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Shanghai Pudong International Airport

 

Shanghai Pudong International Airport

Shanghai Pudong
International Airport

上海浦东国际机场
Shànghǎi Pǔdōng Guójì Jīchǎng
ICAO: ZSPD
Summary
Airport type Public
Operator Shanghai Airport Authority
Serves Shanghai
Location Pudong
Hub for
Elevation AMSL 4 m / 13 ft
Coordinates
Website
Map
PVG is located in Shanghai
PVG
PVG
Location of airport in Shanghai
Runways
Direction Length Surface
m ft
17L/35R 4,000 13,123 Concrete
16R/34L 3,800 12,467 Concrete
17R/35L 3,400 11,155 Concrete
16L/34R 3,800 12,467 Concrete
TBD 3,400 11,155
Statistics (2014)
Passengers 51,661,800
Cargo (tons) 3,178,200
Source:[1][2][3]
Shanghai Pudong International Airport
Traditional Chinese 上海浦東國際機場
Simplified Chinese 上海浦东国际机场

Shanghai Pudong International Airport (ICAO: ZSPD) is the primary international airport serving Shanghai, and a major aviation hub for Asia. The city's other major airport, Hongqiao, mainly serves domestic flights. Located about 30 kilometres (19 mi) east of the city centre, Pudong Airport occupies a 40-square-kilometre (10,000-acre) site adjacent to the coastline in eastern Pudong. The airport is operated by Shanghai Airport Authority (Chinese: 上海机场集团有限公司, SSE: 600009).

The airport is the main hub for China Eastern Airlines and Shanghai Airlines, and a major international hub for Air China. It is also the hub for privately owned Juneyao Airlines and Spring Airlines, and an Asian-Pacific cargo hub for UPS[4] and DHL. The DHL hub, opened in July 2012, is said to be the biggest express hub in Asia.[5]

Pudong Airport has two main passenger terminals, flanked on both sides by three parallel runways. A third passenger terminal is planned for 2015, in addition to a satellite terminal and two additional runways, raising its annual capacity from 60 million passengers to 80 million, along with the ability to handle six million tonnes of freight.[6]

Pudong Airport is a fast-growing hub for both passenger and cargo traffic. With 3,227,914 metric tonnes handled in 2010, the airport is the world's third busiest airport by cargo traffic. Pudong Airport also served a total of 51,651,800 passengers in 2014, making it the third busiest airport in mainland China and the 19th busiest in the world. As of December 2011, Pudong Airport hosted 87 airlines serving 194 destinations.[7]

Shanghai Pudong is the busiest international hub in mainland China, ranking 22nd globally in terms of international traffic.[8] About half of its total passenger traffic is international.[9]

Pudong Airport is connected to the city's urban rail network through Metro Line 2 and the Shanghai Maglev Train. The airport is open 24 hours a day.

The interior of Terminal 1

Contents

  • History 1
    • Early development 1.1
    • Ongoing expansion 1.2
    • Hongqiao flights 1.3
  • Composition 2
    • Terminal 1 2.1
    • Terminal 2 2.2
  • Airlines and destinations 3
    • Passenger 3.1
    • Cargo 3.2
  • Ground transportation 4
    • Highway 4.1
    • Maglev Train 4.2
    • Shanghai Metro Line 2 4.3
    • Airport buses 4.4
  • Incidents and accidents 5
  • Photo gallery 6
  • See also 7
  • References 8
  • External links 9

History

Early development

Prior to the establishment of Pudong International Airport, Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport was the primary airport of Shanghai. During the 1990s, the expansion of Hongqiao Airport to meet growing demand became impossible as the surrounding urban area was developing significantly, and an alternative to assume all international flights had to be sought. A suitable site was selected on the coast of the Pudong development zone to the east of Shanghai.

Construction of the first phase of the new Shanghai Pudong International Airport began in October 1997, took two years to build at a cost of RMB 12 billion (1.67 billion USD), and was opened on October 1, 1999. It covers an area of 40 square kilometres (15 sq mi) and is 30 kilometres (19 mi) from downtown Shanghai. The first phase of the airport has one 4E category runway (4000 m x 60 m) along with two parallel taxiways, an 800,000-square-metre (8,600,000 sq ft) apron, seventy-six aircraft positions and a 50,000 m2 (540,000 sq ft) cargo warehouse.

A second runway was opened on March 17, 2005, and construction of phase two (including a second terminal, a third runway and a cargo terminal) began in December 2005 and started operation on March 26, 2008, in time for the Beijing 2008 Summer Olympics.

Ongoing expansion

In November 2011 Pudong Airport received approval from the national government for a new round of expansion which includes two runways. The 3,800-meter fourth runway, along with an auxiliary taxiway and traffic control facilities, is projected to cost 2.58 billion yuan (USD 403 million). The 3,400-meter fifth runway, along with a new traffic tower, will cost 4.65 billion yuan (USD 726.6 million). Construction is expected to be completed in 2015 and will double the capacity of the airport.[10][11]

Hongqiao flights

Limited international services resumed at Hongqiao Airport in October 2007 with flights to Tokyo International Airport (Haneda), in November 2007 with flights to Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, in June 2010 with flights to Taipei Songshan Airport and in September 2010 with flights to Hong Kong Airport. This is believed to be a major effort to provide convenience to business travelers, a practice already in place between Haneda and Gimpo for years. Hongqiao, Haneda, Gimpo, and Songshan are much closer to their respective metro centers than their newer but remote international gateways Pudong, Narita, Incheon, and Taoyuan.

Composition

The airport has 70 boarding bridges along with 218 parking positions. Four runways are in operation: one 4,000-metre (13,000 ft) runway with 4E rating (capable of accommodating aircraft up to Boeing 747-400) and six taxiways, two 3,800-metre (12,500 ft) runways with 4F rating (capable of accommodating aircraft up to Airbus A380, Boeing 747-8, and Antonov An-225) and four taxiways each, and one 3,400-metre (11,200 ft) runway with 4F rating and six taxiways.

Terminal 1

Terminal 1 was opened on October 1, 1999 along with a 4000m runway and including a cargo hub. It was built to handle the demand for traffic and to relieve Shanghai Hongqiao International Airport's traffic. Terminal 1 is shaped like Kansai International Airport's terminal, but it is shorter and with 28 gates, 13 of which are double decker gates. The exterior of the terminal is shaped like waves. The capacity of Terminal 1 is 20 million passengers. It currently has 204 check-in counters, thirteen luggage conveying belts and covering an area of 280,000 square meters.

Terminal 2

Terminal 2, opened on March 26, 2008, along with the third runway, gives a capacity of 60 million passengers and 4.2 million tonnes of cargo annually. Terminal 2 is shaped like the 1st terminal but it has more of a wave shaping, rather than a seagull shape and is slightly larger than Terminal 1. Terminal 2 is primarily used by Air China and other Star Alliance members but may be used by SkyTeam and Oneworld airlines.[12]

Shanghai Airlines moved to Terminal 2 upon its opening on March 26, 2008 with 14 other airlines, including Air India, Northwest Airlines, Qatar Airways, Alitalia, British Airways, Qantas, Virgin Atlantic Airways, Philippine Airlines, Malaysia Airlines, Transaero Airlines, Cebu Pacific, Aerosvit Airlines, Garuda Indonesia and Royal Nepal Airlines. Fellow Star Alliance partners Air Canada, Air China, Air New Zealand, ANA, Asiana Airlines, Lufthansa, Singapore Airlines, Thai Airways and United Airlines moved to the new terminal on April 29, 2008[13] such that more than 30 airlines are now operating at Terminal 2.[12]

Airlines and destinations

Passenger

Airlines Destinations Terminal
Aeroflot Moscow-Sheremetyevo 2
Aeroméxico Mexico City, Tijuana 2
AirAsia X Kuala Lumpur 2
Air Canada Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver 2
Air China Beijing-Capital, Changchun, Chengdu, Chongqing, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Fuzhou, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Harbin, Hohhot, Jinan, Jiuzhaigou, Kunming, Lanzhou, Melbourne, Milan-Malpensa, Munich, Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Sendai, Shenzhen, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Wenzhou, Xi'an, Xichang, Yinchuan
Seasonal: Fuyuan
2
Air China
operated by Dalian Airlines
Dalian 2
Air France Paris-Charles de Gaulle 1
Air India Delhi, Mumbai 2
Air Koryo Pyongyang[14] 1
Air Leisure Charter: Cairo, Aswan, Hurghada (begins 10 November 2015),[15] 1
Air Macau Macau 2
Air Mauritius Mauritius 2
Air New Zealand Auckland 2
All Nippon Airways Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Haneda,[16] Tokyo-Narita 2
American Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Los Angeles 2
Asiana Airlines Busan, Seoul-Incheon 2
Austrian Airlines Vienna (resumes 4 April 2016)[17] 2
Beijing Capital Airlines Haikou 2
British Airways London-Heathrow 2
Cambodia Angkor Air Phnom Penh, Siem Reap[18] 2
Cathay Pacific Hong Kong 2
Cebgo Kalibo 2
Cebu Pacific Clark, Kalibo, Manila 2
Chengdu Airlines Chengdu 2
China Airlines Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan 1
China Eastern Airlines Auckland,[19] Baise, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beihai, Beijing-Capital, Brisbane (begins 16 January 2016),[20] Busan, Changchun, Changsha, Chaoyang, Chengdu, Chiang Mai, Chifeng, Chongqing, Colombo, Daegu, Dalian, Datong, Dazhou, Delhi, Denpasar/Bali, Dubai-International, Dunhuang, Frankfurt, Fukuoka, Fuzhou, Ganzhou, Guangyuan, Guangzhou, Guiyang, Haikou, Handan, Harbin, Hefei, Heihe, Hiroshima, Ho Chi Minh City, Hohhot, Hong Kong, Honolulu, Jeju, Jieyang, Jinan, Jiuzhaigou, Kagoshima, Kathmandu, Komatsu, Kunming, Lanzhou, Lhasa, Linyi, Liping, Liuzhou, London-Heathrow, Los Angeles, Lüliang, Luzhou, Macau, Manila, Matsuyama, Melbourne, Mohe, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Muan, Mudanjiang, Nagasaki, Nagoya-Centrair, Naha, Nanchang, Nanchong, Nanjing, New York-JFK, Niigata, Ningbo, Okayama, Ordos, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Phnom Penh, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Qiqihar, Rome-Fiumicino, San Francisco, Sanya, Sapporo-Chitose, Seoul-Incheon, Shennongjia, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Shizuoka, Siem Reap, Singapore, Sydney, Taipei-Taoyuan, Taiyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Haneda,[21] Tokyo-Narita, Tonghua, Toronto-Pearson, Vancouver, Wenzhou, Wuhan, Xi'an, Xining, Yan'an, Yanji, Yantai, Yibin, Yichun, Yinchuan, Yulin, Yuncheng, Zhangjiakou, Zhangjiajie, Zhengzhou, Zhoushan, Zhuhai, Zunyi
Seasonal: Asahikawa, Cairns,[22] Kota Kinabalu, Langkawi
Charter: Saipan[23]
1
China Southern Airlines Changchun, Chengdu, Dalian, Dandong, Daqing, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Haikou, Harbin, Jiamusi, Kunming, Mudanjiang, Nagoya-Centrair, Nanning, Nanyang, Qingdao, Qiqihar, Sanya, Seoul-Incheon, Shenyang, Shenzhen, Taipei-Taoyuan, Ürümqi, Wuhan, Xi'an, Yanji, Zhengzhou, Zhuhai 2
Chongqing Airlines Chongqing 2
Delta Air Lines Detroit, Los Angeles, Seattle/Tacoma, Tokyo-Narita 1
Donghai Airlines Shenzhen 2
Dragonair Hong Kong 2
Eastar Jet Cheongju 2
Emirates Dubai-International 2
Ethiopian Airlines Addis Ababa 2
Etihad Airways Abu Dhabi 2
EVA Air Kaohsiung, Taipei-Taoyuan 2
Finnair Helsinki 2
Fuzhou Airlines Fuzhou 2
Garuda Indonesia Jakarta-Soekarno-Hatta 2
Hainan Airlines Beijing-Capital,[24] Boston,[25] Dalian, Haikou, Hohhot, Lanzhou, Seattle/Tacoma,[26] Taiyuan, Tianjin, Ürümqi, Weifang, Xi'an 2
Hebei Airlines Shijiazhuang 2
Hong Kong Airlines Hong Kong 2
Japan Airlines Nagoya-Centrair, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Haneda,[27] Tokyo-Narita 1
Jin Air Jeju 1
Juneyao Airlines Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Baotou, Beihai, Changchun, Changsha, Cheongju, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Dalian, Dongying, Fukuoka,[28] Fuzhou, Guilin, Guyuan,[29] Haikou, Hailar, Harbin, Hong Kong, Jeju, Kaohsiung, Krabi, Lijiang, Macau, Nagoya-Centrair,[30] Naha, Osaka-Kansai, Phuket, Qianjiang, Qingdao, Sanya, Shenyang, Shijiazhuang, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Haneda,[31] Tongliao, Wuhan, Xiamen, Xi'an, Xiangyang, Xining, Yangyang, Yinchuan, Zhongwei,[32] Zhuhai 2
KLM Amsterdam 1
Korean Air Busan, Seoul-Incheon 1
Kunming Airlines Kunming 2
Lucky Air Kunming 2
Lufthansa Frankfurt, Munich 2
Mahan Air Tehran-Imam Khomeini 2
Malaysia Airlines Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur 2
Mega Maldives Malé 2
Philippine Airlines Manila 2
Philippine Airlines
operated by PAL Express
Kalibo 2
Qantas Sydney 2
Qatar Airways Doha 2
Royal Brunei Airlines Bandar Seri Begawan 1
Scandinavian Airlines Copenhagen 2
Shandong Airlines Qingdao, Xiamen, Yantai 2
Shanghai Airlines Anshan, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Busan, Changchun, Changsha, Denpasar/Bali, Guangzhou, Guilin, Guiyang, Haikou, Harbin, Jinzhou, Kota Kinabalu,[33] Kuala Lumpur, Mianyang, Nanning, Osaka-Kansai, Phuket, Qinhuangdao, Sanya, Seoul-Incheon, Shenyang, Taipei-Songshan, Tangshan, Tianjin, Toyama, Wanzhou, Xiamen, Xi'an, Yuncheng, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhengzhou, Zhuhai
Seasonal: Krabi, Malé,[34] Surat Thani
1
Shenzhen Airlines Nanchang, Quanzhou, Shenyang, Shenzhen 2
Sichuan Airlines Chengdu, Chongqing, Saipan 1
Singapore Airlines Singapore 2
Spring Airlines Asahikawa, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beihai, Changbaishan, Changchun, Changsha, Chiang Mai, Chongqing, Dalian, Guilin, Harbin, Hong Kong, Ibaraki, Jeju, Kaohsiung, Kota Kinabalu,[35] Krabi, Kunming, Lanzhou, Macau, Mianyang, Nagoya-Centrair,[36] Nanning, Osaka-Kansai, Phuket, Qingdao, Qingyang, Saga, Sanya, Sapporo-Chitose, Seoul-Incheon, Shenyang, Siem Reap, Singapore,[37] Taipei-Taoyuan, Takamatsu, Tianjin, Tokyo-Haneda,[31] Xiamen, Xishuangbanna, Yantai, Yinchuan, Zhangjiajie, Zhanjiang, Zhuhai
Seasonal: Manzhouli, Zhangye
2
SriLankan Airlines Colombo 1
Swiss International Air Lines Zürich 2
Thai AirAsia X Bangkok-Don Mueang[38] 2
Thai Airways Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi 2
Transasia Airways Taichung, Taipei-Songshan, Taipei-Taoyuan 2
Turkish Airlines Istanbul-Atatürk 2
T'way Airlines Daegu[39] 1
UNI Air Taipei-Songshan 2
United Airlines Chicago-O'Hare, Guam, Los Angeles, Newark, San Francisco 2
Vietnam Airlines Hanoi, Ho Chi Minh City
Charter: Da Nang, Nha Trang[40]
2
Virgin Atlantic London-Heathrow 2
Xiamen Airlines Quanzhou 2

Cargo

Airlines Destinations
AirBridgeCargo Airlines Amsterdam, Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare, Los Angeles, Moscow-Domodedovo, Moscow-Sheremetyevo, Sochi, Yekaterinburg
Air China Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Beijing-Capital, Chengdu, Chongqing, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Edmonton,[41] Frankfurt, Los Angeles, New York-JFK, Novosibirsk, Osaka-Kansai, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Zaragoza, Zhengzhou
Air Hong Kong Hong Kong
ANA Cargo Naha, Tokyo-Narita
Asiana Airlines Cargo Seoul-Incheon
Atlas Air Anchorage, Baku, Dubai-International, Zhengzhou
Cargolux Luxembourg
Cathay Pacific Cargo Chengdu, Chongqing, Hong Kong, Xiamen, Zhengzhou
China Airlines Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan
China Cargo Airlines Amsterdam, Anchorage, Atlanta, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chengdu, Chicago-O'Hare, Chongqing, Copenhagen, Dallas/Fort Worth, Dhaka, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Milan-Malpensa, Osaka-Kansai, Paris-Charles de Gaulle, Seoul-Incheon, Shenzhen, Singapore, St. Louis, Taipei-Taoyuan, Tianjin, Tokyo-Narita, Zaragoza
China Postal Airlines Beijing-Capital, Guangzhou, Nanjing, Osaka-Kansai, Tianjin, Xiamen
China Southern Airlines Cargo Amsterdam, Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare, Frankfurt, Los Angeles, Osaka-Kansai, Vancouver, Vienna, Zhengzhou
DHL Express
operated by AeroLogic
Leipzig/Halle
Emirates SkyCargo Dubai-Al Maktoum, Kabul
Etihad Cargo Abu Dhabi, Chennai, Delhi, Karachi, Lahore, Mumbai
EVA Air Cargo Taipei-Taoyuan
FedEx Express Anchorage, Beijing-Capital, Delhi, Dubai-International, Guangzhou, Memphis, Osaka-Kansai, Tokyo-Narita
Finnair Cargo
operated by Nordic Global Airlines
Helsinki, New York-JFK
Hong Kong Airlines Cargo Hong Kong, Xiamen
Iran Air Cargo Tehran-Imam Khomeini
Kalitta Air Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare
Korean Air Cargo Anchorage, Atlanta, New York-JFK, Seoul-Incheon, Toronto-Pearson
Lufthansa Cargo Frankfurt, Krasnoyarsk, Seoul-Incheon
MASkargo Kota Kinabalu, Kuala Lumpur, Kuching, Penang, Sydney
MNG Airlines Almaty, Istanbul-Atatürk
Nippon Cargo Airlines Tokyo-Narita
Polar Air Cargo Anchorage, Cincinnati, Los Angeles, Nagoya-Centrair, Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita
Qantas Cargo Anchorage, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Chicago-O'Hare, Chongqing, New York-JFK, Sydney
Qatar Airways Cargo Doha
Saudia Cargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Jeddah, Riyadh
SF Airlines Beijing-Capital, Harbin, Shenzhen
Singapore Airlines Cargo Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Singapore
Silk Way Airlines Baku
Southern Air Anchorage, Chicago-O'Hare
TNT Airways Chongqing, Liège, Singapore
Turkish Airlines Almaty, Bishkek, Istanbul-Atatürk
UPS Airlines Anchorage, Louisville, Osaka-Kansai, Seoul-Incheon, Tokyo-Narita, Warsaw-Chopin
Volga-Dnepr Airlines Novosibirsk
Yangtze River Express Aktobe, Anchorage, Bangkok-Suvarnabhumi, Beijing-Capital, Chengdu, Chicago-O'Hare, Chongqing, Dhaka, Guangzhou, Hahn, Hangzhou, Hong Kong, Los Angeles, Luxembourg, Munich, Nagoya-Centrair, Novosibirsk, Osaka-Kansai, Prague, Shenzhen, Shijiazhuang, Singapore, Wuxi
A Shanghai Pudong Airport Bus Expressway
Shanghai Pudong International Airport in 2001

Ground transportation

A maglev train departing Pudong airport
Metro Line 2 links city centre and Pudong airport

Highway

Maglev Train

Starting service on January 29, 2004 as the first commercial high-speed maglev railway in the world, Shanghai Maglev Train links Pudong International Airport with Longyang Road Metro Station, where transfer to Line 2 , Line 7,and Line 16 is possible. The 30-km ride from Longyang Road Metro station to Pudong International Airport typically takes less than eight minutes, with the maximum speed reaching 431 km/h. Trains operate every 15 minutes; therefore passengers can expect to arrive in less than 25 minutes, waiting time included.

A standard single-ride ticket costs 50 RMB.[42] Discounted prices are available for Shanghai Public Transportation Card holders (¥40 single), and for round trips within 7 days (¥80 round-trip). First-class tickets cost 100 RMB (single) or 180 RMB (round-trip within 7 days). All cars are equipped with racks and space designated for luggage.

Shanghai Metro Line 2

Shanghai Metro Line 2 also provides service between Pudong International Airport and Longyang Road, Lujiazui, People's Square, and Hongqiao International Airport, Shanghai's primary domestic airport. Line 2 is part of the Shanghai Metro system; therefore unlike the Maglev, free in-system transfer to other lines are possible, with ticket prices varying from 3 RMB to 10 RMB.

Prices are substantially lower than the Maglev (¥6 from Pudong International Airport to Longyang Road and Lujiazui, ¥7 to People's Square, ¥8 to Hongqiao International Airport). However, trips take longer due to lower speed of trains. A casual ride to People's Square, the city centre, typically takes just over one hour. It is wise to allow more than five hours for a safe flight transfer at Hongqiao International Airport using public transportation.

It should further be noted that Line 2 operates in two sections: trains from Pudong International Airport terminate at Guanglan Road, where passengers wishing to travel on change trains across the platform. In addition, not all trains go to Hongqiao International Airport.

Airport buses

Eight airport bus lines serve Pudong International Airport, providing rapid links to various destinations. Buses are labelled "机场X线" (Airport Bus Line X) and typically operate on a 15-to-30 minute basis. Fares range from 2 to 22 yuan depending on distance travelled.

Incidents and accidents

Photo gallery

See also

References

  1. ^ Airport information for ZSPD at World Aero Data. Data current as of October 2006.Source: DAFIF.
  2. ^ Airport information for PVG at Great Circle Mapper. Source: DAFIF (effective Oct. 2006).
  3. ^
  4. ^
  5. ^
  6. ^ Shanghai Airport reports profit growth, despite big investments in massive new facilities at Pudong – China Airlines, Airports and Aviation News. Chinaaviation.aero (2008-03-11). Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
  7. ^
  8. ^
  9. ^
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^ a b Dermot Davitt Shanghai Pudong International Airport begins new era with opening of Terminal Two 26/03/08, Source: The Moodie Report
  13. ^ Travel News Your Way. e-Travel Blackboard. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
  14. ^
  15. ^ http://www.arabaero.com/3499
  16. ^
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^ http://www.ausbt.com.au/china-eastern-to-start-shanghai-brisbane-flights-from-january-2016
  21. ^
  22. ^
  23. ^
  24. ^
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ http://airlineroute.net/2015/08/30/jl-hndchina-w15/
  28. ^
  29. ^ http://www.westaport.com/nr.asp?leaf_id=2052
  30. ^
  31. ^ a b
  32. ^ http://www.westaport.com/nr.asp?leaf_id=2053
  33. ^ http://airlineroute.net/2015/07/01/fm-bki-jul15/
  34. ^
  35. ^
  36. ^
  37. ^
  38. ^ http://airlineroute.net/2015/09/14/xj-pvg-sep15/
  39. ^
  40. ^
  41. ^ http://finance.yahoo.com/news/could-air-china-direct-cargo-210215397.html;_ylt=AwrC1jFsxLpVoiMAamfQtDMD;_ylu=X3oDMTByOHZyb21tBGNvbG8DYmYxBHBvcwMxBHZ0aWQDBHNlYwNzcg--
  42. ^
  43. ^ Cargo plane crashes at Shanghai airport – Xinhua. Reuters. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
  44. ^ 浦东机场货机坠毁现场浓烟滚滚. Sina. Retrieved on 2011-01-22.
  45. ^

External links

  • Shanghai Airports
  • Shanghai Airports (simplified Chinese)
  • Airliners.Net photos of Shanghai Pudong International Airport
  • Current weather for ZSPD at NOAA/NWS
  • Accident history for PVG at Aviation Safety Network
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