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Telengana

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Telengana

Template:Pp-pc1

Telangana
తెలంగాణ
Proposed state

Map of India with Telangana highlighted in red

Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79Coordinates: 18°N 79°E / 18°N 79°E / 18; 79

Country Template:Flagu
Area[1]
 • Total 114,840 km2 (44,340 sq mi)
Population (2011)
 • Total 35,286,757
 • Density 310/km2 (800/sq mi)
Languages
 • Official Telugu
Time zone IST (UTC+05:30)
Largest city Hyderabad

Telangana (Telugu: తెల౦గాణ) is a region in the state of Andhra Pradesh in India. It was formerly part of Hyderabad State (Medak and Warangal divisions) which was ruled by the Nizams. Telangana is bordered by the states of Maharashtra to the north and north-west, Karnataka to the west, Chhattisgarh to the north-east and Odisha to the east. Andhra Pradesh State had three main cultural regions: Telangana, Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema. The Telangana region has an area of 114,840 square kilometres (44,340 sq mi), and a population of 35,286,757 (2011 census) which was 41.6% of Andhra Pradesh state population.[2][3][4]

Telangana comprises 10 districts: Hyderabad, Adilabad, Khammam, Karimnagar, Mahbubnagar, Medak, Nalgonda, Nizamabad, Rangareddy, and Warangal. Bhadrachalam and Nuguru Venkatapuram Taluks of East Godavari district (part of coastal Andhra Pradesh), which are on the other side of the river Godavari were merged into Khammam district on grounds of geographical contiguity and administrative viability. Similarly, Munagala mandal was added to Nalgonda district from Krishna district in 1959. The Musi, Manjira, Krishna and Godavari rivers flow through the region from west to east. Hyderabad and Warangal are two of the largest cities in Telangana.

On 30 July 2013, the ruling Congress party resolved to request the Central government to make steps in accordance with the Constitution to form a separate state of Telangana (the 29th independent state of Republic of India), within a definite time frame. The timeline for the creation of the new state involves an elaborate process, which has been allotted 122 days, or at least four months.[5] The city of Hyderabad would serve as the joint capital of Telangana and Andhra Pradesh for ten years.[6][7] The proposal is to be approved by the Parliament of India and The President of India before the formation of new state. On 3 October 2013, Union Cabinet approved the creation of a new State of Telangana by bifurcating the existing State of Andhra Pradesh.[8]


Etymology

Telangana and the language spoken in that region, "Telugu", is thought to have been derived from trilinga, as in Trilinga Desa, "the country of the three lingas". According to a Hindu legend, Shiva descended as linga on three mountains namely, Kaleshwaram, Srisailam and Draksharama, which marked the boundaries of the Trilinga desa.[9][10] This is roughly the region between Krishna and Godavari rivers or modern Telangana region.[11]

The term "Telangana" was designated to distinguish the Telugu region from Marathwada as part of Hyderabad State.[12]

Early Reference during Kakatiya rule

One of the earliest references to the word Telangana can be seen from the name of Malik Maqbul, who was called Tilangani, which infers that he was from Tilangana. He was born a Hindu named Nagaya Ganna and was called Yugandhar. He was the son of Dadi Nagadeva. Yugandhar was the commander of Warangal Fort (Kaṭaka pāludu in Telugu).[13] After promotion to commander status, he was addressed as Gannama Nayaka.

After the fall of Warangal in 1323, the Kakatiya king Prataparudra and his trusted minister and commander Gannama Nayaka were captured and taken to Delhi.[14] King Prataparudra committed suicide by drowning in the Narmada River. Yugandhar converted to Islam and was given a new name, Khan-i Jahan Maqbul Tilangani.[15]

History

Early history

Kotilingala in Karimnagar was the capital of Assakajanapada, considered one of the 16 great janapadas of early India. This area yielded coins issued by pre-Satavahana kings. Coins of Chimukha, the founder of Satavahana dynasty, and those cast in lead copper issued by later kings were found.[16]

The Satavahana dynasty (230 BCE to 220 CE) became the dominant power in the area. It originated from the lands between the Godavari and Krishna rivers.

After the decline of the Satavahanas, various dynasties, such as the Vakataka, Vishnukundina, Chalukya, Rashtrakuta and Western Chalukya, ruled the area..




Kakatiya dynasty

The area experienced its golden age during the reign of the Kakatiya dynasty that ruled most parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh from 1083 to 1323 CE. Ganapatideva, who came to power in 1199, was known as the greatest of the Kakatiyas, and the first after the Satavahanas to bring the entire Telugu area under one rule. He put an end to the rule of the Telugu Cholas, who accepted his suzerainty in the year 1210. He established order in his vast dominion that stretched from the Godavari delta in the east to Raichur (in modern day Karnataka) in the west and from Karimnagar and Bastar (in modern day Chhattisgarh) in the north to Srisailam and Tripurantakam, near Ongole, in the south. It was during his reign that the Golkonda fort was constructed. Rudrama Devi and Prataparudra were prominent rulers from the Kakatiya dynasty. The dynasty weakened with the attack of Malik Kafur in 1309 and was dissolved with the defeat of Prataparudra by the forces of Muhammad bin Tughluq in 1323.

Qutbshahis and Nizams

The area came under the Muslim rule of the Delhi Sultanate in the 14th century, followed by the Bahmani Sultanate. Quli Qutb Mulk, a governor of Golkonda, revolted against the Bahmani Sultanate and established the Qutb Shahi dynasty in 1518. On 21 September 1687, the Golkonda Sultanate came under the rule of the Mughal emperor Aurangzeb after a year-long siege of the Golkonda fort.[17]

In 1712, Qamar-ud-din Khan was appointed to be Viceroy of the Deccan with the title Nizam-ul-Mulk (meaning "Administrator of the Realm"). In 1724, he defeated Mubariz Khan to establish autonomy over the Deccan Suba and took the name Asif Jah, starting what came to be known as the Asif Jahi dynasty. He named the area Hyderabad Deccan. Subsequent rulers retained the title Nizam ul-Mulk and were referred to as Asif Jahi Nizams or Nizams of Hyderabad.

When Asif Jah I died in 1748, there was political unrest due to contention for the throne among his sons, who were aided by opportunistic neighbouring states and colonial foreign forces. In 1769, Hyderabad city became the formal capital of the Nizams. Nizam signed a subsidiary alliance in 1799 with British and lost its control over the state's defence and foreign affairs. Hyderabad State became a princely state among the presidencies and provinces of British India.


Post-independence

When India became independent from the British Empire in 1947, the Nizam of Hyderabad did not want to merge with Indian Union and wanted to remain independent under the special provisions given to princely states. The Government of India annexed Hyderabad State on 17 September 1948 in Operation Polo. The Telugu speaking people were distributed in about 22 districts, 9 of them in the former Nizam's dominions of the princely state of Hyderabad, 12 in the Madras Presidency, and one in French-controlled Yanam.

The Central Government appointed a civil servant, M. K. Vellodi, as First Chief Minister of Hyderabad State on 26 January 1950. He administered the state with the help of bureaucrats from Madras State and Bombay State. In 1952, Dr. Burgula Ramakrishna Rao was elected Chief minister of Hyderabad State in the first democratic election. During this time there were violent agitations by some Telanganites to send back bureaucrats from Madras state, and to strictly implement rule by natives of Hyderabad.[18]

Meanwhile, Telugu-speaking areas in the Northern Circars and Rayalaseema regions were carved out of the erstwhile Madras state as a result of the 'fast unto death' incident by Potti Sri Ramulu to create Andhra State in 1953, with Kurnool as its capital.[19][20][21]

Telangana Rebellion

Main article: Telangana Rebellion

The Telangana Rebellion was a peasant revolt supported by the Communists. It took place in the former princely state of Hyderabad between 1946 and 1951. It was led by the Communist Party of India.[22]

The revolt began in the Nalgonda district against the feudal lords of Reddy and Velama castes. It quickly spread to the Warangal and Bidar districts. Peasant farmers and labourers revolted against the local feudal landlords (jagirdars and deshmukhs) and later against the King of Hyderabad State. The violent phase of the movement ended after the central government sent in the army.[23] Starting in 1951, the CPI shifted to a more moderate strategy of seeking to bring communism to India within the framework of Indian democracy.[24]

Formation of Andhra Pradesh

In December 1953, the States Reorganisation Commission (SRC) was appointed to recommend the reorganisation of state boundaries.[25]


Paragraph 382 of the SRC said "opinion in Andhra is overwhelmingly in favour of the larger unit; public opinion in Telangana has still to crystallise itself. Important leaders of public opinion in Andhra themselves seem to appreciate that the unification of Telangana with Andhra, though desirable, should be based on a voluntary and willing association of the people and that it is primarily for the people of Telangana to take a decision about their future.

The people of Telangana had several concerns. Their region had a less-developed economy than Andhra, but had a larger revenue base which people of Telangana feared might be diverted for use in Andhra. They feared that planned irrigation projects on the Krishna and Godavari rivers would not benefit Telangana proportionately, even though people of Telangana controlled the headwaters of the rivers. It was feared that the people of Andhra, who had access to higher standards of education under the British rule, would have an unfair advantage in seeking government and educational jobs.[26] The commission proposed that the Telangana region be constituted as a separate state with a provision for unification with Andhra state, after the 1961 general elections, if a resolution could be passed in the Telangana state assembly with a two-thirds majority.

The Chief Minister of Hyderabad State, Burgula Ramakrishna Rao, expressed his view that a majority of Telangana people were against the merger.[27] He supported the Congress party's central leadership decision to merge Telangana and Andhra despite opposition in Telangana.[28] Andhra state assembly passed a resolution on 25 November 1955 to provide safeguards to Telangana. The resolution said, "Assembly would further like to assure the people in Telangana that the development of that area would be deemed to be special charge, and that certain priorities and special protection will be given for the improvement of that area, such as reservation in services and educational institutions on the basis of population and irrigational development."[29] Telangana leaders did not believe the safeguards would work.[30][31] An agreement was reached between Telangana leaders and Andhra leaders on 20 February 1956 to merge Telangana and Andhra with promises to safeguard Telangana's interests.[32][33]

Prime minister Jawaharlal Nehru initially was sceptical of merging Telangana with Andhra State, fearing a "tint of expansionist imperialism" in it.[34][35] He compared the merger to a matrimonial alliance having "provisions for divorce" if the partners in the alliance cannot get on well.[36][37]

Following the Gentlemen's agreement, the central government established a unified Andhra Pradesh on 1 November 1956.[19][38][39] The agreement provided reassurances to Telangana in terms of power-sharing as well as administrative domicile rules and distribution of expenses of various regions.

Anti-Nehru politics emerged with the repression of the Telengana movement; many within the Congress Party extended their hands to leftist causes. Feroze Gandhi was among them.[40]

Separate Telangana Movement

Main article: Telangana movement

There have been several movements to invalidate the merger of Telangana and Andhra, major ones occurring in 1969, 1972 and 2009. The Telangana movement gained momentum over decades becoming a widespread political demand of creating a new state from the Telangana region of Andhra Pradesh.[41]

On 9 December 2009 the Government of India announced process of formation of Telangana state. After Members of Legislative Assembly & Council from Coastal Andhra and Rayalaseema regions had submitted resignations in response to the announcement, as well as violent protests raised in those regions immediately after the announcement, the decision to form to new state was put on hold on 23 December 2009. The movement continued in Hyderabad and other districts of Telangana.[42][43]

Grievances of Telangana proponents

Telangana is the largest of the three regions of Andhra Pradesh state, covering 41.47% of its total area. It is inhabited by 40.54% of the state's population and contributes about 76% of the state's revenues, excluding the contribution of the central government. When the central government's contribution to revenue is included, Andhra Pradesh's revenue sources come from Telangana: 61.47% (including 50% from Hyderabad); from the central government: 19.86%; from Andhra: 14.71%; and from Rayalaseema: 3.90%.[44] Proponents of a separate Telangana state cite perceived injustices in the distribution of water, budget allocations, and jobs. Within the state of Andhra Pradesh, 68.5% of the catchment area of the Krishna River and 69% of the catchment area of the Godavari River are in the Telangana region. Telangana supporters state that the benefits of irrigation through the canal system under major irrigation projects is accruing substantially, 74.25%, to the Coastal Andhra region, while the share to Telangana is 18.20%. The remaining 7.55% goes to the Rayalaseema region.

As per Volume-II of Krishna Water Dispute Tribunal Award - "The area which we are considering for irrigation formed part of Hyderabad State and had there been no division of that State, there were better chances for the residents of this area to get irrigation facilities in Mahboobnagar District. We are of the opinion that this area should not be deprived of the benefit of irrigation on account of the reorganisation of States.".[45]

There are allegations that in most years, funds allocated to Telangana were never spent. According to Professor Jayashankar only 20% of the total Government employees, less than 10% of employees in the secretariat, and less than 5% of department heads in the Andhra Pradesh government are from Telangana; those from other regions make up the bulk of employment.[46][47][48] He also alleged that the state was represented by Telangana chief ministers for only 6 1/2 years out of over five decades of its existence, with no chief minister from the region being in power continuously for more than 2 1/2 years.[46] As per Srikrishna committee on Telangana, Telangana held the position of CM for 10.5 years while Seema-Andhra region held it for 42 years.[49] Proponents of a separate Telangana state feel that the agreements, plans, and assurances from the legislature and Lok Sabha over the last fifty years have not been honoured, and as a consequence Telangana has remained neglected, exploited, and backward. They allege that the experiment to remain as one state has proven to be a futile exercise and that separation is the best solution.[43][50][51][52]

According to activists, from 2010-12 over 300 young people killed themselves - sixteen by self-immolation - demanding more political control for the locals of Telangana.[53] According to Telangana Amaraveerula Kutumbala Vedika(Telangana Martyrs families forum)'s directory there have been 904 suicides in Andhra Pradesh from November 2009 to February 2013 demanding Telangana.[54]

Proposal to form a separate Telangana state

On 30 July 2013, the Congress Working Committee

Geography

Telangana is situated in the central stretch of the eastern seaboard of the Indian Peninsula. Of the three regions of the state of Andhra Pradesh,[56] Telangana has the largest area, with 114,800 square kilometres (44,300 sq mi). The Deccan plateau is drained by two major rivers, the Godavari and the Krishna. Some 69% of the Krishna River and some 79% of the Godavari River catchment area is in Telangana. Telangana is also drained by minor rivers such as Manair, Bhima, Dindi, Kinnerasani, Manjeera, Munneru, Moosi, Penganga, Praanahita, and Peddavagu and Taliperu. The area is divided into two main regions, the Eastern Ghats and the plains. The surface is dotted with depressions.

Climate

Telangana is a semi-arid area within Andhra Pradesh and has a predominantly hot and dry climate. Summers start in March, and peak in May with average high temperatures in the 42 °C (108 °F) range. The monsoon arrives in June and lasts until September with about 755 mm (29.7-inch) of precipitation. A dry, mild winter starts in late November and lasts until early February. With little humidity and average temperatures in the 22–23 °C (72–73 °F) range, this is the most comfortable time of the year.

Warangal
Climate chart (explanation)
JFMAMJJASOND
 
 
15
 
30
16
 
 
5
 
33
18
 
 
5
 
37
22
 
 
7
 
40
26
 
 
15
 
42
28
 
 
50
 
37
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85
 
32
25
 
 
170
 
31
25
 
 
160
 
33
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70
 
33
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10
 
31
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0
 
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Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: mustseeindia.com
Template:Hyderabad, India weatherbox

Natural resources

Telangana is situated on an elevated plateau. Two major rivers, Godavari and Krishna, flow through the area, but most of the land is arid.[57] Northern Telangana gets between 900 to 1500mm rainfall per year from the southwest monsoons. Various soil types abound here, including chalkas, red sandy soils, dubbas, deep red loamy soils, and very deep b.c. soils that facilitate planting mangoes, oranges and flowers. Southern Telangana gets 700 to 900mm rainfall per year, also from the southwest monsoons. The red earths with loamy sub-soils (chalkas) in these parts facilitate planting oranges, mangoes, vegetables, sapotas and flowers.[58] About 45% of the forest area in Andhra Pradesh state is located in Telangana, spread across five districts. Around 20% of the coal deposits of India are found in Telangana. The Singareni Collieries Company excavates coal for industrial purposes and for fuelling power generating plants. The power generated here supplies the entire south India. There are limestone deposits in the area, which are utilised by cement factories. Telangana has deposits of bauxite and mica.

Demography and language

According to the Backward Regions Grant Fund 2009–10, 13 backward districts are located in Andhra Pradesh: nine (all except Hyderabad) are from Telangana and the rest are from other regions.[59][60][61]

The religious makeup of Telangana is 84% Hindu, 12.4% Muslim, and 3.2% Sikh, Christian, and others.[62][63]

About 76% of the population of Telangana speak Telugu, 12% speak Urdu, and 12% speak other languages.[64][65] Before 1948, Urdu was the official language of Hyderabad State, and due to a lack of Telugu-language educational institutions, Urdu was the language of the educated elite of Telangana. After 1948, once Hyderabad State joined the new Republic of India, Telugu became the language of government, and as Telugu was introduced as the medium of instruction in schools and colleges, the use of Urdu among non-Muslims decreased.[66]

Culture and identity

The Hyderabad's Deccani or Dakkini culture has evolved on its own as a distinctive culture due to confluence of different people who came from different places to serve under the Golkonda rulers.[67][68]

Festivals

Sankranti, Bonalu, Bathukamma, Vijaya Dasami (Dasara), Vinayaka Chaviti, Ugadi, Diwali, Rama Navami, Tholi Ekadashi, Sammakka Saralamma Jatara, Varalakshmi Vratam, Naga Chaturthi and Nag Panchami, Krishna Janmashtami, Eid al-Fitr, Eid al-Adha, Muharram and Mawlid are prominent festivals in Telangana. Other festivals such as Holi and Raksha Bandhan are also celebrated with equal enthusiasm as in rest of India. Bathukamma and Bonalu are regional festivals of Telangana.


Art and literature

Telangana has a rich cultural heritage. Poet Pothana composed the classic SriMadh Maha Bhagavatamu, a Telugu translation of Sri Bhagavatham authored by Veda Vyasa in Sanskrit. Muhammad Quli Qutb Shah had the distinction of being the first Saheb-e-dewan Urdu poet, and is credited with introducing a new sensibility to the main genres of Persian/Urdu poetry. Other prominent poets of Telangana from the early era include Kancherla Gopanna or Bhakta Ramadasu, Gona Budda Reddy, Palkuriki Somanatha, Mallinātha Sūri, and Hulukki Bhaskara. In the modern era poets include such figures as Padma Vibhushan, Kaloji Narayana Rao, Sahitya Akademi Award recipient Daasarathi Krishnamacharyulu, Vachaspathi Puraskar award recipient Sribhashyam Vijayasarathi, and Jnanpith Award recipient C. Narayana Reddy, as well as P. V. Narasimha Rao, ninth Prime Minister of India. Samala Sadasiva has been selected for the Kendra Sahitya Puraskaram distinction. His book Swaralayalu on the subject of Hindustani classical music won the award for the year 2011.

See also

References

External links

  • Telangana NRI Association (TeNA)is a US based non-profit working towards the cultural and developmental issues of Telangana community worldwide.
  • Demand for Telangana State: genuine and justified., Vijaya Bhaskar, 2010
  • Official history of AP on AP Government website
  • Telangana movement article in US Library of Congress
  • Committee on Telangana surpluses – 1969 Report by Justice Bhargava
  • Telangana Information Task Force www.eTelangana.org  – by rashu.
  • Alternate link
  • Planning Commission Document: Regional Balances in AP
  • The Historical Context of Andhra and Telangana, 1949–56 – Economic & Political Weekly, February 20, 2010 vol xlv no 8
  • State reorganisation committee reports at Wiki Source
  • Fasting, Mining, Politicking? Telangana and the Burdens of History, D. Parthasarathy
  • Modern Hyderabad(Deccan) by John Law, 1914
  • The Hyderabad Political System and its Participants by KAREN LEONARD ; Source: The Journal of Asian Studies, Vol. 30, No. 3 (May, 1971), pp. 569–582 Stable URL: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2052461
  • Nizam – British Relations 1724–1857 by Sarojini Regani published 1963
  • Srikrishna Committee Report – Vol I (Main Report)
  • Sri Krishna Committee Report – Vol II (Appendix to the report)
  • Srikrishna Committee on Telangana: Recommendations at Variance with the Analysis - C.H Hanumanth Rao

Template:Godavari basin

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