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Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

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Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Bloom's taxonomy is a classification of learning objectives within education proposed in 1956 by a committee of educators chaired by Benjamin Bloom, who also edited the first volume of the standard text, Taxonomy of educational objectives: the classification of educational goals[1] (1956).[2][3] Although named after Bloom, the publication followed a series of conferences from 1949 to 1953, which were designed to improve communication between educators on the design of curricula and examinations.[4][5] At this meeting, interest was expressed in a theoretical framework which could be used to facilitate communication among examiners. This group felt that such a framework could do much to promote the exchange of test materials and ideas about testing. In addition, it could be helpful in stimulating research on examining and on the relations between examining and education. After considerable discussion, there was agreement that such a theoretical framework might best be obtained through a system of classifying the goals of the educational process, since educational objectives provide the basis for building curricula and tests and represent the starting point for much of our educational research."[6]

It refers to a classification of the different objectives that educators set for students (learning objectives). Bloom's taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains": Cognitive, Affective, and Psychomotor (sometimes loosely described as knowing/head, feeling/heart and doing/hands respectively). Within the domains, learning at the higher levels is dependent on having attained prerequisite knowledge and skills at lower levels.[7] A goal of Bloom's taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education.[1]

A revised version of the taxonomy was created in 2000.[8][9][10]

Bloom's taxonomy is considered to be a foundational and essential element within the education community as evidenced in the 1981 survey Significant writings that have influenced the curriculum: 1906-1981, by H.G. Shane and the 1994 yearbook of the National Society for the Study of Education.

A mythology has grown around the taxonomy, possibly due to many people learning about the taxonomy through second hand information. Bloom himself considered the Handbook[1] "One of the most widely cited yet least read books in American education."[6]

Introduction

Cognitive

Skills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and critical thinking on a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives.

There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

Knowledge

Exhibit memory of previously learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers

  • Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts
  • Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology
  • Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures

Questions like: What are the health benefits of eating apples?

Comprehension

Demonstrate understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating the main ideas

  • Translation
  • Interpretation
  • Extrapolation

Questions like: Compare the health benefits of eating apples vs. oranges.

Application

Using new knowledge. Solve problems in new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way

Questions like: Which kinds of apples are best for baking a pie, and why?

Analysis

Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations

  • Analysis of elements
  • Analysis of relationships
  • Analysis of organizational principles

Questions like: List four ways of serving foods made with apples and explain which ones have the highest health benefits. Provide references to support your statements.

Synthesis

Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions

  • Production of a unique communication
  • Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations
  • Derivation of a set of abstract relations

Questions like: Convert an "unhealthy" recipe for apple pie to a "healthy" recipe by replacing your choice of ingredients. Explain the health benefits of using the ingredients you chose vs. the original ones.

Evaluation

Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria

  • Judgments in terms of internal evidence
  • Judgments in terms of external criteria

Questions like: Do you feel that serving apple pie for an after school snack for children is healthy?

Affective

Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel other living things' pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.

There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

Receiving

The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. Receiving is about the student's memory and recognition as well.

Responding

The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus; the student also reacts in some way.

Valuing

The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. The student associates a value or some values to the knowledge he acquired.

Organizing

The student can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within his/her own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learned.

Characterizing

The student holds a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on his/her behavior so that it becomes a characteristic.

Psychomotor

Skills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behavior and/or skills.

Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies.[11] Simpson (1972)[12] among other contributors, such as Harrow (1972) and Dave (1967), created a "psychomotor taxonomy" that helps to explain the behaviour of typical learners or high performance athletes. The proposed levels are:

Perception

The ability to use sensory cues to guide motor activity. This ranges from sensory stimulation, through cue selection, to translation. Examples: Detects non-verbal communication cues. Estimate where a ball will land after it is thrown and then moving to the correct location to catch the ball. Adjusts heat of stove to correct temperature by smell and taste of food. Adjusts the height of the forks on a forklift by comparing where the forks are in relation to the pallet. Key Words: chooses, describes, detects, differentiates, distinguishes, identifies, isolates, relates, selects.

Set

Readiness to act. It includes mental, physical, and emotional sets. These three sets are dispositions that predetermine a person's response to different situations (sometimes called mindsets). Examples: Knows and acts upon a sequence of steps in a manufacturing process. Recognize one's abilities and limitations. Shows desire to learn a new process (motivation). NOTE: This subdivision of Psychomotor is closely related with the “Responding to phenomena” subdivision of the Affective domain. Key Words: begins, displays, explains, moves, proceeds, reacts, shows, states, volunteers.

Guided response

The early stages in learning a complex skill that includes imitation and trial and error. Adequacy of performance is achieved by practicing. Examples: Performs a mathematical equation as demonstrated. Follows instructions to build a model. Responds to hand-signals of instructor while learning to operate a forklift. Key Words: copies, traces, follows, react, reproduce, responds

Mechanism

This is the intermediate stage in learning a complex skill. Learned responses have become habitual and the movements can be performed with some confidence and proficiency. Examples: Use a personal computer. Repair a leaking tap. Drive a car. Key Words: assembles, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches.

Complex overt response

The skillful performance of motor acts that involve complex movement patterns. Proficiency is indicated by a quick, accurate, and highly coordinated performance, requiring a minimum of energy. This category includes performing without hesitation, and automatic performance. For example, players will often utter sounds of satisfaction or expletives as soon as they hit a tennis ball or throw a football, because they can tell by the feel of the act what the result will produce. Examples: Maneuvers a car into a tight parallel parking spot. Operates a computer quickly and accurately. Displays competence while playing the piano. Key Words: assembles, builds, calibrates, constructs, dismantles, displays, fastens, fixes, grinds, heats, manipulates, measures, mends, mixes, organizes, sketches. NOTE: The Key Words are the same as Mechanism, but will have adverbs or adjectives that indicate that the performance is quicker, better, more accurate, etc.

Adaptation

Skills are well developed and the individual can modify movement patterns to fit special requirements. Examples: Responds effectively to unexpected experiences. Modifies instruction to meet the needs of the learners. Perform a task with a machine that it was not originally intended to do (machine is not damaged and there is no danger in performing the new task). Key Words: adapts, alters, changes, rearranges, reorganizes, revises, varies.

Origination

Creating new movement patterns to fit a particular situation or specific problem. Learning outcomes emphasize creativity based upon highly developed skills. Examples: Constructs a new theory. Develops a new and comprehensive training programming. Creates a new gymnastic routine. Key Words: arranges, builds, combines, composes, constructs, creates, designs, initiate, makes, originates.

Definition of knowledge

In the appendix to Handbook I, there is a definition of knowledge which serves as the apex for an alternative, summary classification of the educational goals. This is significant as the taxonomy has been called upon significantly in other fields such as knowledge management, potentially out of context


The taxonomy is set out:

  • 1.00 Knowledge
    • 1.10 Knowledge of Specifics
    • 1.11 Knowledge of Terminology
    • 1.12 Knowledge of Specific Facts
    • 1.20 Knowledge of Ways and Means of Dealing with Specifics
    • 1.21 Knowledge of Conventions
    • 1.22 Knowledge of Trends and Sequences
    • 1.23 Knowledge of Classifications and Categories
    • 1.24 Knowledge of Criteria
    • 1.25 Knowledge of Methodology
    • 1.30 Knowledge of The Universals and Abstractions in a Field
    • 1.31 Knowledge of Principles and Generalizations
    • 1.32 Knowledge of Theories and Structures (Bloom et al. 1956 p 201-204)

Criticism of the taxonomy

As Morshead[13] pointed out on the publication of the second volume, the classification wasn't a properly constructed taxonomy, as it lacked a systemic rationale of construction.

This was subsequently acknowledged in the discussion of the original taxonomy by Krathwohl et al. in the revision of the taxonomy[8] and the taxonomy reestablished on more systematic lines. It is generally considered that the role the taxonomy played in systematising a field was more important than any perceived lack of rigour in its construction.

Some critiques of Bloom's taxonomy's (cognitive domain) admit the existence of these six categories, but question the existence of a sequential, hierarchical link.[14] Often, educators view the taxonomy as a hierarchy and dismiss the lowest levels as unworthy of teaching. The learning of the lower levels enables the building of skills in the higher levels of the taxonomy. This scaffolding process is an application of Vygotskian constructivism.[15] Also the revised edition of Bloom's taxonomy has moved Synthesis in higher order than Evaluation. Some consider the three lowest levels as hierarchically ordered, but the three higher levels as parallel.[8] Others say that it is sometimes better to move to Application before introducing concepts. The idea being to create a learning environment where the real world context comes first and the theory second to promote the student's grasp of the phenomenon, concept or event. This thinking would seem to relate to the method of problem-based learning.

Furthermore, the distinction between the categories can be seen[according to whom?] as artificial since any given cognitive task may entail a number of processes. It could even be argued that any attempt to nicely categorize cognitive processes into clean, cut and dry classifications undermines the holistic, highly connective and interrelated nature of cognition.[original research?] This is a criticism that can be directed at taxonomies of mental processes in general.

Alternatives

Implications

Bloom’s Taxonomy serves as the backbone of many teaching philosophies, in particular those that lean more towards skills rather than content.[8][9][10] These educators would view content as a vessel for teaching skills. The emphasis on higher-order thinking inherent in such philosophies is based on the top levels of the taxonomy including analysis, evaluation, synthesis and creation.[8][9][10] Bloom’s taxonomy can be used as a teaching tool to help balance assessment and evaluative questions in class, assignments and texts to ensure all orders of thinking are exercised in student’s learning.

Connections to Literature

The skill development that takes place at these higher orders of thinking synergizes well with a developing global focus on multi-literacies and multimodalities in learning and the emerging field of integrated disciplines.[16] The ability to interface with and create media would draw upon skills from multiple levels of the taxonomy including analysis, application and creation.[17][18] Bloom's Taxonomy and Bloom's Revised Taxonomy continue to be sources of inspiration for educational philosophy and for developing new teaching strategies.

Further reading

  • Paul, R., & Elder, L. (2004). Critical and creative thinking. Dillon Beach, CA: The Foundation for Critical Thinking.
  • Anderson, L. & Sosniak, L. (1994). Bloom's Taxonomy: A Forty-Year Retrospective. Chicago National Society for the Study of Education.
  • The New London Group. (1996). A Pedagogy of Multiliteracies: Designing Social Futures. Harvard Educational Review.
  • Kress, G. & Selander, S. (2012) Multimodal design, learning and cultures of recognition. Internet and Higher Education. 15(1), 265 – 268. doi:10.1016/j.iheduc.2011.12.003

See also

References

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