World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

Stade de France

Article Id: WHEBN0000758605
Reproduction Date:

Title: Stade de France  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: Philippe Saint-André, 2007 Rugby World Cup, List of 1998 FIFA World Cup matches, France national football team, 1998 FIFA World Cup
Collection: 1998 Fifa World Cup Stadiums, 2003 Fifa Confederations Cup Stadiums, Athletics (Track and Field) Venues in France, Football Venues in France, France National Football Team, Multi-Purpose Stadiums in France, National Stadiums, Rugby Union Stadiums in France, Rugby World Cup Stadiums, Saint-Denis, Seine-Saint-Denis, Sports Venues in Paris, Sports Venues in Seine-Saint-Denis, Stade Français Paris, Stadiums That Have Hosted a Fifa World Cup Final Match, Uefa Euro 2016 Stadiums
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia

Stade de France

Stade de France
St. Denis
Full name Stade de France
Location ZAC du Cornillon Nord
93216 Saint Denis, France
Public transit Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris (Paris Métro)
Stade de France – Saint-Denis (Paris RER)
Gare de La Plaine-Stade de France
Owner Consortium Stade de France
Operator Consortium Stade de France
Executive suites 172
Capacity 81,338[1]
Field size 105 x 70 m
Surface Grass
Built 2 May 1995
Opened 28 January 1998
Construction cost €290 million
Architect Michel Macary
Aymeric Zublena
Michel Regembal
Claude Constantini
France national football team
France national rugby union team
Stade Français (some games)
Racing Métro 92 (some games)

The Stade de France (French pronunciation: ​) is the Brazil 3–0 in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final contested at the stadium.

The Stade de France is listed as a category four stadium by UEFA and has hosted matches for the 1998 FIFA World Cup, some matches for the 1999 Rugby World Cup, 2003 World Championships in Athletics, and the 2007 Rugby World Cup making it the only stadium in the world to have hosted both a Football World Cup final and a Rugby World Cup final. The Stade de France has hosted two UEFA Champions League finals in 2000 and 2006, respectively. It will also host some matches at the 2016 European Championship, including the final.

The facility also hosted the Race of Champions auto race in 2004, 2005, and 2006. The stadium hosted the 2003 World Championships in Athletics and since 1999 it has hosted the annual Meeting Areva athletics meet.

Domestically, the Stade de France serves as a secondary home facility of Parisian rugby clubs Stade Français and Racing Métro 92, hosting a few of their regular-season fixtures. The stadium also hosts the main French domestic cup finals, which include the Coupe de France (both football and rugby), Coupe de la Ligue, Challenge de France, and the Coupe Gambardella, as well as the Top 14 rugby union championship match.

The stadium is also used for music concerts and other sporting events. Major acts such as Roger Waters, The Rolling Stones, Tina Turner, U2, Céline Dion, Muse, AC/DC, Beyoncé, Jay Z, Rihanna, Coldplay, Eminem, Lady Gaga, Paul McCartney, Madonna, The Police and Mylène Farmer performed here. The facility is owned and operated by the Consortium Stade de France.


  • History 1
  • Architecture 2
    • Roof 2.1
  • Inside the stadium 3
    • Stands 3.1
    • Field 3.2
    • Giant screens 3.3
  • 1998 FIFA World Cup matches 4
  • 2007 Rugby World Cup matches 5
  • UEFA Euro 2016 matches 6
  • Concerts 7
  • Tenants 8
    • Future developments 8.1
  • Access 9
    • Public transport 9.1
  • References 10
  • External links 11


The discussion of a national stadium in France came about as a result of the country's selection to host the 1998 FIFA World Cup on 2 July 1992. As a result of the selection, the country and the France Football Federation made a commitment to construct an 80,000+ capacity all-seater stadium with every seat in the facility being covered. It was the first time in over 70 years since the construction of the Stade Olympique Yves-du-Manoir that a stadium in France was being constructed for a specific event. Due to the magnitude and importance of the facility, the Council of State was allowed first hand approach to how the stadium would be constructed and paid for. The Council sought for the stadium to be built as close as possible to the capital of France, Paris, and that the constructor and operator of the facility would receive significant financial contribution for a period of 30 months following the completion of the stadium. The stadium's design was handled by the team of architects composed of Michel Macary, Aymeric Zublena, Regembal Michel, and Claude Costantini who were associated with CR SCAU Architecture.

The stadium was officially ready for construction following the government's selection of manufacturers, Bouygues, Dumez, and SGE, and the signing of building permits on 30 April 1995.[2][3] With only 31 months to complete the stadium, construction commenced on 2 May 1995. The laying of the first cornerstone took place five months later on 6 September. After over a year of construction, over 800,000m ² of earthworks had been created and as much as 180,000 m³ of concrete had been poured. The installation of the roof, which cost €45 million, and the mobile platform also took more than a year to complete.

During the developmental phase, the stadium was referred to in French as the Grand Stade ("large stadium" or "great stadium"). On 4 December 1995, the Ministry of Sport launched a design competition to decide on a name for the stadium. The stadium was officially named the Stade de France after the Ministry heard a proposal from French football legend Michel Platini, who recommended the name.

The stadium was inaugurated on 28 January 1998 as it hosted a football match between France and Spain. The total cost of the stadium was approximately €290 million. The match was played in front of 78,368 spectators, which included President Jacques Chirac, with France winning the match 1–0 with Zinedine Zidane scoring the lone goal, and the first-ever in the Stade de France, in the 20th minute.[4] Six months later, France returned to the stadium and defeated Brazil in the 1998 FIFA World Cup Final to earn their first World Cup title.Stade de France has hosted group,quarterfinal, semifinal and the final match of 1998 FIFA World cup. [5] The national rugby team's first match in the facility was contested five days after its opening, on 2 February, with France earning a 24–17 win over England in front of 77,567 spectators.[6] Philippe Bernat-Salles converted the first ever try at the stadium scoring it in the 11th minute of play.[7]

On 24 May 2000, the Stade de France hosted the 2000 UEFA Champions League Final. In the match, which saw 78,759 spectators attend, Spanish club Real Madrid defeated fellow Spaniards Valencia 3–0. In 2003, the Stade de France was the primary site of the 2003 World Championships in Athletics. Three years later in 2006, the facility hosted another UEFA Champions League final with another Spanish club Barcelona defeating England's Arsenal 2–1. On 9 May 2009, the Stade de France set the national attendance record for a sporting match played in France with 80,832 showing up to watch Guingamp upset Brittany rivals Rennes 2–1 in the 2009 Coupe de France Final. On 22 May 2010, the Stade de France hosted the 2010 Heineken Cup Final.[8] On 11 February 2012, a Six Nations international rugby game between France and Ireland had to be cancelled just before kick-off due to the pitch freezing as the stadium lacks under-soil heating.[9]


Stade de France with uncovered athletics track during the 2003 World Championships

The Stade de France has a movable stand which can be retracted to uncover part of the athletics track.[10] The stadium was notably designed with the assistance of a software simulation of crowd in order to get an accurate observation of how it would look fully developed. The facility was also intended to draw interest in and develop the area of the Plaine Saint-Denis, which straddle the communes of Saint-Denis, Aubervilliers, and Saint-Ouen. The primary goal was to renovate the area by building new residential and tertiary sites.

The stadium was built without any underground heating as noted when Ireland were due to play France in the Six Nations Tournament rugby union match of 2012, in which the game had to be canceled.

In 2002, the International Association for Bridge and Structural Engineering (IABC) awarded a prize recognizing the unique structure of the Stade de France commenting that the Stade de France exhibited "a construction of an attractive open architecture of the city, with an elegance and natural lightness".


The last part of the metallic construction of the roof, 1997

The construction of the Stade de France's roof cost over €45 million to complete. Its elliptical shape symbolizes the universality of sport in France. Its area of six hectares and weight, 13,000 tons, is considered a technical marvel by many. It was designed to easily protect the 80,000 spectators without covering the playing field. All lighting and sound, which include 550 lights and 36 blocks of 5 speakers, are housed inside to avoid obstructing visibility. The tinted glass in the center reduces the contrast and distributes natural light. It filters out red and infrared radiation, however, it allows blue and green lights, due to their necessity involving the health of the turf.

Inside the stadium


The Stade de France is the biggest modular stadium in the world with three galleries.

The forum is a low mobile platform of 25 000 seats. It is reached by the level 1. It may fall 15 feet to reveal all of the running track and jumping pits. It then retains 22 000 seats. The movement lasts 80 hours, 40 people 20h/24h mobilized, and carried by ten distinct elements of 700 tons each.

Access to the gallery is through with 22 bridges and can be found at level 3 with a concentration of restaurants, entertainment areas, shops and central station security.

18 staircases lead viewers to the upper gallery located at Level 6.

The evacuation of 80 000 spectators on the porch out can occur in less than 15 minutes.


Located at 11 meters below the court, the playing area measures 9 000 square meters (120 meters long and 75 meters wide) to a grassed area of 11 000 square meters. Nearly one billion seeds were sown to produce the first pitch in 1997. Today, the grass comes in rolls of 1.20 mx 8 m. Changing the pitch calls for three days of preparation and five days of installation. The change takes place several times a year, depending on the programming stage. Unlike many other stadiums, the Stade de France was built without under pitch heating, as the stadium was constructed on the site of an old gasworks,[11] and there were concerns it could cause an explosion.

Giant screens

As part of its policy of renewing its infrastructure, the Stade de France added two new big screens in September 2006. Covering an area of 196 sqm each, these screens are the largest located in a stadium in Europe. The new displays have a surface 58% greater than the previous screens installed in 1998. The newer giant screens are each composed of 4 423 680 LED (Light Emitting Diode) for a self-made images more fluid, faster, and more particularly bright.

1998 FIFA World Cup matches

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Res. Team #2 Round Attendance
10 June 1998 17:30  Brazil 2-1  Scotland Group A (opening match) 80,000
13 June 1998 21:00  Netherlands 0-0  Belgium Group E 75,000
18 June 1998 21:00  France 4-0  Saudi Arabia Group C 80,000
23 June 1998 16:00  Italy 2-1  Austria Group B 80,000
26 June 1998 21:00  Romania 1-1  Tunisia Group G 77,000
28 June 1998 21:00  Nigeria 1-4  Denmark Round of 16 77,000
3 July 1998 16:30  Italy 0-0 (3-4 pen.)  France Quarterfinal 77,000
8 July 1998 21:00  France 2-1  Croatia Semifinal 76,000
12 July 1998 21:00  Brazil 0-3  France Final 80,000

2007 Rugby World Cup matches

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Attendance
7 Sept 2007 20:00  France 12-17  Argentina Group D (opening match) 77,523
14 Sept 2007 20:00  England 0-36  South Africa Group A 79,312
21 Sept 2007 20:00  France 25-3  Ireland Group D 80,267
7 Oct 2007 20:00  Argentina 19-13  Scotland Quarter-final 76,866
13 Oct 2007 20:00  England 14-9  France Semifinal 80,283
14 Oct 2007 20:00  South Africa 37-13  Argentina Semifinal 77,055
20 Oct 2007 20:00  South Africa 15-6  England Final 80,430

UEFA Euro 2016 matches

Date Time (CET) Team #1 Result Team #2 Round Attendance
10 June 2016 21:00  France v A2 Group A (opening match)
13 June 2016 18:00 E3 v E4 Group E
16 June 2016 21:00 C1 v C3 Group C
22 June 2016 18:00 F2 v F3 Group F
27 June 2016 18:00 Winner Group E v Runner-up Group D Round of 16
3 July 2016 21:00 Winner Match 40 v Winner Match 44 Quarter-final
10 July 2016 21:00 Winner Match 49 v Winner Match 50 Final


Year Date Headline act(s) Opening act(s) Tour/Concert title Attendance Additional notes
1998 25 July The Rolling Stones Jean-Louis Aubert Bridges to Babylon Tour 76,716 First show at the stadium.
5 September Johnny Hallyday 215,215 Stade de France 98 Johnny allume le feu CD released.
6 September
11 September
1999 19 June Céline Dion Dany Brillant Let's Talk About Love World Tour 162,903 Au cœur du stade DVD/VHS and Au cœur du stade CD released.
20 June
2000 5 July Tina Turner Joe Cocker Twenty Four Seven Tour
2001 22 June AC/DC The Offspring, Pure Rubbish Stiff Upper Lip World Tour
2002 21 September Various French rap artists Kery James Psy 4 de la Rime, Ärsenik, Fonky Family, Kool Shen, Joeystarr, B.O.S.S., Oxmo Puccino Urban Peace French hip hop concert.
2003 24 May Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band The Rising Tour
9 July The Rolling Stones Stereophonics Licks Tour 75,517
2004 24 June Paul McCartney 2004 Summer Tour
2005 9 July U2 Starsailor, Snow Patrol Vertigo Tour 160,349
10 July Snow Patrol, The Music
2006 28 July The Rolling Stones Razorlight A Bigger Bang Tour 62,761
2007 16 June Starsailor
22 June George Michael 25 Live
29 September The Police Fiction Plane The Police Reunion Tour 157,906
30 September
2008 17 May Émile et Images Lio, Jean-Pierre Mader, Rose Laurens, Sabrina Salerno, Desireless, Jeanne Mas, Partenaire Particulier, Début de Soirée, Vivien Savage, Cookie Dingler, Jean Schultheis, Philippe Cataldo, Richard Sanderson, Murray Head, Opus, Léopold Nord & Vous, Kazino, Raft RFM Party 80 Concert featuring 1980s stars.
5 July David Guetta Tiësto, Carl Cox, Joachim Garraud, Martin Solveig Unighted 2008 House music show.
29 August André Rieu
20 September Madonna Bob Sinclar Sticky & Sweet Tour 138,163
21 September
4 October Rohff Kenza Farah, Sinik, Booba, Soprano, Psy4 de la Rime, TFL, Léa Castel, Kery James, Rim'K, Mala, Tunisiano, Sefyu Urban Peace 2 French hip hop concert.
2009 16 May Kassav'
29 May Johnny Hallyday Tour 66 Tour 66 : Stade de France 2009 CD released.
30 May
31 May
12 June AC/DC The Answer, Café Bertrand Black Ice World Tour 74,549
27 June Depeche Mode M83 Tour of the Universe 65,005 Recording the Universe CD/digital download released.
4 July David Guetta Armin van Buuren, Sven Vath, Axwell, Steve Angello, Cathy Guetta Unighted Energized House music show.
11 July U2 Kaiser Chiefs U2 360° Tour 186,544 From the Ground Up: Edge's Picks from U2360° CD released.
12 July
11 September Mylène Farmer Mylène Farmer en tournée 163,457 N°5 on Tour CD/DVD/Blu-ray released.
12 September
2010 11 June Muse Editors, The Big Pink, I Am Arrows The Resistance Tour
12 June Kasabian, White Lies, DeVotchKa
18 June AC/DC Slash, Killing Machine Black Ice World Tour 76,375
26 June Indochine Putain de stade CD/DVD released.
18 September U2 Interpol U2 360° Tour 96,540 Wide Awake in Europe vinyl released.
2011 11 June Manu Dibango, Petit Pays, Fally Ipupa, Jessy Matador, Passi, Werrason, Patience Dabany, Sekouba Bambino, Mory Kanté, Alpha Blondy, Magic System, Meiway, Mokobé, Oumou Sangaré, Negro pou la vi, Coumba Gawlo, Baaba Maal Nuit Africaine Concert featuring African artists.
22 June The Black Eyed Peas David Guetta The Beginning
24 June Natalia Kills
25 June
30 June Prince Welcome 2
2012 12 May Metallica Gojira, The Kills 2012 European Black Album Tour 72,975
15 June Johnny Hallyday
16 June
17 June
30 June Red Hot Chili Peppers The Vaccines I'm With You World Tour Red Hot Chili Peppers Official Bootlegs Digital download released.
14 July Madonna[12] Martin Solveig, MDNA Tour 62,195
2 September Coldplay[13] Marina and the Diamonds, Charli XCX Mylo Xyloto Tour 77,813 DVD/Blu-ray released. Rihanna appeared onstage for two songs.
22 September Lady Gaga[13] Lady Starlight, Rerelolewa Oyedele Born This Way Ball 70,617
2013 8 June Rihanna[14] David Guetta, WE ARE GTA Diamonds World Tour 75,841 At that time, Rihanna became the youngest act ever to headline the stadium.[15]
15 June Depeche Mode[16] Douglas McCarthy The Delta Machine Tour 67,103
21 June Muse[17] Paramore, fun. The 2nd Law Tour 150,936
22 June Biffy Clyro, Dizzie Rascal, Polly Money
29 June Bruce Springsteen[16] Wrecking Ball Tour 61,867
22 August Eminem[18] Kendrick Lamar, Earlwolf, Earl Sweatshirt, Tyler, The Creator, Slaughterhouse 71,542
21 September Roger Waters[19] The Wall Live 69,119
28 September Sexion d'Assaut IAM, Orelsan, Psy 4 de la Rime, La Fouine, Youssoupha Urban Peace 3 French hip hop concert.
2014 26 April Justin Timberlake[20] The 20/20 Experience World Tour 57,286
13 June The Rolling Stones 14 On Fire 76,495
20 June One Direction McBusted Where We Are Tour 114,172
21 June
27 June Indochine
28 June
12 September Beyoncé and Jay Z On the Run Tour 147,012 Aired by HBO. Nicki Minaj appeared on stage for one song.
13 September
2015 23 May AC/DC Rock or Bust World Tour 160,000
26 May
11 June Paul McCartney Out There Tour


The Stade de France has no regular tenant other than the French national football and rugby teams. Repeated attempts to persuade a professional football or rugby team to move there have failed so far. Paris Saint-Germain has remained at Parc des Princes under pressure from its parent company (pay-TV network Canal Plus) and the Paris city government.

However, the Paris rugby club Stade Français have now established themselves as a semi-regular tenant. They began by scheduling their Top 14 home fixture on 15 October 2005 against Toulouse at Stade de France. Stade Français's president, Max Guazzini, publicly said that the club would have to sell 25,000 to 30,000 tickets to break even. Three weeks before the match, 61,000 tickets had been sold, setting a French record for tickets sold to a league match for any sport, including football. The final attendance was 79,454, smashing the national attendance record for a league match in any sport by more than 20,000. Five minutes before the end of the Toulouse match, Guazzini announced to the crowd that Stade Français's scheduled home fixture against Biarritz in March 2006 would also be held at Stade de France.[21] The Stade-Biarritz match broke the attendance record from earlier in the season, with 79,604 present.

Guazzini then booked the Stade de France for the same two league fixtures in 2006–07. The Biarritz match on 16 October 2006 drew 79,619, making this the third consecutive Stade Français fixture at the Stade de France to set an all-time French attendance record. The record was broken yet again at a match against Toulouse match on 27 January 2007, with 79,741 filling the stands. Stade Français went on to schedule three home matches at Stade de France in the 2007–08 season. For the 2008–09 season, they booked Stade de France for three home league matches and a Heineken Cup pool match. The number of Stade Français home matches at Stade de France increased again for 2009–10, with five Top 14 fixtures already announced for the stadium.

Even with the lack of a regular league tenant, the stadium's revenue increased greatly in 2007, as it was used extensively during the 2007 Rugby World Cup in France, where it hosted numerous pool matches, a quarterfinal match, both of the semi finals and the final.

The Lille OSC football team played all its "home" games in European competition during the 2005–06 season, both in the UEFA Champions League and the UEFA Cup, at the Stade de France because its own stadium was then under renovation, and the only nearer alternative on French soil, Stade Félix-Bollaert, was not available as that ground's occupant, Lille's local rival Lens, was also participating in the UEFA Cup. The Stade de France has hosted the Champions League final on two occasions: 2000 (Real Madrid 3 Valencia 0), and 2006 (Barcelona 2 Arsenal 1).

Future developments

France's governing body for rugby union, the French Rugby Federation (FFR), announced in November 2010 that it would not renew its deal to use Stade de France for international rugby matches when it expires in 2013. FFR also stated that it planned to build a new stadium of its own in the Paris region.[22]

Reportedly, the FFR had become increasingly frustrated with several aspects of the deal. According to rugby journalist Ian Moriarty, "The deal with the Stade de France has been a disaster for the FFR financially over the years, forcing France's powerbrokers to look across the English channel at the RFU's Twickenham cash cow with ever increasing envy."[23] Reports vary widely as to how much the FFR must spend to rent out the stadium, but estimates range from €3 million[23] to €5 million[24] per match. Although the Stade de France and Twickenham are roughly the same size, the rental expense means that the FFR reportedly makes about one-third as much from a Stade de France sellout as does the RFU from a sellout at Twickenham.[24] In addition, the national rugby team does not enjoy primacy at the Stade de France; the national football team and major concerts take priority. FFR had to move two of its 2010–11 home Tests to Montpellier and Nantes due to fixture clashes with the national football team.[23] Also, former FFR president Serge Blanco claimed that the 2009 Top 14 final had to be moved from May to June because of a conflict with a concert by French rock icon Johnny Hallyday.[22]

In June 2012, FFR announced that it had selected the site for its new ground, tentatively known as Grand Stade FFR.[25] The 82,000-seat stadium, featuring a retractable roof and slide-out pitch, will be built on a former horse racing track in Évry, about 25 km south of Paris. The new stadium, estimated to cost €600 million, is scheduled to open in 2017.[23]


Although located at the crossroads of auto-routes A1 and A86, it is not advisable to go there by car unless you have reserved parking. The Stadium was built with a very limited number of parking spaces, which is why public transportation is considered the primary means of getting to the stadium. River shuttles are provided by the Canal Saint-Denis.

Public transport

Station Line
La Plaine – Stade de France RER B
Stade de France – Saint-Denis RER D
Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris Paris Métro Line 13
La Plaine – Stade de France RATP 139, 153, 173, 239, 253
Saint-Denis – Porte de Paris RATP 153, 154, 168, 170, 239, 253, 254, 255, 256, 268
Delaunay-Rimet RATP 239, 253


  1. ^ "Stade de France".
  2. ^ Bouygues website: Stade de France
  3. ^ Vinci website: Stade de France
  4. ^ France 1 – 0 Spain
  5. ^ website: Euro2016News
  6. ^ France 24 – 17 England
  7. ^
  8. ^ Heineken Cup final 2010 heads to France
  9. ^ France v Ireland called off
  10. ^
  11. ^
  12. ^
  13. ^ a b
  14. ^
  15. ^
  16. ^ a b
  17. ^
  18. ^
  19. ^
  20. ^
  21. ^ Plant Rugby news story
  22. ^ a b
  23. ^ a b c d
  24. ^ a b
  25. ^

External links

  • Stade de France Website
  • Stadium Guide Article
  • Stats for all rugby matches played at the Stade de France
  • Rugby World Cup 2007
  • Le Stade de France 3D model (GoogleSketchup)
Events and tenants
Preceded by
Rose Bowl
Los Angeles (Pasadena)
FIFA World Cup
Final Venue

Succeeded by
International Stadium Yokohama
Yokohama (Tokyo)
Preceded by
Soldier Field
FIFA World Cup
Opening Venue

Succeeded by
Seoul World Cup Stadium
Preceded by
Camp Nou
UEFA Champions League
Final Venue

Succeeded by
San Siro
Preceded by
Yokohama Stadium
FIFA Confederations Cup
Final Venue

Succeeded by
Preceded by
Commonwealth Stadium
IAAF World Championships in Athletics

Succeeded by
Helsinki Olympic Stadium
Preceded by
UEFA Champions League
Final Venue

Succeeded by
Olympic Stadium
Preceded by
Telstra Stadium
Rugby World Cup
Final Venue

Succeeded by
Eden Park
Preceded by
Olimpiysky NSC
UEFA European Football Championship
Final Venue

Succeeded by
Wembley Stadium
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.

Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.