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Stefan Vojislav

Stefan Vojislav
Prince of the Serbs (ὁ τῶν Σέρβων ἄρχων)[1]
Prince of Serbia[2]

toparch of the Dalmatian kastra of Zeta and Ston
Prince of Duklja /
Prince of the Serbs[1]
Reign 1018–1043
Successor Mihailo I
Died 1043
Burial Church of St. Andrew in Prapratna
Issue
Dynasty Vojislavljević
Religion Eastern Christianity

Stefan Vojislav (Serbian Cyrillic: Стефан Војислав, Greek: Στέφανος Βοϊσθλάβος[A]; fl. 1018–d. 1043) was the Prince of Duklja from 1040 to 1043. He had since 1018 been a Byzantine governor, until 1034 when he led an unsuccessful revolt that landed him in a prison at Constantinople. He managed to escape and returned home, this time successfully gaining independence of his statelet and expanding his rule over southern Dalmatia and its hinterland, which he would rule as Prince of the Serbs, a title signifying supreme leadership among Serbs.

He is the eponymous founder of the Vojislavljević dynasty.

Contents

  • Origin and early life 1
  • Revolts 2
  • Wars with Byzantines 3
    • 1039–42 3.1
    • 1042 3.2
    • 1043 3.3
  • Last years 4
  • Titles 5
  • See also 6
  • Annotations 7
  • References 8
  • Sources 9

Origin and early life

The contemporary writers call him a Serb, but do not mention his genealogy, while the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, a later, more dubious source, calls him a cousin to previous ruler Jovan Vladimir (r. 990-1016).[B]

Having reached its pinnacle during the long reign of emperor Basil II, the Byzantine empire entered a steady decline following his death in 1025. This was particularly evident in the Balkans, where the elimination of the perennial Bulgarian threat combined with an insensitive taxation policy helped spur liberation movements.

Vojislav held the title of archon, and toparch of the Dalmatian kastra of Zeta and Ston.[3][4]

The affairs of the Dalmatians, Croats, Serbs and others were overseen by strategoi in Niš, Skopje, Ragusa (Dubrovnik) and Dyrrhachium. Vojislav had regular meetings with Katakalon Klazomenites (Catacalon), the strategos of Ragusa, and at one occasion, kidnapped him and his party because Vojislav's wanted him to be the Godfather to his son Katakalon at his baptism.[4] This shows a close relationship between native leaders and Byzantine officers in the peripheral zone of the Empire after Basil's "reconquest".[3]

Revolts

Around 1034 (according to

Stefan Vojislav
Born: 1000 Died: 1043
Regnal titles
Preceded by
Theophilos Erotikos
as strategos of Serbia
Ruler of Doclea
1040-1043
Succeeded by
Mihailo I
Political offices
First toparch of the Dalmatian kastra
of Zeta and Ston
(Byzantine vassal)

1018-1034
Succeeded by
Theophilos Erotikos
Royal titles
Vacant
Title last held by
Jovan Vladimir
Prince of the Serbs
1018-1043
Succeeded by
Mihailo I
  • M. Jeffreys; et al. (2011). "Voislav Stefan, ruler of the Serbians". Prosopographical Reading of Byzantine Sources, 1025-1150. Prosopography of the Byzantine World. 
  • Fine, John Van Antwerp (1991) [1983]. The Early Medieval Balkans: A Critical Survey from the Sixth to the Late Twelfth Century.  
  •  
  • Stephenson, Paul (November 2006). "Partial Translation of Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja".  
  •  

Sources

  1. ^ a b c d e Scylitzes, 408-9
  2. ^ a b Cedrenus, ed. Bonn, II, p. 526
  3. ^ a b Paul Magdalino (January 2003). Byzantinum in the Year 1000. BRILL. p. 124.  
  4. ^ a b c Kekaumenos, ed Litavrin, 170-2
  5. ^ Vizantološki institut SANU, „Vizantijski izvori za istoriju naroda Jugoslavije (III tom)“ (fototipsko izdanje originala iz 1967), Beograd 2007 ISBN 978-86-83883-09-7
  6. ^ a b Fine 1991, p. 203
  7. ^ Sima M. Cirkovic (15 April 2008). The Serbs. John Wiley & Sons. p. 25.  
  8. ^ a b c Fine 1991, p. 206
  9. ^ Tibor Živković, „Portreti srpskih vladara (IX-XII)“, Beograd 2006 ISBN 86-17-13754-1
  10. ^ Cedrenus II, col. 275.
  11. ^ Paul Stephenson (7 August 2003). The Legend of Basil the Bulgar-Slayer. Cambridge University Press. pp. 42–43.  
  12. ^ Marko Vego (1957). Naselja bosanske srednjevjekovne države. Svjetlost. 
  13. ^ Fine 1991, p. 213
  14. ^ Kekaumenos 108.11-12
  15. ^ a b Kekaumenos 104.14
  16. ^ a b Sofija Božić (1 April 2014). Istorija i geografija: susreti i prožimanja: History and geography: meetings and permeations. Институт за новију историју Србије,Географски институт "Јован Цвијић" САНУ, Институт за славистку Ран. p. 434.  
  17. ^ Zonaras 17.20.7
  18. ^ Cedrenus, ed. Bonn, II, p. 526
  19. ^ Glykas 594.3-7
  20. ^ Slovo. 47-49. 1999. p. 22. a text of somewhat dubious value as a historical source 
  21. ^ http://www.scribd.com/doc/18757181/Tibor-Zivkovic-Forging-Unity. 
  22. ^ Fine 1991, p. 202

References

  1. ^ Name: His name is Vojislav (Greek: Βοϊσθλάβος), he added the self-styled title Stefan, originating from the Greek word Στέφανος (Stephanos) meaning "crowned". Kekaumenos also calls him "Vojislav the Diokletian"[14] and "Tribounios the Serb" (Τριβούνιος ό Σέρβος).[15] His name is transliterated in Latin as Stephanus Boisthlabus, and in English as Stephen Voislav. In the Chronicle of the Priest of Duklja, he is called Dobroslav, although this is the only source that calls him with that name.[16]
  2. ^ Origin and Geneaology:

Annotations

See also

Titles

Duklja stayed the center of the Serbian state which had earlier replaced (in terms of leadership) Rascia; it held this position for a few years, under the rule of his son Mihailo I in Duklja while the other principalities were unified with Rascia under Vukan of Serbia.

Vojislav spent the rest of his rule in peace and died in 1043. He was succeeded by his widow and their five sons - Gojislav, Predimir, Mihailo, Saganek and Radoslav.[13] He was buried in the Church of St. Andrew in Prapratna, a town between Bar and Ulcinj.

Last years

In 1042, the župan of Rascia (a renewed subordinate title, showing Byzantine overlordship[8]), Ban of Bosnia and Prince of Hum Ljutovid, received a large sum of imperial gold and silver for their support to overthrow Vojislav.[11] Ljutovid led the army against Duklja in 1043 but his army was ambushed at the Klobuk hill[12] of Konavli (then part of Travunia), by Vojislav, and defeated.

1043

The battle took place on the mountainous area between Bar and Crmnica after midnight, on October 7 in 1042. Prior to the battle a man entered the Byzantine camp and spread false information about a huge enemy army, causing panic among the Byzantines. Stefan Vojislav, along with three of his sons, led the Serbs into battle. The Serbs slowly moved down the hills along with shouting and blowing horns and trumpets so it would appear much larger than it really was. The Byzantines were trapped in the mountainous area, as the Serbs blocked the passage. They caught the Byzantines unprepared and managed to cause chaos among their ranks and after heavy fighting routed the remaining Byzantine forces. Some historical records claim that two thirds of the Byzantine army had been killed. Byzantine historian John Skylitzes (1040–1101) claimed that 60,000 Byzantines participated in the battle, but these records are considered inaccurate. Most historians agree that there were about 40,000 Byzantines. Numbers of the Serb army are unknown, but are considered to be largely inferior to the Byzantines. Voislav dispatched 50 Greeks to tell the rest about the huge victory.

In 1042, the new emperor Constantine IX decided to attack Duklja with an army based in Dyrrhachium and the neighbouring themes. The Byzantine army under Michaelus Anastasii was defeated and Vojislav ensured a future for Duklja without imperial authority.[10]

1042

The Uprising of Peter Delyan in 1040-42, who crowned himself Czar Peter II of Bulgarians, made another Byzantine incursion against Duklja unlikely as the Byzantines were now occupied by the Bulgarian advance.

In 1039, the Byzantine Emperor Radoslav, is noted as having killed a Byzantine military commander on the battlefield. Kekaumenos, a strategos sent for Vojislav, ended up imprisoned by Vojislav and taken to Ston.

1039–42

Rumija, where Vojislav defeated the Byzantine armies.
Victory over Byzantines.

Wars with Byzantines

By means of guerilla tactics and the distracting effects of other uprisings, he staved off several punitive expeditions and asserted partial control over the principalities of Travunija and Zahumlje. Thus, by 1040 his state stretched in the coastal region from Ston in the north, down to his capital, Skadar, set up along the southern banks of the Skadar Lake, with other courts set up in Trebinje, Kotor and Bar.[8]

[7][6]

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