World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Samar (province)

 

Samar (province)

Province of Samar
Province
Probinsya han Samar
Flag of Province of Samar
Flag
Official seal of Province of Samar
Seal
Nickname(s): "Home of the World's Third Largest Cave System"
"Home of the Second Largest Cave System in Asia"
"The Caving Capital of the Philippines"
Country
Region (Region VIII)
Founded 1768 (Separation from the former Province of Samar and Leyte)
1965 (Partition into 3 Provinces)
Capital Catbalogan City
Government
 • Type Province of the Philippines
 • Governor Sharee Ann T. Tan (NPC)
 • Vice Governor Stephen James T. Tan (NP)
 • 2nd District Representative Milagrosa T. Tan (NPC)
 • 1st District Representative Mel Senen S. Sarmiento (Liberal)
Area[1]
 • Total 6,048.03 km2 (2,335.16 sq mi)
Area rank 10th out of 81
 • Rank 36th out of 81
 • Density rank 64th out of 81
Divisions
 • Independent cities 0
 • Component cities 2
 • Municipalities 24
 • Barangays 951
 • Districts 1st and 2nd districts of Samar
Time zone PHT (UTC+8)
ZIP Code 6700 - 6725
Spoken languages Waray-Waray, Cebuano, Tagalog, English
Website

Samar officially (Waray-Waray:) Probinsya han Samar (Filipino: Lalawigan ng Samar, English: Province of Samar) is a province in the Philippines located in the Eastern Visayas region. Its capital is Catbalogan City and covers the western portion of Samar Island as well as several islands in the Samar Sea located west of the mainland. Fishing and agriculture are the major economic activities of the province.[2]

The province is bordered to the north by Province of Northern Samar to the east by the Province of Silangang Samar to west by the provinces of Masbate and Biliran and to the south by the City of Tacloban, Province of Leyte and Leyte Gulf. Samar is connected to island Leyte via San Juanico Bridge, which spans the San Juanico Strait, the narrowest strait in the world.

In 1768, the Province of Samar was created after the former Province of Samar and Leyte was split into two independent provinces. Before its partition, Samar province occupies the whole island of Samar and its adjacent islands and islets. In 1965, the Northern Samar province and Silangang Samar province was carved out of the single Samar Island Province.

On 8 November 2013, the province was significantly damaged by Super Typhoon Yolanda (Haiyan), specifically the towns of Basey and Marabut.

Contents

  • Geography 1
    • Topography 1.1
    • Climate and rainfall 1.2
    • Subdivisions 1.3
  • History 2
    • Significant events 2.1
    • Famous residents 2.2
  • Demographics 3
    • Religion 3.1
    • Languages and dialects 3.2
  • Engineering Offices and Public Works for Roads and Highways 4
    • Water Second District of Province 4.1
  • List of former Governors of Samar 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7

Geography

Samar island occupies the eastern portion of the Philippines. It lies southeast of Luzon and occupies the northernmost section of Eastern Visayas. It is separated from Luzon on the north by San Bernardino Strait and from Leyte on the southwest by the narrow San Juanico Strait. It is bounded on the east by the Pacific Ocean, on the south by Leyte Gulf and on the west by the Samar Sea.

Topography

Samar province is hilly, with mountain peaks ranging from 200 to 800 metres (660 to 2,620 ft) high and narrow strips of lowlands, which tend to lie in coastal peripheries or in the alluvial plains and deltas accompanying large rivers. The largest lowlands are located along the northern coast extending up to the valleys of Catubig and Catarman rivers. Smaller lowlands in Samar are to be found in the Calbayog area and on the deltas and small valleys of Gandara and Ulot rivers. Slopes are generally steep and barren of trees due to deforestation. Run-off waters after heavy rains can provoke flooding in low-lying areas and the erosion of the mountains enlarges the coastal plains of the province.

Climate and rainfall

Areas of the Samar province that are characterized by having no dry season with a pronounced maximum rain period which usually occurs from December to January generally along or very near the eastern coast, and thus are open to the northeast monsoon. Municipalities in the southeastern part of the province experience this type of climate.

Those areas located in the northwestern part of the province have a more or less evenly distributed rainfall throughout the year.

Subdivisions

Political map of Samar

The province of Samar is composed of two congressional districts, 24 municipalities and two component cities. It has a total of 952 barangays.

Name Type Income
Class
District No. of
Barangays
Population
(2010)
Area
(km²)
Pop. density
(per km²)
Founding Year
Almagro Municipality
5th
I
23
11, 024
51.36
210
Basey Municipality
1st
II
51
50, 423
513.01
98
1591
Calbayog City Component City
1st
I
157
172, 778
880.74
200
1785 (Cityhood 1948)
Calbiga Municipality
4th
II
41
21, 434
283.70
76
1772
Catbalogan City (Provincial Capital) Component City
5th
II
57
94, 317
274.22
340
1596 (Cityhood 2007)
Daram Municipality
3rd
II
58
41, 322
140.26
290
1949
Gandara Municipality
2nd
I
69
31, 943
573.49
56
1729
Hinabangan Municipality
4th
II
21
12, 651
460.08
27
1948
Jiabong Municipality
5th
II
34
17, 075
67.70
250
1882 (Reestablished 1948)
Marabut Municipality
5th
II
24
15, 115
143.55
110
1949
Matuguinao Municipality
5th
I
20
6, 746
172.51
39
1965
Motiong Municipality
4th
II
30
14, 829
174.40
85
1948
Pagsanghan Municipality
5th
I
13
8, 024
30.00
270
Paranas Municipality
2nd
II
44
29, 327
556.12
53
1880
Pinabacdao Municipality
4th
II
24
16, 208
183.06
89
1749 (Reestablishment 1946)
San Jorge Municipality
4th
I
41
16, 340
241.20
68
1979
San Jose de Buan Municipality
4th
II
14
6, 563
366.90
18
1969
San Sebastian Municipality
6th
II
14
7, 708
39.07
200
1950
Sta. Margarita Municipality
4th
I
36
24, 850
129.12
190
1892
Sta. Rita Municipality
3rd
II
38
38, 082
411.77
92
1863 (Reestablishment 1908)
Sto. Niño Municipality
5th
I
13
13, 504
29.53
460
Tagapul-an Municipality
5th
I
14
7, 828
28.70
270
1976
Talalora Municipality
6th
II
11
7, 983
27.96
290
1947
Tarangnan Municipality
4th
I
41
24, 146
132.49
180
1884
Villareal Municipality
4th
II
38
26, 221
98.54
270
1768
Zumarraga Municipality
5th
II
25
16, 936
38.55
440
1863

History

Significant events

  • Arrival of the First Missionaries Jesuits - On October 15, 1596 the first Jesuit Mission arrived in Tinago (now Dapdap) in Tarangnan. From Tinagon, the missionaries Fr. Francisco De Otazo, Bartolome Martes, and Domingo Alonzo began teaching Catechism healing the sick and spread the Christian faith into the interior settlements. And that faith planted 400 years ago, is very much alive among the People of Samar.
  • Sumuroy Rebellion - On June 1, 1649, the people of Palapag led by Agustin Sumuroy revolted against the decree of Governor General Diego Fajardo requiring able bodied men from the Visayas for service at the Cavite Shipyards. Like fire, the revolt quickly spread the neighboring town in the Northern and Western coast of Samar and to the nearby provinces of Bicol, Surigao, Cebu, Camiguin and as far as Zamboanga. It was suppressed in 1650 by the combined forces of the Spaniards, Lutaos, and Pampangos. There ended the saga of Sumuroy that brought renown to the SAMAREÑOS.
  • Origin of name - Samar said to be derived from Samad, the Visayan word for “wound or cut”, which aptly describes the rough physical features of the land which is rugged and deeply dissected by streams.
  • Royal Decree declares Samar as a Province - On August 11, 1841. Queen Isabella II of Spain signed a Royal Decree declaring Samar as a prvince. Independent of Leyte and Cebu and Administered,
  • Balangiga Incident - September 28, 1901, the people of Balangiga, Giporlos, Lawaan and Quinapondan in Eastern Samar surprised and attacked the American forces station there, killing 48 American soldiers. This has been the most glorious victory of the Filipinos in the entire Philippine–American War. To avenge their defeat an American general (Gen. Jacob H. Smith) ordered his men to turn Samar into a “howling wilderness”.


  • 1543 The explorer Ruy López de Villalobos, first came to the island and named it Las Islas Filipinas.
  • 1596 Many names (such as Samal, Ibabao, Tandaya) were given to Samar Island prior to the coming of the Spaniards in 1596. The name Samar was derived from the local language samad, meaning "wound" or "cut", aptly describing the rough physical features of the island, rugged and deeply dissected by streams. During the early days of Spanish occupation, Samar was under the jurisdiction of Cebu.
  • 1649 to 1650 Sumuroy Revolt in Palapag (northern part of Samar island). The first organized rebellion of the Filipinos against the Spanish colonizers, led by Agustin Sumuroy.
  • 1735 Samar and Leyte were united into one province with Carigara, in Leyte, as the capital town.
  • 1768 Samar again became a separate province in 1768.
  • 1900 The Battle of Catubig(April 15–18, 1900) occurred during the Philippine–American War. On April 15, 1900, the Filipino guerillas launched a surprise attack on a detachment of US 43rd Infantry Regiment, forcing the Americans to abandon Catubig town after the four-day siege.
  • 1901 The Balangiga massacre occurred during the Philippine–American War.
  • 1941 The invasion by the Japanese via fighter and bomber planes.
  • 1941 to 1942 Filipino troops of the 91st Infantry Division, Philippine Commonwealth Army, and USAFFE (under the Visayan-Mindanao Force) were established, but all fell to the invading Japanese forces. The general headquarters in Samar also fell to the Japanese. This resulted in the defeat of the Filipino troops of the USAFFE 91st Division.
  • 1942 The occupying Imperial Japanese forces arrived in the province of Samar.
  • 1942 to 1944 * During the occupation, thousands of local Samareños - men and women - joined guerrilla groups in the province and helped local Filipino troops of the Philippine Commonwealth Army units fight the Japanese Imperial forces which led to the latter's defeat and started the pre-Allied liberation.
    • The 4th, 9th, 93rd, 95th and 96th Infantry Divisions of the Philippine Commonwealth Army were re-established from 1942 to 1946 at the military general headquarters and military camps. The military unit organizations started the anti-Japanese military operations in the province from 1942 to 1945.
    • The 96th Infantry Division of the Philippine Commonwealth Army was founded and established from 1942 to 1946 at the military general headquarters in the province of Samar.
    • The Philippine Guerrilla Forces or PGF were established from 1942 to 1945 as a guerrilla resistance organization with headquarters in San Andres, Villareal, Samar.
  • 1944 The Battle off Samar took place on October 24 as Vice Admiral Takeo Kurita's Center Force warships clashed with several allied naval vessels in a collision course. His forces sank escort carrier USS Gambier Bay (CVE-73), destroyers USS Hoel (DD-533) and USS Johnston (DD-557), and escort destroyer USS Samuel B. Roberts (DE-413), but at a cost of his cruisers Chikuma, Chokai, and Suzuya. Despite being a tactical victory for the Imperial Japanese Navy, it did not alter the course of the Philippines campaign.
  • 1944 to 1945 Combined U.S. and Philippine Commonwealth military forces, including recognized guerrillas, liberated the province of Samar and defeated Imperial Japanese forces. The local Filipino soldiers, under the USAFFE 91st and the 4th, 9th, 93rd, 95th and 96th Infantry Divisions of the Philippine Commonwealth Army and 9th Infantry Regiment of the Philippine Constabulary, started the battles in Samar and fought against Japanese troops.
  • 1945 Filipino and Filipino-American soldiers under the 1st Filipino Infantry Regiment of the United States Army began the Battle of Samar and aided the local Filipino soldiers of the Philippine Commonwealth Army 4th, 9th, 91st, 93rd, 95th and 96th Infantry Divisions and the Philippine Constabulary 9th Infantry Regiment, the local Samareño guerrilla resistance and the U.S. liberation forces defeated the Japanese liberating the province of Samar.
  • 1965 On June 19, the Philippine Congress along with the three Samar Representatives, Eladio T. Balite (1st District), Fernando R. Veloso (2nd District) and Felipe J. Abrigo (3rd District), approved Republic Act No. 4221 dividing the region of Samar into three divisions: North Samar, East Samar, West Samar. Each region adopted a new capital: Catbalogan (Western Samar), Borongan (Eastern Samar), and Catarman (Northern Samar).
  • 1969 On June 21, under Republic Act No. 5650, Western Samar was renamed Samar with Catbalogan still as the capital.

Famous residents

  • Captain Luciano Sinko - Aide de Camp of General Lukban the first Representative of Samar to the First Philippine National Assembly. Who was born on January 7, 1873, son of Mr.and Mrs. Juan Sinko. He had two wives namely, his first wife was Petrona Tanseco and his 2nd wife was Victoria Sabater. Elected Municipal Councilor in 1907. Given posthumous Award for outstanding achievement in the field of government service during the First Samar Day Celebration.
  • Senator Esteban Quimbo Singzon - born in Calbiga, Samar. Son of Doroteo B. Singzon and Mamerta A. Quimbo. First senator of the ten senatorial districts of Samar and Leyte, 1915. One of the first Philippine senators.
  • His Eminence Bishop Pablo Singzon - the first Bishop of Samar and Leyte. He was born on January 25, 1851 in Calbiga, Samar, son of Esteban Singzon and Demetria Baeza. He first studied his primary years in Calbiga, Samar his native town under the direction of the Franciscan Fathers Fr. Antonio Figueroa Fr. Antonio Sanchez and Fr. Andres Congzon, a secular priest. He studied his secondary years in San Carlos Seminary, Cebu and entered in the Pontifical and Royal University of Santo Tomas – The Eternal City of Rome for his seminary. He was awarded a Medal from Pope Leo III, Bishop of Rome and become the first bishop of Samar and Leyte in 1910.
  • Pedro Rosell Arteche - the founder and leader of Philippine Guerilla forces of Samar. Born on April 21, 1900 in Barangay Kampondoy, Zumarraga, Samar. He was the son of late Nemesio Arteche and Pia Rosell. He was studied law. An active student leader and athlete, a man of principle, of firm conviction. and as a lawyer, he volunteered his service in deserving cases … of poor persons oppressed. While serving as Governor, he reminded the National Officials of the appointment of Samareños to top government positions and was successful.
  • Bruna "Bunang" Fabrigar - known as the "Joan of Arc of Samar". One of the historic Pulahan leader in Samar. “Bunang”, as she was popularly called, was described as a kind, religious, a hero, attractive women, a mananambal (faith-healer), and a brave leader. Bruna Fabrigar's red “magic saya” she was used as her shield against bullets. She is from Paranas, Samar and she served as the people’s “mananambal”. She believes that faith in God could conquer the enemies.

Demographics

Catbalogan City

Religion

Samar (Western Samar) is predominantly Roman Catholic. The Catholic Hierarchy (2014) states that 95 percent of its population adhere to Roman Catholicism. Some other Christian believers constitute most of the remainder such as Born Again Christians, Iglesia Ni Cristo, Baptists, Methodists, Jehovah's Witnesses Church of Christ of Latter Day Saints and Seventh-day Adventist. Muslims are also present

Languages and dialects

Languages Spoken (2000)[4]
Language Speakers
Waray
  
585,342
Cebuano
  
37,912
Binisaya
  
4,069
Tagalog
  
2,340
Boholano
  
877
Others
  
4,223
Not Reported
  
5,316

Residents of Samar are mostly Waray, the sixth largest cultural-linguistic group in the country. 90.2 percent of the household population speaks the Waray-Waray language, while 9.8 percent also speak Cebuano; 8.1 percent Boholano; 0.07 percent Tagalog; and 0.5 percent other languages.

There are two types of Waray spoken in the province, Waray Lineyte-Samarnon which is spoken from the southernmost tip of the province up to the municipality of Gandara and Waray Calbayog, an intermediary between the Waray of Northern Samar and the Waray of Samar, spoken in Calbayog City, Santa Margarita, and in some parts of Tagapul-an, Santo Niño and Almagro.

Cebuano is spoken in some parts of the first district of Samar, mainly in Calbayog City, Almagro, Santo Niño and Tagapul-an. English and Chinese languages are also spoken.


Engineering Offices and Public Works for Roads and Highways

The Provincial Engineering for Provincial Roads, and the Second District Public Works and Highways for National Road were merged. The organizational chart of DPWH (Department of Public Works and Highways) which funds are from DPWH Regional Office 8 drop by from DPWH National Office.

Provincial Engineering Office funds are from the Internal Revenue Allotment of the Province including its Provincial Collections and Taxes. Motion are from the Baranggay then to the Municipal Level then to the Provincial Board Member of two Districts either where the baranggay is located in districtily, then signed by the Vice-Governor, approved for budgeting by the Governor. Program of works from the Engineering Office will be accounted by the Provincial Accountant Office for latest prices then approved and the Provincial Treasury will release fund for the said Proposal accounted by the governor. A public bidding will be conducted for the Project.

Water Second District of Province

Water sources are develop and maintained by the Provincial Second District Public Works Engineering, The Baŋgon Falls or (Pisak han Baŋgun) is located at Grid Coordinates (North Latitude 11.79817/ East Longitude 124.90042) it has a Concrete Water Barrage with embedded pipelines that water is forwarded to downtown by gravity and is Controlled at a Valve Station with Grid Coordinates (N11.77825/E124.88564) according to recorded daily consumption of every Household. Distribution pipelines are up to Atigbang Maulong, but has low water head due to the hill, an elevation near the Iglesia ni Cristo.

This presa in Baŋgun falls is supplied with cylindrical magnetic turbine and enclosed with wire winding insulated and inside and along the direction of flow of distribution pipelines of water it produces electricity for limited Wattage only depending on cityfolks consumption of water, the more they use the water the larger the wattage. It is the town Back Up Electric Supply during blackout. City electric source from Wright Sub-Station, NAPOCOR drop vicinity (Paranas) from Tongonan Geothermal (Steam) Powered Electric Generator, safety switch is located at kilometro pero, and before the external lines out of the poblacion safety switch in-case of an overloading.

List of former Governors of Samar

  • Maximo Cinco - 1908–1910
  • Vicente Jasmines - 1910–1916
  • Clodualdo Lucero - 1916–1922
  • Juan Sulse - 1922–1931
  • Felipe Abrigo - 1932–1934, 1937–1940
  • Cayetano Lucero - 1940–1944
  • Vicente Dira (Japanese Appointee) - 1944–1945
  • Gerardo Morrero - 1945–1946
  • Baltazar Avelino - 1946–1950
  • Decoroso Rosales - 1950–1955
  • Fernando Veloso - 1955–1960
  • Vicente Valley - 1960–1963
  • Esteban Piczon - 1963–1967
  • Jose Roño - 1967–1973
  • Pablo Cinco - 1973–1976
  • Tomas O. Ricalde - 1976–1986
  • Antonio M. Bolastig - 1986–1995
  • Jose Roño - 1995–2001
  • Milagrosa T. Tan - 2001–2010

References

  1. ^ "List of Provinces". PSGC Interactive. Makati City, Philippines: National Statistical Coordination Board. Retrieved 12 April 2013. 
  2. ^ http://www.samar.lgu-ph.com/econo.htm Economical Data
  3. ^
  4. ^ Table 5. Household Population by Ethnicity and Sex: Samar (Western), 2000

External links

  • Official Website of the City Government of Calbayog
  • Official Website of the City Government of Catbalogan
  • Samar News.com—based in Catbalogan, it is a source of news and information on Eastern Visayas.
  • Province of Samar—Profile of the Samar province
  • Philippine Standard Geographic Code
  • Philippine Census Information
  • Local Governance Performance Management System
  • Geographic data related to Samar (province) at OpenStreetMap
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.