite Catholic Church), Cardinal since 24 November 2012.
Cardinals of the Order of Priests
Consistory of 5 March 1973 Paulo Evaristo Arns 14 September 1921 92 Archbishop Emeritus of São Paulo, Cardinal Protopriest since July 2012.
Consistory of 24 May 1976 William Wakefield Baum 21 November 1926 87 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Consistory of 30 June 1979
Marco Cé 8 July 1925 89 Patriarch Emeritus of Venice
Franciszek Macharski 20 May 1927 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Kraków
Consistory of 2 February 1983
Michael Michai Kitbunchu 26 January 1929 85 Archbishop Emeritus of Bangkok
Alexandre do Nascimento 1 March 1925 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Luanda
Godfried Danneels 4 June 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Mechelen-Brussels
Thomas Stafford Williams 20 March 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Wellington
Joachim Meisner 25 December 1933 80 Archbishop of Cologne
Consistory of 25 May 1985
Duraisamy Simon Lourdusamy 5 February 1924 90 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Miguel Obando y Bravo 2 February 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Managua
Ricardo Vidal 6 February 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Cebu
Henryk Gulbinowicz 17 October 1923 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Wrocław
Jozef Tomko 11 March 1924 90 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for International Eucharistic Congresses
Paul Poupard 30 August 1930 83 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Friedrich Wetter 20 February 1928 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Munich and Freising
Silvano Piovanelli 21 February 1924 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Florence
Adrianus Johannes Simonis 26 November 1931 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Utrecht
Bernard Francis Law 4 November 1931 82 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
Giacomo Biffi 13 June 1928 86 Archbishop Emeritus of Bologna
Consistory of 28 June 1988
Eduardo Martínez Somalo 31 March 1927 87 Camerlengo Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Achille Silvestrini 25 October 1923 90 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
José Freire Falcão 23 October 1925 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Brasília
Alexandre José Maria dos Santos 18 March 1924 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Maputo
Giovanni Canestri 30 September 1918 95 Archbishop Emeritus of Genoa
Edward Bede Clancy 13 December 1923 90 Archbishop Emeritus of Sydney
Edmund Casimir Szoka 14 September 1927 86 President Emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City
László Paskai 8 May 1927 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Esztergom-Budapest
Christian Wiyghan Tumi 15 October 1930 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Douala
Consistory of 28 June 1991
Edward Idris Cassidy 5 July 1924 90 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Nicolás de Jesús López Rodríguez 31 October 1936 77 Archbishop of Santo Domingo Primate of the Americas
Fiorenzo Angelini 1 August 1916 98 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers
Roger Mahony 27 February 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Los Angeles
Camillo Ruini 19 February 1931 83 Vicar General Emeritus for the Diocese of Rome
Ján Chryzostom Korec 22 January 1924 90 Bishop Emeritus of Nitra
Henri Schwery 14 June 1932 82 Bishop Emeritus of Sion
Consistory of 26 November 1994
Miloslav Vlk 17 May 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of Prague
Carlo Furno 2 December 1921 92 Grand Master Emeritus of the Order of the Holy Sepulchre and Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Mary Major
Julius Riyadi Darmaatmadja 20 December 1934 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Jakarta
Jaime Lucas Ortega y Alamino 18 October 1936 77 Archbishop of San Cristóbal de la Habana
Gilberto Agustoni 26 July 1922 92 Prefect Emeritus of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Emmanuel Wamala 15 December 1926 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Kampala
William Henry Keeler 4 March 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Baltimore
Jean-Claude Turcotte 26 June 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Montreal
Ricardo María Carles Gordó 24 September 1926 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Barcelona
Adam Joseph Maida 18 March 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Detroit
Vinko Puljić 8 September 1945 68 Archbishop of Vrhbosna (Sarajevo)
Juan Sandoval Íñiguez 28 March 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Guadalajara
Consistory of 21 February 1998
Jorge Medina Estévez 23 December 1926 87 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Darío Castrillón Hoyos 4 July 1929 85 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Commission Ecclesia Dei and Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
James Francis Stafford 26 July 1932 82 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Salvatore De Giorgi 6 September 1930 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Palermo
Serafim Fernandes de Araújo 13 August 1924 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Belo Horizonte
Antonio María Rouco Varela 24 August 1936 77 Archbishop of Madrid
Dionigi Tettamanzi 14 March 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Milan
Polycarp Pengo 5 August 1944 69 Archbishop of Dar-es-Salaam
Christoph Schönborn, OP 22 January 1945 69 Archbishop of Vienna
Norberto Rivera Carrera 6 June 1942 72 Archbishop of Mexico
Francis Eugene George 16 January 1937 77 Archbishop of Chicago
Marian Jaworski 21 August 1926 87 Archbishop Emeritus of Lviv
Jānis Pujāts 14 November 1930 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Riga
Consistory of 21 February 2001
Agostino Cacciavillan 14 August 1926 87 President Emeritus of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Sergio Sebastiani 11 April 1931 83 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Zenon Grocholewski 11 October 1939 74 Prefect of the Congregation for Catholic Education
Crescenzio Sepe 2 June 1943 71 Archbishop of Naples
Jorge María Mejía 31 January 1923 91 Librarian and Archivist Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Walter Kasper 5 March 1933 81 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Ivan Dias 14 April 1936 78 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Geraldo Majella Agnelo 19 October 1933 80 Archbishop Emeritus of São Salvador da Bahia
Pedro Rubiano Sáenz 13 September 1932 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Bogotá
Theodore Edgar McCarrick 7 July 1930 84 Archbishop Emeritus of Washington
Desmond Connell 24 March 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Dublin
Audrys Juozas Bačkis 1 February 1937 77 Archbishop Emeritus of Vilnius
Francisco Javier Errázuriz Ossa 5 September 1933 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Santiago de Chile
Julio Terrazas Sandoval 7 March 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Santa Cruz de la Sierra
Wilfrid Fox Napier 8 March 1941 73 Archbishop of Durban
Oscar Andrés Rodríguez Maradiaga, SDB 29 December 1942 71 Archbishop of Tegucigalpa
Bernard Agré 2 March 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Abidjan
Juan Luis Cipriani Thorne 28 December 1943 70 Archbishop of Lima
Francisco Álvarez Martínez 14 July 1925 89 Archbishop Emeritus of Toledo
Cláudio Hummes 8 August 1934 79 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Clergy
José IV Policarpo 26 February 1936 78 Patriarch Emeritus of Lisbon
Severino Poletto 18 March 1933 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Turin
Cormac Murphy-O'Connor 24 August 1932 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Westminster
Edward Michael Egan 2 April 1932 82 Archbishop Emeritus of New York
Lubomyr Husar 26 February 1933 81 Major Archbishop Emeritus of Kyiv-Halych (Ukrainian Greek Catholic Church)
Karl Lehmann 16 May 1936 78 Bishop of Mainz
Roberto Tucci, SJ 19 April 1921 93 President Emeritus of the Administrative Committee of Radio Vatican
Consistory of 21 October 2003[12]
Angelo Scola 7 November 1941 72 Archbishop of Milan
Anthony Olubumni Okogie 16 June 1936 78 Archbishop Emeritus of Lagos
Bernard Panafieu 26 January 1931 83 Archbishop Emeritus of Marseille
Gabriel Zubeir Wako 27 February 1939 75 Archbishop of Khartoum
Carlos Amigo Vallejo 23 August 1934 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Seville
Justin Francis Rigali 19 April 1935 79 Archbishop Emeritus of Philadelphia
Keith O'Brien 17 March 1938 76 Archbishop Emeritus of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh
Eusebio Oscar Scheid 8 December 1932 81 Archbishop Emeritus of São Sebastião do Rio de Janeiro
Ennio Antonelli 18 November 1936 77 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Family
Peter Kodwo Appiah Turkson 11 October 1948 65 President of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Telesphore Placidus Toppo 13 October 1939 74 Archbishop of Ranchi
George Pell 8 April 1941 73 Archbishop of Sydney
Josip Bozanić 20 March 1949 65 Archbishop of Zagreb
Jean-Baptiste Phạm Minh Mẫn 5 March 1934[13] 80 Archbishop of Ho Chi Minh City
Philippe Barbarin 17 October 1950 63 Archbishop of Lyon
Péter Erdő 25 June 1952 62 Archbishop of Esztergom-Budapest
Marc Ouellet 8 June 1944 70 Prefect of the Congregation for Bishops
Consistory of 24 March 2006
Agostino Vallini 17 April 1940 74 Vicar General of Rome
Jorge Urosa 28 August 1942 71 Archbishop of Caracas
Gaudencio Borbon Rosales 10 August 1932 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Manila
Jean-Pierre Ricard 25 September 1944 69 Archbishop of Bordeaux
Antonio Cañizares Llovera 15 October 1945 68 Prefect of the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments
Nicolas Cheong Jin-suk 7 December 1931 81 Archbishop Emeritus of Seoul
Seán Patrick O'Malley, OFM Cap 29 June 1944 70 Archbishop of Boston
Stanisław Dziwisz 27 April 1939 75 Archbishop of Kraków
Carlo Caffarra 1 June 1938 76 Archbishop of Bologna
Joseph Zen Ze-Kiun [14] 13 January 1932 82 Bishop Emeritus of Hong Kong
Consistory of 24 November 2007
Seán Brady 16 August 1939 74 Archbishop of Armagh
Lluís Martínez Sistach 29 April 1937 77 Archbishop of Barcelona
André Armand Vingt-Trois 7 November 1942 71 Archbishop of Paris
Angelo Bagnasco 14 January 1943 71 Archbishop of Genoa
Théodore-Adrien Sarr 28 November 1936 77 Archbishop of Dakar
Oswald Gracias 24 December 1944 69 Archbishop of Bombay
Francisco Robles Ortega 2 March 1949 65 Archbishop of Guadalajara
Daniel DiNardo 23 May 1949 65 Archbishop of Galveston-Houston
Odilo Pedro Scherer 21 September 1949 64 Archbishop of São Paulo
John Njue 1944[15] 69 or 70 Archbishop of Nairobi
Estanislao Esteban Karlic 7 February 1926 88 Archbishop Emeritus of Paraná
Consistory of 20 November 2010
Raúl Eduardo Vela Chiriboga 1 January 1934 80 Archbishop Emeritus of Quito
Laurent Monsengwo Pasinya  Democratic Republic of the Congo 7 October 1939 74 Archbishop of Kinshasa
Paolo Romeo 20 February 1938 76 Archbishop of Palermo
Donald William Wuerl 12 November 1940 73 Archbishop of Washington
Raymundo Damasceno Assis 15 February 1937 77 Archbishop of Aparecida
Kazimierz Nycz 1 February 1950 64 Archbishop of Warsaw
Malcolm Ranjith 15 November 1947 66 Archbishop of Colombo
Reinhard Marx 21 September 1953 60 Archbishop of Munich and Freising
José Manuel Estepa Llaurens 1 January 1926 88 Military Archbishop Emeritus of Spain
Consistory of 18 February 2012
George Alencherry 19 April 1945 69 Major Archbishop of Ernakulam-Angamaly (Syro-Malabar Catholic Church)
Thomas Christopher Collins 16 January 1947 67 Archbishop of Toronto
Dominik Duka, OP 26 April 1943 71 Archbishop of Prague
Wim Eijk 22 June 1953 61 Archbishop of Utrecht
Giuseppe Betori 25 February 1947 67 Archbishop of Florence
Timothy Michael Dolan 6 February 1950 64 Archbishop of New York
Rainer Maria Woelki 18 August 1956 57 Archbishop of Berlin
John Tong Hon 31 July 1939 75 Bishop of Hong Kong
Lucian Mureșan 23 May 1931 83 Major Archbishop of Făgăraş and Alba Iulia (Romanian Greek-Catholic Church)
Consistory of 24 November 2012
Baselios Cleemis 15 June 1959 55 Major Archbishop of Trivandrum (Syro-Malankara Catholic Church)
John Onaiyekan 29 January 1944 70 Archbishop of Abuja
Rubén Salazar Gómez 22 September 1942 71 Archbishop of Bogotá
Luis Antonio Tagle 21 June 1957 57 Archbishop of Manila
Cardinals of the Order of Deacons[16]
Consistory of 21 October 2003[12]
Jean-Louis Tauran 3 April 1943 71 President of the Pontifical Council for Interreligious Dialogue, Cardinal Protodeacon since February 2011
Renato Raffaele Martino 23 November 1932 81 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Justice and Peace
Francesco Marchisano 25 June 1929 85 President Emeritus of the Office of Labor of the Apostolic See
Julián Herranz Casado 31 March 1930 84 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
Javier Lozano Barragán 26 January 1933 81 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Health Care Workers
Attilio Nicora 16 March 1937 77 President of the Financial Information Authority
Georges Marie Martin Cottier, OP 25 April 1922 92 Former Titular Archbishop of Tullia, retired as Pro-Theologian of the Pontifical Household and as Secretary-General of the International Theological Commission
Consistory of 24 March 2006
William Joseph Levada 15 June 1936 78 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Franc Rodé 23 September 1934 79 Prefect Emeritus of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Andrea Cordero Lanza di Montezemolo 27 August 1925 88 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of St. Paul Outside the Walls
Albert Vanhoye 23 July 1923 91 formerly rector of the Pontifical Biblical Institute and secretary of the Pontifical Biblical Commission
Consistory of 24 November 2007
Leonardo Sandri 18 November 1943 70 Prefect of the Congregation for the Oriental Churches
Giovanni Lajolo 3 January 1935 79 President Emeritus of the Governorate of Vatican City State
Paul Josef Cordes 5 September 1934 79 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum
Angelo Comastri 17 September 1943 70 Archpriest of St. Peter's Basilica, Vicar General for the Vatican City State, and President of the Fabric of St. Peter
Stanisław Ryłko 4 July 1945 69 President of the Pontifical Council for the Laity
Raffaele Farina 24 September 1933 80 Librarian and Archivist Emeritus of the Holy Roman Church
Giovanni Coppa 9 November 1925 88 Apostolic Nuncio Emeritus to Czech Republic
Consistory of 20 November 2010
Angelo Amato 8 June 1938 76 Prefect of the Congregation for the Causes of Saints
Robert Sarah 15 June 1945 69 President of the Pontifical Council Cor Unum
Francesco Monterisi 28 May 1934 80 Archpriest Emeritus of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls
Raymond Leo Burke 30 June 1948 66 Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura
Kurt Koch 15 March 1950 64 President of the Pontifical Council for Promoting Christian Unity
Paolo Sardi 1 September 1934 79 Patron of the Sovereign Military Order of Malta
Mauro Piacenza 15 September 1944 69 Major Penitentiary
Velasio de Paolis 19 September 1935 78 President Emeritus of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Gianfranco Ravasi 18 October 1942 71 President of the Pontifical Council for Culture
Elio Sgreccia 6 June 1928 86 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Academy for Life
Walter Brandmüller 26 January 1929 85 President Emeritus of the Pontifical Committee for Historical Sciences
Domenico Bartolucci 7 May 1917 97 Director Emeritus of the Sistine Chapel Choir
Consistory of 18 February 2012
Fernando Filoni 15 April 1946 68 Prefect of the Congregation for the Evangelization of Peoples
Manuel Monteiro de Castro 29 March 1938 76 Major Penitentiary Emeritus
Santos Abril y Castelló 21 September 1935 78 Archpriest of the Basilica di Santa Maria Maggiore
Antonio Maria Vegliò 3 February 1938 76 President of the Pontifical Council for the Pastoral Care of Migrants and Itinerants
Giuseppe Bertello 1 October 1942 71 President of the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State
Francesco Coccopalmerio 6 March 1938 76 President of the Pontifical Council for Legislative Texts
João Braz de Aviz 24 April 1947 67 Prefect of the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life
Edwin Frederick O'Brien 8 April 1939 75 Grand Master of the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem
Domenico Calcagno 3 February 1943 71 President of the Administration of the Patrimony of the Apostolic See
Giuseppe Versaldi 30 July 1943 71 President of the Prefecture for the Economic Affairs of the Holy See
Prosper Grech, O.S.A. 24 December 1925 88 Docent at various Roman universities and Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Karl Josef Becker 18 April 1928 86 Docent Emeritus at the Pontifical Gregorian University, and Consultor of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith
Consistory of 24 November 2012
James Michael Harvey 20 October 1949 64 Archpriest of the Basilica of Saint Paul Outside the Walls

Cardinals by nationality

Number of cardinals Nationality
47
19
10
9
8
6
4
3 – – – – – –
2 – – – – – – – – –
1 – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –  Lithuania – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – – –

Size of the College of Cardinals

The size of the College of Cardinals at any given moment has historically been limited by popes, ecumenical councils, and even the College itself. Over the period from 1099 to 1986, the total number of cardinals appointed was approximately 2900 (excluding possible undocumented 12th century cardinals, cardinals appointed during the Western Schism by pontiffs now considered to be antipopes, and subject to some other sources of uncertainty), nearly half of whom were created after 1655.[17]

See also

Notes

External links

  • The College of Cardinals — Holy See Press Office
  • GCatholic.com – extensive information on all cardinals since the 17th century
  • Cardinals of the Catholic Church – sortable list, often slightly out of date on deaths
  • Catholic-Hierarchy.org, with entry into extensive databases.
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