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Same-sex marriage in Belgium

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Title: Same-sex marriage in Belgium  
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Subject: Same-sex marriage, Same-sex union legislation, Recognition of same-sex unions in Europe, Same-sex marriage in Denmark, Same-sex marriage in Portugal
Collection: Lgbt Rights in Belgium, Same-Sex Marriage by Country
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Same-sex marriage in Belgium

Legal status of same-sex unions
  1. When performed in Mexican states that have legalized same-sex marriage
  2. When performed in the Netherlands proper

* Not yet in effect

LGBT portal

On 1 June 2003, Belgium became the second country in the world to legalize same-sex marriage, after the Netherlands. "Statutory cohabitation", open to any two cohabiting persons, is also possible since 1 January 2000.


  • History 1
    • Verhofstadt Government 1.1
    • Subsequent changes 1.2
  • Statistics 2
  • Public opinion 3
  • See also 4
  • References 5


Laws regarding same-sex partnerships in Europe
  Foreign marriages recognized
  Other type of partnership
  Unregistered cohabitation
  Constitution limits marriage to same-sex couples

Includes laws that have not yet gone into effect.

In the late 1990s, gay rights organizations in Belgium lobbied for the legalization of same-sex marriage. Belgian civil law did not explicitly require that two people be of opposite gender to be able to marry, as this was considered self-evident. Private member's bills in the 1990s by Vlaams Blok senators to add this as an explicit requirement were never considered.[1][2]

In 1995, a bill was introduced in Parliament to provide for a legal framework of "cohabitation agreements". It was mostly intended as a response to the lowering marriage rates, rather than giving rights to same-sex couples. In 1998, the bill was changed to "statutory cohabitation" (Dutch: wettelijke samenwoning; French: cohabitation légale) and finally voted on. The Chamber of Representatives approved it by a 98–10 vote with 32 abstentions and the Senate by a 39–8 vote with 19 abstentions. The Act of 23 November 1998 gives limited rights to registered same-sex and opposite-sex couples by inserting a Title V-bis on statutory cohabitation in the Belgian Civil Code and by amending certain provisions of the Belgian Civil Code and the Belgian Judicial Code. However, being a couple is not a requirement to make a declaration of statutory cohabitation; relatives can do so too. The law was legally published on 12 January 1999 but not yet in effect.

Verhofstadt Government

The election programmes of the SP (Flemish social democrats), Agalev (Flemish Greens) and VLD (Flemish liberals) for the 13 June 1999 elections included the aim to legalise same-sex marriage. The new Verhofstadt I Government was formed, which was notably made up of a coalition of liberal, socialist and green parties and excluded the long-dominant Christian democrats, who lost the elections due to the Dioxin Affair. The coalition agreement included "implementing a full legal partnership scheme" as well as "immediately making the Act of 23 November 1998 enter into force", which had not been done yet.[3] A royal order signed on 14 December and published on 23 December 1999 made the Act of statutory cohabitation go into effect on 1 January 2000.[4]

During 1999, the

  1. ^ Wetsvoorstel tot aanvulling van het Burgerlijk Wetboek door de opneming van het geslachtsverschil als huwelijksnorm
  2. ^ Wetsvoorstel tot aanvulling van het Burgerlijk Wetboek door de opneming van het geslachtsverschil als huwelijksnorm
  3. ^ De brug naar de eenentwintigste eeuw - regeerakkoord / La voie vers le XXIème siècle - accord de gouvernement - 7 July 1999
  4. ^ Major legal consequences of marriage, cohabitation and registered partnership for different-sex and same-sex partners in Belgium
  5. ^ "'"Aelvoet: 'huwelijk open voor holebi's. De Standaard. 1 April 2001. 
  6. ^ "Roos huwelijk nog niet bezegeld". De Standaard. 2 April 2001. 
  7. ^ "Ministerraad maakt homohuwelijk mogelijk". Het Belang van Limburg. 22 June 2001. 
  8. ^ "Raad van State geeft negatief advies over homohuwelijk". De Standaard. 30 November 2001. 
  9. ^ "'Advies diametraal tegenover veranderde tijdsgeest'". De Standaard. 30 November 2001. 
  10. ^ Legislative record of the same-sex marriage bill in Dutch and in French, by the Belgian Senate.
  11. ^ "Belgium to follow Holland on gay marriage". RTÉ News. 29 November 2002. 
  12. ^ "Belgium legalizes gay marriage". UPI. 31 January 2003. 
  13. ^ "Belgium approves same-sex marriage". PlanetOut. 30 January 2003. 
  14. ^ "Arbitragehof verwerpt verzoek tot vernietiging homohuwelijk". De Standaard. 20 October 2004. 
  15. ^ "Belgium backs gay adoption plans". BBC News. 2 December 2005. 
  16. ^ "Belgium moves to allow gay adoption". Euronews. 2 December 2005. 
  17. ^ "Belgium passes gay adoption law". BBC News. 21 April 2006. 
  18. ^ Wetsontwerp tot wijziging van een aantal bepalingen van het Burgerlijk Wetboek, teneinde de adoptie door personen van hetzelfde geslacht mogelijk te maken, Senate
  19. ^ "Dra een oplossing voor lesbische meemoeders?". 4 January 2014. 
  20. ^ "Belgium Reaches 2,500 Gay Marriages". 365Gay. 2005-05-22. Retrieved 2012-02-05. 
  21. ^ Aantal personen betrokken bij een huwelijk met iemand van hetzelfde geslacht, per provincie (2004—2010)
  22. ^ a b Based on 2004–2013 data from Statistics Belgium: same-sex marriages compared to all marriages.
  23. ^ "Eurobarometer 2006" (PDF). 2006. 
  24. ^ "'"De Nationale Familie-enquête 'En hoe leeft u? (PDF) (in Nederlands). Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  25. ^ "Familie-enquête 2008" (in Nederlands). Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  26. ^ "Same-Sex Marriage". Ipsos. 7–21 May 2013. 
  27. ^ (French) Enquête sur la droitisation des opinions publiques européennes
  28. ^ Special Eurobarometer 437


See also

The 2015 Eurobarometer found that 77% of Belgians thought that same-sex marriage should be allowed throughout Europe, 20% were against.[28]

According to the Ifop poll, conducted in May 2013, 71% of Belgians supported allowing same-sex couples to marry and adopt children.[27]

A May 2013 Ipsos poll found that 67% of respondents were in favour of same-sex marriage and another 12% supported other form of recognition for same-sex couples.[26]

A 2008 survey by Delta Lloyd Life found that 76% of Belgians accept same-sex marriage and 46% of Belgians think same-sex couples can raise children just as well as opposite-sex couples can.[24][25]

The 2006 Eurobarometer found that 62% of Belgian respondents think same-sex marriages should be allowed in Europe.[23]

Public opinion

Consequently the share of same-sex marriages among all marriages also differs significantly from region to region. Whereas almost 3% of marriages in both Brussels and Flanders are same-sex marriages, only 1.6% in Wallonia are. There is also a correlation between the share per province and the province's population density. The province with the lowest rate is Luxembourg (1.2%) and the one with the highest rate is Antwerp (3.4%), which are respectively the least and most populous and the least and most densily populated provinces.[22]

People in same-sex marriages (2004-2013) Number of (all)
marriages (2004-2013)
(1 January 2015)
Men Women Total
Flemish Region 6,974 (61.7%) 7,310 (72,5%) 14,284 (66.8%) 248,276 (57.9%) 6,444,127 (57.5%)
Brussels Region 2,187 (19.3%) 744 (7.4%) 2,931 (13.7%) 49,303 (11.5%) 1,175,173 (10.5%)
Walloon Region 2,148 (19.0%) 2.028 (20.1%) 4,176 (19.5%) 131,360 (30.6%) 3,589,744 (32.0%)
Belgium 11,309 (100%) 10,082 (100%) 21,391 (100%) 428,939 (100%) 11,209,044 (100%)

When comparing per region:[22]

Year Men Women Total Share among
all marriages
2004 1,244 894 2,138 2.47%
2005 1,160 894 2,054 2.38%
2006 1,191 1,057 2,248 2.51%
2007 1,189 1,111 2,300 2.52%
2008 1,148 1,035 2,183 2.39%
2009 1,133 894 2,027 2.46%
2010 1,062 1,102 2,164 2.57%
2011 1,108 1,033 2,141 2.61%
2012 1,086 1,017 2,103 2.49%
2013 988 940 1,928 2.55%
2004–2013 11,309 10,082 21,391 2.49%

According to the Belgian Official Journal, approximately 300 same-sex couples were married between June 2003 and April 2004 (245 in 2003 and 55 in 2004). This constituted 1.2 percent of the total number of marriages in Belgium during that period. Two thirds of the couples were male and one third female. On 22 July 2005, the Belgian government announced that a total of 2,442 same-sex marriages had taken place in the country since the extension of marriage rights two years earlier.[20] The following table summarizes the number of people married in same-sex marriages:[21]

Mayor of Liège, Willy Demeyer, officiating the wedding of a gay couple.


Since this change, female same-sex couples are treated equally to heterosexual couples: the co-mother married to the mother is automatically recognised as parent, and an unmarried partner can formally recognise the child at the civil registry. An equivalent solution for male same-sex couples has not been agreed upon, due to the controversy surrounding surrogacy.

A bill to this end was approved by the Senate on 3 April 2014 on a 48–2 vote (with one abstention), and by the Chamber of Representatives on 23 April on a 114–10 vote (with one abstention). The bill received royal assent on 5 May and went into effect on 1 January 2015. [19] A legal inequality compared to heterosexual couples still existed with regards to children: the husband of the biological mother is automatically legally recognised as the father (by article 135 of the Civil Code), but this was not the case in a same-sex couple for the wife of the mother. To be recognised as the co-mother, she had to complete an adoption procedure. This accounted for the large majority of adoption cases in Belgium. The

The same-sex marriage law did not permit adoption by same-sex partners, and as birth within a same-sex marriage did not imply affiliation, the same-sex spouse of the biological parent had no way to become the legal parent. A proposal to permit adoption was approved 77–62 (with 7 abstentions) by the Chamber of Representatives on 1 December 2005,[15][16] and 34–33 (with 2 abstentions) by the Senate on 20 April 2006.[17] It received royal assent on 18 May 2006 and went into force on 30 June 2006.[18]

Originally, Belgium allowed the marriages of foreign same-sex couples only if their country of origin also allowed these unions. Legislation enacted in October 2004 however, permits any couple to marry in Belgium if at least one of the spouses has lived in the country for a minimum of three months.

Subsequent changes

In October 2004, the Arbitration Court, now known as the Constitutional Court, rejected an attempt by opponents of same-sex marriage to have the law declared unconstitutional.[14] The main argument held that treating fundamentally different situations the same way, violates the equality principle of the Constitution.

  • in Dutch: Een huwelijk kan worden aangegaan door twee personen van verschillend of van hetzelfde geslacht.
  • in French: Deux personnes de sexe différent ou de même sexe peuvent contracter mariage.
(Two persons of different sex or of the same sex may contract marriage.)

The first paragraph of article 143 of the Belgian Civil Code (Book I, Title V, Chapter I) now reads as follows:

King Albert II signed and promulgated the bill on 13 February 2003 and on 28 February it was published in the Belgian Official Journal and came into force on 1 June.

The government bill was withdrawn, and in May 2002, the bill was introduced as a private member's bill (which does not require opinions by the Council of State) in the Senate by Jeannine Leduc (VLD), Philippe Mahoux (PS), Philippe Monfils (MR), Myriam Vanlerberghe (SP.A-Spirit), Marie Nagy (Ecolo) and Frans Lozie (Agalev). As Minister Aelvoet resigned on 28 August 2002 and elections were to be held in June 2003, the fate of the bill was unclear. Nevertheless, the bill passed in the Senate on 28 November 2002, with 46 votes to 15 (and 4 abstentions) and on 30 January 2003, the bill passed the Chamber of Representatives by 91 votes to 22 (and 9 abstentions).[10][11][12][13] The Flemish Liberals and Democrats, Christian People's Party, (Francophone) Socialist Party, (Flemish) Socialist Party, Ecolo, Agalev and the People's Union voted generally in favour except for several abstentions, whereas the Flemish Block and National Front voted against, the Christian Social Party voted against with several abstentions and the Reformist Movement voted dividedly.


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