World Library  
Flag as Inappropriate
Email this Article

String cosmology

Article Id: WHEBN0002864696
Reproduction Date:

Title: String cosmology  
Author: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Language: English
Subject: String theory, String phenomenology, Greg Moore (physicist), Brane, Introduction to M-theory
Collection: General Relativity, Physical Cosmology, String Theory
Publisher: World Heritage Encyclopedia
Publication
Date:
 

String cosmology

String cosmology is a relatively new field that tries to apply equations of string theory to solve the questions of early cosmology. A related area of study is brane cosmology.

This approach can be dated back to a paper by Gabriele Veneziano[1] that shows how an inflationary cosmological model can be obtained from string theory, thus opening the door to a description of pre-Big Bang scenarios.

The idea is related to a property of the bosonic string in a curve background, better known as nonlinear sigma model. First calculations from this model[2] showed as the beta function, representing the running of the metric of the model as a function of an energy scale, is proportional to the Ricci tensor giving rise to a Ricci flow. As this model has conformal invariance and this must be kept to have a sensible quantum field theory, the beta function must be zero producing immediately the Einstein field equations. While Einstein equations seem to appear somewhat out of place, nevertheless this result is surely striking showing as a background two-dimensional model could produce higher-dimensional physics. An interesting point here is that such a string theory can be formulated without a requirement of criticality at 26 dimensions for consistency as happens on a flat background. This is a serious hint that the underlying physics of Einstein equations could be described by an effective two-dimensional conformal field theory. Indeed, the fact that we have evidence for an inflationary universe is an important support to string cosmology.

In the evolution of the universe, after the inflationary phase, the expansion observed today sets in that is well described by Friedmann equations. A smooth transition is expected between these two different phases. String cosmology appears to have difficulties in explaining this transition. This is known in literature as the graceful exit problem.

An inflationary cosmology implies the presence of a scalar field that drives inflation. In string cosmology, this arises from the so-called dilaton field. This is a scalar term entering into the description of the bosonic string that produces a scalar field term into the effective theory at low energies. The corresponding equations resemble those of a Brans–Dicke theory.

Analysis has been worked out from a critical number of dimension (26) down to four. In general one gets Friedmann equations in an arbitrary number of dimensions. The other way round is to assume that a certain number of dimensions is compactified producing an effective four-dimensional theory to work with. Such a theory is a typical Kaluza–Klein theory with a set of scalar fields arising from compactified dimensions. Such fields are called moduli.

Contents

  • Technical details 1
  • Notes 2
  • References 3
  • External links 4

Technical details

This section presents some of the relevant equations entering into string cosmology. The starting point is the Polyakov action, which can be written as:

S_2=\frac{1}{4\pi\alpha'}\int d^2z\sqrt{\gamma}\left[\gamma^{ab}G_{\mu\nu}(X)\partial_aX^\mu\partial_bX^\nu+\alpha'\ ^{(2)}R\Phi(X)\right],

where \ ^{(2)}R is the Ricci scalar in two dimensions, \Phi the dilaton field, and \alpha' the string constant. The indices a,b range over 1,2, and \mu,\nu over 1,\ldots,D, where D the dimension of the target space. A further antisymmetric field could be added. This is generally considered when one wants this action generating a potential for inflation.[3] Otherwise, a generic potential is inserted by hand, as well as a cosmological constant.

The above string action has a conformal invariance. This is a property of a two dimensional Riemannian manifold. At the quantum level, this property is lost due to anomalies and the theory itself is not consistent, having no unitarity. So it is necessary to require that conformal invariance is kept at any order of perturbation theory. Perturbation theory is the only known approach to manage the quantum field theory. Indeed, the beta functions at two loops are

\beta^G_{\mu\nu}=R_{\mu\nu}+2\alpha'\nabla_\mu\Phi\nabla_\nu\Phi+O(\alpha'^2),

and

\beta^{\Phi}=\frac{D-26}{6}-\frac{\alpha'}{2}\nabla^2\Phi+\alpha'\nabla_\kappa\Phi\nabla^\kappa\Phi+O(\alpha'^2).

The assumption that conformal invariance holds implies that

\beta^G_{\mu\nu}=\beta^\Phi=0,

producing the corresponding equations of motion of low-energy physics. These conditions can only be satisfied perturbatively, but this has to hold at any order of perturbation theory. The first term in \beta^\Phi is just the anomaly of the bosonic string theory in a flat spacetime. But here there are further terms that can grant a compensation of the anomaly also when D\ne 26, and from this cosmological models of a pre-big bang scenario can be constructed. Indeed, this low energy equations can be obtained from the following action:

S=\frac{1}{2\kappa_0^2}\int d^Dx\sqrt{-G}e^{-2\Phi}\left[-\frac{2(D-26)}{3\alpha'}+R+4\partial_\mu\Phi\partial^\mu\Phi+O(\alpha')\right],

where \kappa_0^2 is a constant that can always be changed by redefining the dilaton field. One can also rewrite this action in a more familiar form by redefining the fields (Einstein frame) as

\, g_{\mu\nu}=e^{2\omega}G_{\mu\nu}\!,
\omega=\frac{2(\Phi_0-\Phi)}{D-2},

and using \tilde\Phi=\Phi-\Phi_0 one can write

S=\frac{1}{2\kappa^2}\int d^Dx\sqrt{-g}\left[-\frac{2(D-26)}{3\alpha'}e^{\frac{4\tilde\Phi}{D-2}}+\tilde R-\frac{4}{D-2}\partial_\mu\tilde\Phi\partial^\mu\tilde\Phi+O(\alpha')\right],

where

\tilde R=e^{-2\omega}[R-(D-1)\nabla^2\omega-(D-2)(D-1)\partial_\mu\omega\partial^\mu\omega].

This is the formula for the Einstein action describing a scalar field interacting with a gravitational field in D dimensions. Indeed, the following identity holds:

\kappa=\kappa_0e^{2\Phi_0}=(8\pi G_D)^{\frac{1}{2}}=\frac{\sqrt{8\pi}}{M_p},

where G_D is the Newton constant in D dimensions and M_p the corresponding Planck mass. When setting D=4 in this action, the conditions for inflation are not fulfilled unless a potential or antisymmetric term is added to the string action,[3] in which case power-law inflation is possible.

Notes

  1. ^  
  2. ^  
  3. ^ a b  

References

  •  
  •  
  •  

External links

  • String cosmology on arxiv.org
  • Maurizio Gasperini's homepage
This article was sourced from Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License; additional terms may apply. World Heritage Encyclopedia content is assembled from numerous content providers, Open Access Publishing, and in compliance with The Fair Access to Science and Technology Research Act (FASTR), Wikimedia Foundation, Inc., Public Library of Science, The Encyclopedia of Life, Open Book Publishers (OBP), PubMed, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Center for Biotechnology Information, U.S. National Library of Medicine, National Institutes of Health (NIH), U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, and USA.gov, which sources content from all federal, state, local, tribal, and territorial government publication portals (.gov, .mil, .edu). Funding for USA.gov and content contributors is made possible from the U.S. Congress, E-Government Act of 2002.
 
Crowd sourced content that is contributed to World Heritage Encyclopedia is peer reviewed and edited by our editorial staff to ensure quality scholarly research articles.
 
By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. World Heritage Encyclopedia™ is a registered trademark of the World Public Library Association, a non-profit organization.
 


Copyright © World Library Foundation. All rights reserved. eBooks from Project Gutenberg are sponsored by the World Library Foundation,
a 501c(4) Member's Support Non-Profit Organization, and is NOT affiliated with any governmental agency or department.