World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sanctions (law)

Article Id: WHEBN0002112397
Reproduction Date:

Title: Sanctions (law)  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Community service, Punishment, Project Sabre II, Rail Safety Act, Director, Transport Safety
Collection: Court Systems, Legal Procedure, Punishments
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

Sanctions (law)

Sanctions, in law and legal definition, are penalties or other means of enforcement used to provide incentives for obedience with the law, or with rules and regulations.[1] Criminal sanctions can take the form of serious punishment, such as corporal or capital punishment, incarceration, or severe fines. Within the civil law context, sanctions are usually monetary fines, levied against a party to a lawsuit or his/her attorney, for violating rules of procedure, or for abusing the judicial process. The most severe sanction in a civil lawsuit is the involuntary dismissal, with prejudice, of a complaining party's cause of action, or of the responding party's answer. This has the effect of deciding the entire action against the sanctioned party without recourse, except to the degree that an appeal or trial de novo may be allowed because of reversible error.

As a noun, the term is usually used in the plural, even when it refers to a single event: if a judge fines a party, it is not said that he or she imposed a sanction, but that he or she imposed sanctions.

A judge may sanction a party during a legal proceeding, by which it is meant that he or she imposes penalties. In the United States federal court system, certain types of conduct are sanctionable under Rule 11 of the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure.

Conversely and sometimes confusingly, the word may be used to mean "approve of," especially in an official sense. "The law sanctions such behavior" would mean that the behavior spoken of enjoys the specific approval of law.

To sanction means to make a legal agreement. The word is derived from sanctus, to make holy. A legal agreement or sanction imposes approvals, rules, guidelines and penalties on conduct.

The Sanction is defined as an element associated with an accountability and which corresponds to the consequence resulting from the justification of the realisation (or not) of this accountability..[2]

References

  1. ^ Black, Henry Campbell (1990).  
  2. ^ Feltus C. (2014). "Aligning Access Rights to Governance Needs with the Responsibility MetaModel (ReMMo) in the Frame of Enterprise Architecture" (PDF). 

Bibliography

  • Herbert L. A. Hart, The Concept of Law, Oxford University Press, London, 1961;
  • Gerd Spittler, Norm und Sanktion. Untersuchungen zum Sanktionsmechanismus, Walter, Olten-Freiburg, 1967;
  • Norberto Bobbio, Sanzione, Novissimo Digesto, UTET, Torino, XVI, Torino, 1969, 530-540;
  • Niklas Luhmann, Rechtssoziologie, Rowohlt, Reinbek bei Hamburg, 1972;
  • Ota Weinberger, Der Sanktionsbegriff und die pragmatische Auswirkung gesellschaftlicher Normen, in H. Lenk, Hrsg., Normenlogik, Verlag Dokumentation, Pullach bei München, 1974, 89-111;
  • Lawrence M. Friedman, The Legal System. A Social Science Perspective, Russel Sage Foundation, New York, 1975;
  • Norberto Bobbio, Dalla struttura alla funzione. Nuovi studi di teoria del diritto, Comunità, Milano, 1977;
  • Vilhelm Aubert, On Sanctions, in “European Yearbook in Law and Sociology”, 1977, 1-19;
  • H. Kelsen, Allgemeine Theorie der Normen, Manzsche Verlags- und Universitätsbuchhandlung, Wien, 1979;
  • F. D’Agnostino, Sanzione, "Enciclopedia del diritto", XLI, Giuffrè, Milano, 1989, 303-328;
  • Ota Weinbeger, Rechtslogik, Duncker & Humblot, Berlin, 1989;
  • Charles-Albert Morand, Sanction, “Archives de Philosophie du droit”, XXXV, 1990, 293-312;
  • Heike Jung, Sanktionensysteme und Menschenrechte, Haupt, Bern-Stuttgart-Wien, 1992;
  • Juan Carlos Bayon, Sanction, Dictionnaire encyclopédique de théorie et de sociologie du droit, L.G.D.J., Paris, 1993, 536-540;
  • Realino Marra, Sanzione, "Digesto delle discipline privatistiche. Sezione civile", UTET, Torino, XVIII, 1998, 153-61.
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.