World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Sky Tower (Auckland)

Sky Tower
Sky Tower as seen from the street
General information
Status Complete
Type Communications, observation, mixed use, tourism
Location Auckland City, New Zealand
Construction started 1994
Completed 1997
Opening 3 August 1997
Cost US$50 million or NZ$76 million[1]
Owner SKYCITY Entertainment Group
Antenna spire 328 m (1,076.1 ft)
Top floor 222 m (728.3 ft)
Technical details
Floor area 5,500 m2 (59,202 sq ft)[1]
Lifts/elevators 4
Design and construction
Architect Craig Craig Moller Ltd.[2]
Developer Harrah's Entertainment[3]
Structural engineer Beca Group[2]
Main contractor Fletcher Construction[2]

The Sky Tower is an observation and telecommunications tower located on the corner of Victoria and Federal Streets in the Auckland CBD, Auckland City, New Zealand. It is 328 metres (1,076 ft) tall, as measured from ground level to the top of the mast,[4] making it the tallest man-made structure in the Southern Hemisphere. It has become an iconic landmark in Auckland's skyline due to its height and unique design.


  • Uses 1
  • Transmission frequencies 2
  • Construction 3
    • Project history 3.1
    • Project team 3.2
    • Facts and figures 3.3
    • Safety 3.4
  • Lighting 4
    • Energy efficient lighting 4.1
    • Energy conservation initiatives 4.2
    • Events 4.3
  • See also 5
  • References 6
  • External links 7


The upper sections of the Sky Tower

The tower is part of the SKYCITY Auckland casino complex, originally built in 1994–1997 for Harrah's Entertainment.[3] The tower attracts an average of 1,150 visitors per day (over 415,000 per year).

The Sky Tower has several upper levels that are accessible to the public:

  • Level 50: Sky Lounge
  • Level 51: Main Observation Deck
  • Level 52: Orbit 360° Dining
  • Level 53: The Sugar Club restaurant, SkyWalk and SkyJump
  • Level 60: Sky Deck

The upper portion of the tower contains two restaurants and a cafe—including New Zealand's only revolving restaurant, located 190 m (620 ft) from the ground, which turns 360 degrees every hour.[5] There is also a brasserie-style buffet located one floor above the main observatory level. It has three observation decks at different heights, each providing 360-degree views of the city. The main observation level at 186 m (610 ft) has 38 mm (1.5 in) thick glass sections of flooring giving a view straight to the ground.[6] The top observation deck labeled "Skydeck" sits just below the main antenna at 220 m (720 ft) and gives views of up to 82 km (51 mi) in the distance.[7]

The tower also features the "SkyJump", a 192-metre (630 ft)[8] jump from the observation deck, during which a jumper can reach up to 85 km/h (53 mph). The jump is guide-cable-controlled to prevent jumpers from colliding with the tower in case of wind gusts.[9] Climbs into the antenna mast portion (300 m or 980 ft heights) are also possible for tour groups,[8] as is a walk around the exterior.[10]

The tower is also used for telecommunications and broadcasting with the Auckland Peering Exchange (APE) being located on Level 48.[11] The aerial at the top of the tower hosts the largest FM combiner in the world[6] which combines with 58 wireless microwave links located above the top restaurant to provide a number of services. These include television, wireless internet, RT, and weather measurement services.[6]

The tower is Auckland's primary FM radio transmitter, and is one of four infill terrestrial television transmitters in Auckland, serving areas not covered by the main transmitter at Waiatarua in the Waitakere Ranges. A total of twenty-three FM radio stations and six digital terrestrial television multiplexes broadcast from the tower.[12][13] Two VHF analogue television channels broadcasting from the tower were switched off in the early hours of Sunday 1 December 2013 as part of New Zealand's digital television transition.[14]

The tower was also used for a Fast Forward on the thirteenth season of The Amazing Race. Their task was for teams (Ken & Tina in particular) to use the tower's maintenance ladders to climb from the sky deck to the red light at the top to get a friend, the Travelocity gnome. It also appeared on the first season of the Asian version of the show for a RoadBlock task. One member from each team had to complete the "SkyJump" before continuing the race.

Transmission frequencies

The following table contains television and radio frequencies currently operating from the Sky Tower:

Television Station Transmit Channel Transmit Frequency Band Power (kW)
TVNZ digital 28 530.0 MHz UHF 0.5
Sky digital 30 546.0 MHz UHF 0.5
MediaWorks digital 32 562.0 MHz UHF 0.5
World TV digital 34 578.0 MHz UHF 0.5
Kordia digital A 36 594.0 MHz UHF 0.5
Kordia digital B 40 626.0 MHz UHF 0.5
Radio Station Transmit Channel Transmit Frequency Band Power (kW)
Mai FM 88.6 MHz VHF 16
Newstalk ZB 89.4 MHz VHF 50
The Rock 90.2 MHz VHF 50
ZM 91.0 MHz VHF 50
More FM 91.8 MHz VHF 50
Radio New Zealand Concert 92.6 MHz VHF 50
The Breeze 93.4 MHz VHF 50
The Sound 93.8 MHz VHF 8
The Edge 94.2 MHz VHF 50
bFM 95.0 MHz VHF 12.5
Flava 95.8 MHz VHF 50
George FM 96.6 MHz VHF 8
Classic Hits 97.4 MHz VHF 50
Mix 98.2 98.2 MHz VHF 50
Radio Hauraki 99.0 MHz VHF 50
Life FM 99.8 MHz VHF 50
Radio Live 100.6 MHz VHF 50
Radio New Zealand National 101.4 MHz VHF 16
Kiwi FM 102.2 MHz VHF 50
Niu FM 103.8 MHz VHF 16
Planet FM 104.6 MHz VHF 16
Coast 105.4 MHz VHF 50
Humm FM 106.2 MHz VHF 16


Glass flooring seen inside one of the observation decks
Sky Tower as part of the Auckland Skyline

Project history

Fletcher Construction was the contracted builder for the project while engineering firm Beca Group provided the design management and coordination, structural, geotechnical, civil, mechanical, electrical, plumbing, lighting and fire engineering services. Harrison Grierson[15] provided surveying services. It was designed by Gordon Moller of Craig Craig Moller architects[2] and has received a New Zealand Institute of Architects National Award as well as regional awards.[16][17][18]

Taking two years and nine months to construct, the tower was opened on 3 March 1997, six months ahead of schedule.[19]

Project team

Project Architect: Les Dykstra[20][21]

Facts and figures

The tower is constructed of high-performance reinforced concrete. Its 12-metre (39 ft) diameter shaft (containing three lifts and an emergency stairwell) is supported on eight "legs" based on 16 foundation piles drilled over 12 m (39 ft) deep into the local sandstone.[17][18] The main shaft was built using climbing formwork.[18]

The upper levels were constructed from composite materials, structural steel, precast concrete and reinforced concrete,[18] and the observation decks clad in aluminium with blue/green reflective glass. A structural steel framework supports the upper mast structure. During construction 15,000 cubic metres (20,000 cu yd) of concrete, 2,000 tonnes (2,200 short tons) of reinforcing steel, and 660 tonnes (730 short tons) of structural steel were used. The mast weighs over 170 tonnes (190 short tons).[18][22] It had to be lifted into place using a crane attached to the structure, as it would have been too heavy for a helicopter to lift. To then remove the crane, another crane had to be constructed attached to the upper part of the Sky Tower structure, which dismantled the big crane, and was in turn dismantled into pieces small enough to fit into the elevator.[18]


The tower is designed to withstand wind in excess of 200 km/h (120 mph) and designed to sway up to 1 metre (39 in) in excessively high winds. As a safety precaution the Sky Tower’s lifts have special technology installed to detect movement (such as swaying due to high wind) and will automatically slow down. If the building sway exceeds predetermined safety levels the lifts will return to the ground floor and remain there until the high winds and building sway have abated.[23]

The Sky Tower is built to withstand an 8.0 magnitude earthquake located within a 20-kilometre (12 mi) radius. There are three fireproof rooms on levels 44, 45, and 46 to provide refuge in the event of an emergency, while the central service lift shaft and stairwells are also fire-safety rated.


Sky Tower illuminated in Christmas colours. Various other lighting schemes and colours are also used.

The Sky Tower illuminated in Child Cancer Foundation colours. Various other lighting schemes and colours are also used. SKYCITY Auckland lights the Sky Tower to show support for a range of organisations and charities. Common lighting events include:

Energy efficient lighting

The top half of the Sky Tower is lit by energy efficient LED lighting which replaced the original metal halide floodlights in May 2009. The LEDs can produce millions of different colour combinations controlled by a computer system. The original lights used 66 per cent more energy than the current LED system. The bottom half is lit by halogen lamps.

Energy conservation initiatives

During the winter months, electricity consumption in New Zealand increases dramatically. As much of the power reserve in the country depends on the water level of the hydro-lakes, various power-saving schemes are introduced to prevent blackouts. In an effort to promote power saving, SkyCity turned off the tower lighting in Winter 2008, retaining only the flashing red aviation lights. SkyCity is also minimising façade flood lighting across its complex. Simon Jamieson, General Manager SKYCITY Auckland Hotels Group, said: "Like every New Zealander, we are concerned about the country's electricity supply, and we believe it is our responsibility to make this move to assist with the power saving request."[24] The tower was reilluminated on 4 August in support of New Zealand athletes competing at the Beijing Olympics.[25]

The SkyTower also use wall lights for different events, for example, they had a LED Santa on the 2007 Christmas.

360-degree panorama as seen from Sky Deck, Sky Tower, Auckland


The Sky Tower is used in support of special charity events, with two annual fundraising stair climb challenges – the Firefighters Sky Tower Stair Challenge which sees fire fighters from around New Zealand race up 1,108 steps (out of 1,267 total steps), and the Step Up Corporate Sky Tower Challenge. Climbing the Sky Tower stairs has been described as a "vertical marathon".

For celebrations like New Year's Eve and Chinese New Year SKYCITY Auckland projects an impressive fireworks display from the Sky Tower which can be seen across Auckland.

See also


  1. ^ a b World Federation of Great Towers - Retrieved 2009-07-04
  2. ^ a b c d Sky Tower at - Retrieved 2009-07-04
  3. ^ a b In Auckland, Life Is Alfresco - The New York Times, 5 October 1997
  4. ^ Sky Tower Official page -
  5. ^ Official Orbit 360 Dining page Retrieved 2014-08-28
  6. ^ a b c Sky Tower demonstration (Explore the Sky Tower)
  7. ^ Sky Tower facts page Retrieved 4 June 2009
  8. ^ a b Auckland: Don't Miss: Action in the outdoors (from the Tourism New Zealand website. Retrieved 2 December 2007)
  9. ^ SkyJump (from the official website. Accessed 2008-06-21.)
  10. ^ SkyWalk (from the official website. Accessed 2009-05-27.)
  11. ^ What is the APE? Retrieved 5 June 2009
  12. ^ "Auckland/Skytower FM transmitter info -". Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  13. ^ "New Zealand television transmission stations in operation as of 31 March 2008 - North Island" (PDF).  
  14. ^ "When is my area going digital? - Going Digital". New Zealand Ministry for Culture and Heritage. Retrieved 17 July 2011. 
  15. ^ Harrison Grierson
  16. ^ Sky Tower (from the website of Craig Craig Moller, Sky Tower's architects)
  17. ^ a b Projects: Commercial: Sky Tower (from the Fletcher Construction website. Retrieved 2007-12-02.)
  18. ^ a b c d e f Case Studies: Sky Tower (from the University of Auckland, Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering. Retrieved 2007-12-01.)
  19. ^ Sky Tower (from "Feature Projects", Beca Group website)
  20. ^ [2], Les Dykstra - Director of Architects-ldl.
  21. ^ the pig loves you , "Aqua House", Editorial Review by Tony van Raat.
  22. ^ Construction Facts (from the SKYCITY Auckland website)
  23. ^ "Some homes still powerless after storm". The New Zealand Herald, Friday 10 November 2006.
  24. ^ SKYCITY Auckland switches off the Sky Tower (from a SKYCITY Entertainment Group Limited press release. 10/06/2008. Accessed 2008-09-14.)
  25. ^ Sky Tower Relights Auckland Skyline (from a SKYCITY Entertainment Group Limited press release. 04/08/2008. Accessed 2008-09-14.)

External links

  • Sky Tower (official website)
  • Sky Tower at Structurae
  • Explore the Sky Tower (interactive Sky Tower, requires Macromedia Flash)
  • 360° view from tower (from SkyCity Auckland website)
  • 360° view from Sky Deck (from Google)
  • Orbit 360° Dining (official website)
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.