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Sailing at the 1956 Summer Olympics

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Title: Sailing at the 1956 Summer Olympics  
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Sailing at the 1956 Summer Olympics

Sailing
at the Games of the XVI Olympiad
Venues Port Phillip Bay
Dates First race: 26 November 1956 (1956-11-26)
Last race: 5 December 1956 (1956-12-05)
Sailors 153 from 28 countries
Boats 71
Top ranked countries
Sweden: 1st  2nd  3rd  
Denmark: 1st  2nd  3rd  
United States: 1st  2nd  3rd  

Sailing/Yachting is an Olympic sport starting from the Games of the 1st Olympiad (1896 Olympics in Greece. With the exception of 1904 and possible 1916 sailing was always a part of the Olympic program. The Sailing program of 1956 consisted of a total of five sailing classes (disciplines). For each class seven races were scheduled from 26 November to 5 December 1956 at Port Phillip Bay.

The sailing was done on the triangular type Olympic courses. The start was made in the center of a set of 8 numbered marks that were places in a circle. During the starting procedure the sequence of the marks was communicated to the sailors. By picking the mark that was most upwind the start could always be made upwind. This system is, at least in certain German lakes, still in use.

Venue

Port Phillip Bay a natural bay of about 725 square miles (1,900 km2) of water, free of reefs a mere 8 miles (13 km) from the Main Stadium of the Olympics. One can enter the bay from the Southern Ocean a narrow gap of about 3 km. Therefore the course areas are almost free of tidal streams. However there is a 0.5 m tidal rise. The winds are ideal for sailing. The predominant southerlies generates light airs in the morning. It freshens in the afternoon to up to 18 knots (33 km/h), and then easing and backing south-east in the evening.

Three circular courses were planned for the northern end of Port Phillip Bay, each using the 1936 system with 8 fixed buoy's with the start in the middle of the circle. At Sandringham for the Finn a course length of approximately 6 nautical miles (11 km) was used. For the 12 square metres and Star the length was set to about 10 nautical miles (19 km). The Dragon and 5.5 Metre were using a course length of 14 nautical miles (26 km).

Competition

Overview

Continents Countries Classes Boats Male Female
5 29 5 71 153 0

Continents

Countries

Countries that participated in the Sailing event of the 1956 Olympic Games.
Blue: Water
Gray: Never participated in OG
Dark Gray: Participated in earlier OG
Green: Country participated for the first time
Dark Blue: Country participated also on previous games
Red: Country boycotted the sailing event of the OG
 Argentina (ARG)  Australia (AUS)  Austria (AUT)
 Bahamas (BAH)  Belgium (BEL)  Bermuda (BER)
 Burma (BIR)  Brazil (BRA)  Canada (CAN)
 Cuba (CUB)  Denmark (DEN)  Fiji (FIJ)
 Finland (FIN)  France (FRA)  Great Britain (GBR)
 Germany (GER)  Greece (GRE)  Ireland (IRL)
 Italy (ITA)  Norway (NOR)  New Zealand (NZL)
 Portugal (POR)  South Africa (RSA)  Singapore (SIN)
 Sweden (SWE)  Thailand (THA)  Soviet Union (URS)
 United States (USA)

Classes (equipment)

Class Type Event Sailors Trapeze Mainsail Jib/Genoa Spinnaker First OG Olympics so far
Finn Dinghy 1 0 + 1952 2
12m2 Sharpie Dinghy 2 0 + + 1956 1
Star Keelboat 2 0 + + 1932 5
Dragon Keelboat 3 0 + + + 1948 3
5.5 Metre Keelboat 3 0 + + + 1952 2

= Male, = Female, = Open

1956 Olympic Classes designs
 

Medal summary

Event Gold Silver Bronze

1956: Finn

 Denmark (DEN)
Paul Elvstrøm
 Belgium (BEL)
André Nelis
 United States (USA)
John Marvin



1956: 12 Square meter Sharpie

 New Zealand (NZL)
Peter Mander
Jack Cropp
 Australia (AUS)
Rolland Tasker
John Scott
 Great Britain (GBR)
Jasper Blackall
Terence Smith



1956: Star

 United States (USA)
Herbert Williams
Lawrence Low
 Italy (ITA)
Agostino Straulino
Nicolò Rode
 Bahamas (BAH)
Durward Knowles
Sloane Farrington



1956: Dragon

 Sweden (SWE)
Folke Bohlin
Bengt Palmquist
Leif Wikström
 Denmark (DEN)
Ole Berntsen
Cyril Andresen
Christian von Bülow
 Great Britain (GBR)
Graham Mann
Ronald Backus
Jonathan Janson



1956: 5.5 Metre

 Sweden (SWE)
Lars Thörn
Hjalmar Karlsson
Sture Stork
 Great Britain (GBR)
Robert Perry
David Bowker
John Dillon
Neil Kennedy-Cochran-Patrick
 Australia (AUS)
Jock Sturrock
Douglas Buxton
Devereaux Mytton

Medal tables

Sailing 1956

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Sweden (SWE) 2 0 0 2
2  Denmark (DEN) 1 1 0 2
3  United States (USA) 1 0 1 2
4  New Zealand (NZL) 1 0 0 1
5  Great Britain (GBR) 0 1 2 3
6  Australia (AUS) 0 1 1 2
7  Belgium (BEL) 0 1 0 1
 Italy (ITA) 0 1 0 1
9  Bahamas (BAH) 0 0 1 1
Total 5 5 5 15

Sailing 1896–1956

 Rank  Nation Gold Silver Bronze Total
1  Norway 14 9 1 24
2  Great Britain 11 5 5 21
3  Sweden 7 7 7 21
4  United States 7 3 3 13
5  France 5 7 7 19
6  Denmark 3 4 1 8
7  Netherlands 3 3 4 10
8  Belgium 2 3 1 6
9  Italy 2 1 0 3
10  Germany 1 2 2 5
11  New Zealand 1 0 0 1
  Switzerland 1 0 0 1
 Mixed team (ZZX) 1 0 0 1
14  Finland 0 1 5 6
15  Australia 0 1 1 2
 Canada 0 1 1 2
 Portugal 0 1 1 2
18  Argentina 0 1 0 1
 Bahamas 0 0 1 1
 Cuba 0 1 0 1
21  Spain 0 0 1 1
 Estonia 0 0 1 1
 Russia 0 0 1 1
Total 23 58 50 43 151

Remarks

Olympic boycott

1956 was the first time in history that several countries decided to boycott the Olympics. The boycott that influenced the sailing the most was probably that of The Netherlands, Spain, and Switzerland. They withdrew to protest against the Soviet Union invasion of Hungary during the 1956 Hungarian Revolution and Soviet presence at the Games. At that time The Netherlands dominated at the International competition in the 12m2 Sharpie.

Sailing

  • This Olympic sailing event was gender independent, but tuned out to be a Mens only event. This was one of the triggers to create gender specific events. This however had to wait until 1988.
  • Classes were hosted by several local yacht clubs:
    • Sandringham Yacht Club: Finn
    • Elwood Sailing Club: 12m2 Sharpie
    • Royal St. Kilda Yacht Club: Star
    • Royal Brighton Yacht Club: Dragon
    • Royal Yacht Club of Victoria: 5.5 Metre
  • The Royal St. Kilda Yacht Club was also the Sailing Headquarters
  • Thirty-five Finn boats were built by a Melbourne firm of yacht builders. Other than in Helsinki, they were cold moulded shells of Queensland maple veneer. The mast and boom were of sitka spruce.
  • The weather, throughout the series, was fine, with moderate sea breezes and pleasant sunshine. Except on 29 November th when the races in the Finn were postponed, several 12m2 Meter Sharpies capzised, only 5 out of 13 Sharpies could finish and the 5.5 Metre's of the Soviet Union and South Africa were dismasted.
  • The courses were set by the Royal Australian Navy. The vessels: H.M.A.S. Warramunga, H.M.A.S. Swan and H.M.A.S. Sprightly acted as starting vessels.

Sailors

During the Sailing regatta's at the 1956 Summer Olympics among others the following persons were competing in the various classes:

At the 1956 Olympic Games

Notes

References

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