Nickname(s): The Paris of Kerala[1][2]
Location of Thalassery in Kerala

Coordinates: 11°45′2.24″N 75°29′13.28″E / 11.7506222°N 75.4870222°E / 11.7506222; 75.4870222Coordinates: 11°45′2.24″N 75°29′13.28″E / 11.7506222°N 75.4870222°E / 11.7506222; 75.4870222

Country Template:Flagu
State Kerala
District Kannur
Municipality 1 November 1866
Named for Spices (Tellicherry Pepper, Cinnamon)
 • Body Municipality
 • Municipality Chairperson Amina Maliyekkal
 • Total 23.96 km2 (9.25 sq mi)
Elevation2.5 m-30 m 3 m (10 ft)
Population (2012)
 • Total 80,386
 • Density 4,148/km2 (10,740/sq mi)
 • Official Malayalam, English
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
PIN 670 1xx
Telephone code 91 490
Vehicle registration KL 58 –
Sex ratio 1000:1125 /
Lok Sabha constituency Vadakara
Vidhan Sabha constituency Thalassery
Thalassery is located in the southern part of Kannur District

Thalassery (IPA: [t̪laʃeɾi]) is a commercial town in the Malabar Coast of Northern Kerala (Kannur district) in India bordered by the districts of Mahe(Pondicherry), Kozhikode and Wayanad. It is the second largest municipality of North Malabar in terms of population. The Europeans gave the town a nickname-The Paris of Kerala as it was the town in close proximity to the sole French military base in Kerala. Thalassery's history over the past 500 years had enormous significance for the development of the state of Kerala. Thalassery municipality has a population just under 100,000.[3] Possessing an area of 23.98 km2, Thalassery is strategically located on the western coast of Kannur district on the Malabar Coast of Kerala. It is 22 km from the district headquarters at Kannur. The town is situated at an altitude ranging from 2.5m to 30m above mean sea-level.

Thalassery municipality was formed on 1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865 (Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)[4] of The British Indian Empire, making it the second oldest municipality in the state. At that time the municipality was known as Thalassery Commission, and Thalassery was the capital of North Malabar. G M Ballard, the Malabar collector, was the first President of the municipal commission. Later a European Barrister A F Lamaral became the first Chairman of Thalassery municipality.[5] Thalassery grew into a prominent place during European rule due to its strategic geographic location.[6] Thalassery has played a significant historical, cultural, educational and commercial role in the history of India especially during the colonial period.


Thalassery (Hindi: त लश्शेरि), which originates from the ancient Malayalam linguistic usage 'Thala' (Head) and 'Kacheri' (Office), thus Thalassery or 'head of offices'. There are also other arguments that the name Thalassery could also have been emerged from Talakkathe cheri a combination of 'Talakkate' (Upper or north) and 'Cheri' (Settlement). As the suffix 'ssery' is usually found for places in Kerala where educated or socially forward people settled, there are also arguments that it could be a combination of Thali(Brahminic habitation) and ssery i.e. Brahminic village. Thalassery could be an erstwhile Brahminic village, as there are enormous ancient shrines dedicated/connected to Shree Ramaswamy(Rama-Vaishnavite sects settlement are in various villages in and around Thalassery such as Tiruvangad, Andaloor, Makreri, Peralassery, Edakkad, Taliparamba, Cheruthazham, Mavilayi e.t.c in ancient period) in the region, such a huge number of Sree Rama shrines in close proximity are rare when compared to other places in Kerala. The administration manual vol. 2, 1885 of the former Madras Presidency cites research in regional legends and folklore to indicate that the puranic name of Thalassery was Swetharanya pura.[6] The Upanishad Acharya Swethakethu took penance in this place and it is said that Shiva danced ananda thandava in this place. It is the stala purana of Tiruvangad Shree Ramaswamy Temple. Thalassery was known as Tellicherry the anglicised form of the Malayalam name Thalassery.


The first European power which entered the region was the Portuguese, followed by the Dutch. Portugal established their military barracks in Cannanore(~30 km North of Thalassery). The French East India Company later on established their military units in Mahe (~5 km south of Thalassery). The European presence around Thalassery were aimed at the trade market(spices) of Thalassery.[7] The British was the last European power who came to the region, they established their presence in the region in 1682,[8] when they obtained permission from the Vadakkilankur Prince of Kolattunad to settle in Thalassery. In the following years, the British presence in the state of Kerala strengthened. During this period, there were many organised revolts held by the natives of the region against the British-Chirakkal Kingdom establishments. Among them was the revolt of 1704, organised by natives of Thalassery; this revolt was quickly crushed by the British forces due to its localised, non-nationalistic nature.[9]

The Malabar Invasion of Sultanate of Mysore (1766–1790)

In 1766, when Tipu Sultan (20 November 1750 – 4 May 1799) was just 15 years old, he got the chance to apply his military training in battle for the first time, when he accompanied his father on an invasion of Malabar. Hyder gave Tipu the best education possible from the best tutors of that time, he got military training from French military officers. Tipu displayed his diplomatic skill when he persuaded the Nawab of Hyderabad to ally on their side in an age of 17. He accompanied Hyder Ali in many conquests which trained him to become an extraordinarily skilled Military General.[10][11]

The Mysorian invasion drastically changed the Social(displaced most of higher casts to south, the mass exodus), Cultural (Islamic culture got induced in local culture due to conversion, brahminic settlements were washed away, exodus to Travancore), Economic (peasants directly paid tax to Mysore, better distribution of land among poor and rich), Administrative (the scattered provinces were joined together for centralised administration; the local rulers, naduvazhis were either exterminated or became puppets of Mysore) systems of Malabar. It eventually resulted into the fall of Malabar in the hands of British. Which also resulted in social, cultural and educational transformation of Malabar. Thalassery too was forced to bear the brunt of the Mysorian invasion as it was the second biggest city after Kozhikode in Malabar in that time.[12]

Retrospection of events that led to the Mysore invasion: Mamangam festival in Tirunavaya the main festival of the Chera dynasty was conducted by Vellathiri( Valluvakonathiri; the Valluvanad (Palakkad) Raja), with the title Maha Raksha Purusha (Holds the right to resolve dispuits between kingdoms or feudal chiefs of Kerala)[13] and got the authority to seat in the Nilapadu thara where the erst while Kulashekhara Perumal (Chera Emperor) seated. Technically this gave the Vellathiri an appeal of a higher rank than any other ruler in Kerala. The Samoothiri challenged this and in a series of Tirunavaya wars (1351 to 1363) led to the death of two of the Vellaattiri princes in the battlefield, Vellattiri at last withdrew from Thirunavaya. Samuthirippad took control of Mamangam and proclaimed himself as the Maha Raksha Purusha from the Nilapadu thara.[1]

Samoothiri repeatedly attacked Palakkad and after the successful war led by Chencheeri Namboothiri and annexation of few territories, Samuthirippad demanded one-fifth of the revenue as war tax. The feudal chieftains approached Mysore dewan for help. By 1757, the Dewan of Mysore asked Hyder Ali, in that time, a cavalry-infantry commander (Faujdar)[14] of the Mysore army stationed in Dindigul to help them. Hyder Ali sent his brother-in-law Maqdum Ali to invaded the Kingdom of Zamorin. Samuthiri lost in this war and promised a hefty war tax to Mysore. The Mysore army returned. Samuthiri once again attacked Vellathiri in demand for the tax on previous agreement. Samoothiri's army attacked the forts of Vellathiri and killed a number of Achans. Those who escaped from the massacre turned for help to Haider Ali. Itti Kombi Achan entered into an agreement with Haider Ali,[15] who agreed to help the Vellathiri to regain his lost territory from the Samoothiri[16] in return of alligience to Mysore; however the Vellathiri himself did not support the plan for Mysore allegiance. Hyder Ali invaded Kozhikkode once agan, as a repercussion of cheating by not paying the war tax to Mysore he tortured the royal family and the aristocracy and Namboothiri families in Kozhikode to an extent that the Zamorin killed himself by setting fire to the palace armoury and the royal family fled to Travancore. Hyder returned to Mysore. Prince Kappu Tampan joined the local Nair revolt against Hyder and besieged the Mysore garrison. After three months from Malabar, Hyder Ali once again invaded to crush a local uprising.[17]

The Siege of Tellicherry

In 1764 Hyder sent one of his emissaries Ananta Rao to Tellicherry to make a pact with the British to be neutral in forthcoming events. In 1766, Hyder Ali along with a formidable force is welcomed to North Malabar by the Ali Raja of Cannanore. The Mysorian army guided by Ali Raja and his brother seized the palace of the Raja of Kolathiri in Chirakkal. The Raja and his family fled south to take refuge in the English trading station in Tellichery. The objective of Hyder was to attack Zamorin for not paying the promised war tax.[18][19]

Hyder changed his policy by installing friendly chieftains as Governors that replaced Mysore civil officers. Prince Regent of Kolathunad became Hyders administrator, the Prince forced Kurungot Nair and Kottayam Raja's allegiance. Hyder could not control the Nair revolt in 1778. The Seven Years' War had its repercussions in Thalassery too. The Prince attacked Thalassery on Hyders order to save French Mahe, prompting the Zamorin and Kottayam Raja to ally with the British and recaptured most of their lost territories with Hyder. The British forces in Tellicherry went to combat mode and vigorously capitulated the Mahe and evacuated the French. Later due to the attack by the Prince in Tellicherry British left Mahe and came back.[14] It was here in Tellicherry fort, that the Captain of Hyder's army was imprisoned .[20][21]

In on October 1780, Sirdar Khan (Commander in Chief of Hyders army of Mysore Calicut province) laid a military embargo on Thalassery for 18 months. They blockaded the British and the local administration both in sea and land. It was only on May 1781 a reinforcement from Bombay came under Major William Abington and Thalassery was released from the siege and Mahe recaptured in 1772. Major Abington captured Dharmapattanam, Nettur and later captured Calicut on 1773. The failure of Hyder to capture Tellicherry fort boosted the morale of local Nair chieftains. They wiped out Mysore garrisons from all parts of Malabar and Mysore army remained only in Palakkad.[19]

The Malabar Conquests of Tipu Sultan

The period of Tipu Sultans invasion in Kerala (1755–1781) and (1789–1790) was locally known as Padayotta kaalam. As Hyder Ali started loosing his territories in Malabar he sent his son Tipu to recapture these areas. One of the principal victims of Tipu’s revenge was the Raja of Chirakkal, who having been accused of conspiring, was attacked and killed, and his body hung up after his death. In this raid the Mysore sovereign is said to have carried off large treasures plundered from the temples in Malabar. He crowned his achievements by compelling the princess of Cannanore (Arakkal Beevi) to marry her daughter to his son, Abd-ul-Khalik.[22] In December 1773, the British from Thalassery stormed Arakkal Palace, which showed resistance, consequently disarming Tipus garrison in Cannanore. They forced Arakkal Beevi into a peace treaty. By The Treaty of Mangalore in 1774, which concluded the Second Anglo-Mysore War, the English gave up their claims and declared kingdoms in Kerala to be allies of Mysore.[19]

Hyders death and Tipus retreat to Mysore (1781) for coronation was utilised by the British, Col. Fullerton captured Palakkad fort in 1783. Tipu came back in 1789 and captured south Malabar, but in this time he was not able to attack Thalassery and the North Malabar due to English factors.[18] However, turmoil wrought the region, that feared attack. Tipu Sultan marched towards Travancore, he reached Aluva(Battle of the Nedumkotta (1789)). The invasion of Tipu Sultan resulted in heavy exodus of natives towards southern kingdoms.[23][24][25][26] Unlike Hyder, Tipu had a different war strategy; the intend was to create terror in the area he invaded by crushing the opponents vindictively and creating rampage and obnoxious environment so that his further invasion to neighbouring territories gets easier, as the resultant exodus creates propaganda about the perils and the comparatively weak neighbouring states apparently becomes defensive in facing the attacks of the Mysorian army. He was highly successful in this strategy.[23] There is still an irony or an in-congruence about his attitude towards various religions. On one side he had Hindu ministers, to assist him in his native place in Mysore but on the other side he was a terrible persecutor in the place he invaded, especially in Kerala. So it is highly likely that this act of vileness during invasion could be a war strategy rather than a religious enmity. However the result of this was terrorising, there was mass exodus of Hindus and Syrian Christians from Malabar, South Canara and Kodagu. There were forced conversions, massacre and mass exodus. The Travancore ruler, Kartika Tirunal Rama Varma, received huge number of refugees from Malabar to his kingdom and henceforth was called by the title Dharma Raja. Even though it was his war strategy to create easiness in invasion by terrorising the opponents, this invasion created a taint in the image of Tipu Sultan.[27] He demolished innumerable Temples and some Churches in these areas.[28][29][30]

Tipu retreated from Aluva due to monsoon and upon information of British attack on SreeRangapattanam. He went to treaty with British in Palakkad and eventually the Mysore conquest ended. After the annexation of Malabar from Tipu Sultan the British tried to call back the Royal families and other major Nair and Namboothiri feudal lords and their dependents back to Thalassery who had fled to Travancore (Trivandrum) during the invasion of Hyder Ali and especially of Tipu Sultan, but this move was heavily opposed by some of the local rulers. This along with heavy taxation and laws that curbed free movement resulted in uprising against British. There were innumerable uprising against British which caused heavy casualty to the British forces, thousands of their men were killed, but most of the resistances were defeated and crushed mercilessly by the massive British forces. Thalassery has a great legacy in resisting the foreign rule. Pazhassi Raja, was one of the prominent leaders who fought against the British. His war strategy had devastating effects on the British army. He was an expert in guerrilla warfare, one of the foremost adopter of this strategy and the leader of one of the earliest uprising against the British in India.[31]

Tipus conquest removed the naduvazhi type of administration as they fled to Travancore, to a more centralised administration. He made most of the road network in Malabar. Taxation became based on actual production and directly to the government.[18]

Tellicherry-The Spice trade export hub of British East India Company

Thalassery had a unique geographical advantage as a trade market, it was in the border of Chirakkal, Kadathanad and Kottayam Kingdom in north, south and east respectively and also in the eastern area there was access to Wayanad and Coorg. Thalassery was lying ahead of the Periya pass from Wayanad, and was the nearest point from the coast.[32]

The Kottayam and Randuthara provinces were rich in the most pungent and strong variety of black pepper available in the world (Later known as, Tellicherry pepper)and more importantly these areas were also the source of the finest quality of Cardamom.[33] The advantages outweighed the military disadvantages due to the geographical position.[34] Gradually it became a major center of spice trade and a sea[35] port was developed.

It evolved as a commerce center mainly after 16th century. After negotiations with Vadakkilamkur (the north regent of Kolathunad kingdom)the British got permission to setup a factory in Thalassery. The factory site was located in the territory of Kurungoth Nair who disapproved the grant. The British set up factory in Thalassery in 1694 (Logan, Malaber Manual) but Birdwood suggests the date as 1683. After the setting up of Tellicherry factory, Randuthara Achanmār the chiefs of the four families of Randuthara (Poyanādu province – Edakkad, Anjarakkandy, Mavilayi e.t.c) went in allegiance to the British. In 1704 the descendants of Udayamangalam Kingdom who were having enmity with the Raja of Chirakkal(Kolathiri)joined with the Kurungoth Nair attacked the Company warehouse in Thalassery. These native uprising was neutralised by the British.

This prompted the British to request the Vadakkilankur (North regent)[37][38] to built a fort in Thalassery for the safety of their trade and commerce. The fort then was planned to be built in location owned by two people (a house owned by Ponattil Poduval and a plot owned by Vallura Tangal)called Thiruvallapan kunnu in a few meters of proximity from the sea,[37][39] the Raja of Kolathunad himself came for laying the foundation stone for the Thalassery fort.[40] The Prince of Vadakkilankur(North Regent, Kolathunad Kingdom) handed over the fort and adjoining land to The British on 20 August 1708. The fort was modified and extended by East India Company later on, mean while Kurungot Nair continued his attack, however later on in September 1719, he suspended the hostilities and formally entered into a friendship treaty with the British. The treaty gave the British permission to trade pepper in Thalassery without paying duty. It was after the construction of fort Thalassery grew into a prominent trade center and a port in British Malabar.[41] The British got the administrative authority over Malabar after the annexation of Malabar from Tipu Sultan in the Battle of Sreerangapatna. Thalassery thus became the capital of North British Malabar.[6][9] When English companies got united in 1702, the affiliated factories under Bombay was Karwar, Tellicherry, Calicut and Anjengo. The factories administration was governed by a Chief and councillors known as 'factors'.

In 1797 The British East India Company established a spice plantation in Anjarakandy (five tharas of Randathara)in Thalassery.[18][42] In 1799 it was handed over to Lord Murdoch Brown, a Scottish Royal for a 99-year lease.[43] Coffee. Cinnamon, pepper, nutmeg were cultivated there. The Anjarakandy Cinnamon Plantation was the largest cinnamon plantation of its kind in the entire world in that time. British East India Company established the first registrar office in south India, in Anjarakandy near Tellicherry in 1865, only to register the cinnamon plantation of Murdoch Brown. The Anjarakandy estate was 500 acres in area. He demarcated the land and appointed officers do demarkate the land of the natives. The British gave approval on his demarkation records. This was the start of a new model of administration not only in India but even in Asia.[43][44][45]

The construction of the Tellicherry Lighthouse in 1835 as an aid to navigation furthers the importance the British attached to Tellicherry.[46] The British East India Company built a new warehouse (paandika shala) in Thalassery in 1863 aiming at the storage and export of spices. From the British-built seaport in Thalassery a variety of spices such as pepper and cardamom were exported. Thalassery pepper (Tellicherry pepper), ground from locally grown pungent black peppercorns, is much sought after by chefs around the world. Tellicherry pepper is one among the three varieties of Black pepper. (The other two being Sarawak Black from Borneo and Malaysia and Lampong Black From Sumatra, Indonesia)[47] A ship wreckage of these merchant caravans is visible near the shore of Thalassery.[48][49]

Thalassery fort, with its massive walls, secret tunnels to the sea, and huge, intricately carved doors, is an imposing structure. The fort, once the nucleus of Thalassery's development, is now an historical monument. One of the entry of the secret tunnel is opened to the public. However the access is limited to a few meters walk inside the tunnel.

The British also established the district judicial court in Thalassery in 1802.[50] H. Clephen was the First Judge of the Zilla Court. During the British rule, jurisdiction of Thalassery Court extended up to Mysore. Overbury's Folly which was modernised recently making it one of the popular tourist spots in the town, was built by E. N. Overbury a local British judge in the 1870s.[51] The sea walls built on his order saved Thalassery from further sea erosion.[7][50][52][53]

The Pazhassi Guirilla Wars

This is the first major people uprising against the British in Malabar. Pazhassi Raja was a member of the western branch of the Kottayam royal clan. When Hyder Ali of the Kingdom of Mysore occupied Malabar in 1773 the Raja of Kottayam found political asylum in Travancore. Pazhassi Raja, the fourth prince in line for succession to the throne during this period, became one of the de facto heads of state surpassing several of his elder royals. He fought a war of resistance on Hyder Ali's Mysorean army from 1774 to 1793.

On account of his refusal to flee and resolve to fight invaders, people of Kottayam stood firmly behind the Raja who had not abandoned them in their hour of misfortune. Raja's troops were drawn from ranks of the Nambiar, Thiyya and also the tribal clans like Kurichias and Mullukurumbas.[54]

The war between East India Company led by Major General Arthur Wellesly and Collector Thomas Harvey Baber and the Pricely state of Kottayam led by Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja(1793–1797) and (1800–1805) in the forests of Wayanad caused immense damage and even defeated the company led by the well-experienced Major General Arthur Wellesly in several skirmishes. The Raja was a pioneer in guerrilla warfare. The company started bringing reinforcements and due to the fall of Tipu Sultan, the EIC was able to crush the revolt[55]

Tellicherry British Naval Barrack

Thalassery was the naval barrack of British Navy, as a sub unit of the Naval force stationed in Madras to counter the French Navy in Mahe to prevent supplies to Tipu Sultan. The British kept an eye on the Mangalore port by stationing in Thalassery.

As a consequence of the treaty followed by the Seven years war(1756–1763) between Britain and France for some time both of these nations did not involve in any military adventure. This in turn helped Tipu in easing his Malabar conquest. Upon a treaty with the Mysore, British shifted most of their barracks to Tellicherry.

  • The Tellicherry Naval Battle (1791)

In November 1791,[56] three battle ships ( Minerva (38 gun frigate) led by Commodore William Cornwallis(Later Governor General of Madras Lord Cornwallis), Phoenix (36 gun frigate)by Captain Sir Richard John Strachan and Perseverance by Captain Issac Smith ) anchored in Tellicherry confronted a French 36 gun frigate Résolute and a small convoy which was en route to Mangalore. The British naval ships tried to inspect the French vessels for military contraband. The British suspected that the shipments are for Tipu's army.[57] The French forces resisted the search and a naval war broke out in the seas of Thalassery. The British overpowered the French vessels, but no contraband was found. The skirmishes resulted in heavy man loss of natives as well as Europeans. Commodore M. Saint Félix,[58] of the French Navy came from Mahe in a 40 gun frigate La Cybéle to Tellicherry and warned the British. The incident had far reaching consequences, it worsened the British French relationships in India. His Majesties Consul(Britain) in Alexandria, Egypt broadcast the information that France has declared war and all the British and Dutch vessels were seized by the French Navy in Indian seas.[59] The information reached Fort St. George in Calcutta and Fort William in Bengal and war was declared on France to capture their territories all over India. Cybéle and Minerva fought another battle in Pondicherry which did not cede to Britain.[60]

  • La Preneuse Ambushment (1798)

In another incident in 19 April 1798, H.C.S Raymond and H.C.S Woodcote stationed at Tellicherry port was attacked and captured by the French frigate Preneuse (1795). La Preneuse was carrying an especially important set of passengers on this voyage, the two ambassadors of Tipu Sultan returning from an embassy to the French authorities on the Isle de France. These ambassadors had been trying to gain support for Tipu Sultan from the French, in his struggle against the growing power of the East India Company,[61] and to co-ordinate plans for future joint operations between the French and Tipu's forces.[62] The English suffered a huge loss as there was an especially large crew on board the Woodcote because she had just rescued the Captain and crew of the HEIC Ship Princess Amelia which had caught fire off Cannanore, on 5 April 1798.[63]

Embarking from Isle de France on 7 March 1798, with one hundred French offices and fifty private soldiers to act as instructors and advisors to Tipu Sultan's army, La Preneuse was bound for Mangalore which Tipu controlled at this time.[64][65][66] After the incident she left to Mangalore port. This incident provided the English with a pretext and reason to resume their attack on Tipu Sultan, which led to the fall of Seringapatam in 1799. [67]

The defencelessness of the shipping in Tellicherry anchorage was clearly demonstrated with this incident, a decision was taken to move the settlements main function to Cannanore, and with this began the steady decline of Tellicherry, as the garrison moved away to Cannanore.[68]

Indian Nationalist Movement in Thalassery

The Indian National Congress established in 1885 became the center point of the Indian Nationalist Movement. The Kozhikode conference of Indian National Congress in 1904 under guidance of the Congress and in 1908, a district congress committee was formed in Thalassery. V K Krishna Menon who did his schooling in Tellicherry (Thalassery) was an active worker of Tellicherry branch (started in 1916)[18][42] of the All Indian Home Rule Movement found by Annie Besant.[69][70][71] Mahatma Gandhi had a conversation with locals in Thalassery railway station, along with Shaukat Ali in 1934 en route to Kozhikode to attend Khilafat gathering.[72] There were innumerable freedom fighters in this area S L Prabhu, Kamala Prabhu, Mukund Maller, Dr. T V N Nair, Sardar Chandroth Kunjiraman Nair, K P Raghavan Nair, N P Damodaran, Adv. P Kunjiraman were a few among them.[5]

For the ship wrecked in 1806 see Tellicherry (ship)


Thalassery is in Kannur district.[73] The town has Dharmadam Panchayat in north, Eranjoli and Kodiyeri in east, and New Mahe in south and Arabian sea on west. The palm-fringed terrain of Thalassery has a scenic coastline and features four rivers, canals and hills with orange-hued rock. One of the four rivers is the Mahé River (Mayyazhi river). During the British Raj, the Mahé River was nicknamed the English Channel, because it separated British-ruled Thalassery from French-ruled Mahé. Muzhappilangad Beach,[74] the sole beach where driving is possible in Kerala (4 km long drivable area of the beach),[75] it is located within 6 km from the town centre. Unlike the topography of southern Kerala Thalassery region do not have lagoons(Kayal) instead there are innumerable rivers in the region. The delta formation similar to Sundarbans is not found because there is no flooding in the region. There is not much width to the plain land, it is limited to only a few kilometres in between the coastal area and the high lands. The north of Thalassery is Dharmadam an island area surrounded by two rivers and sea. In the eastern side, hilly areas start from Kuthuparamba area.[76][77]


Thalassery experiences a Tropical wet and dry climate under the Köppen climate classification. The wet season starts in June as the South-west monsoon first hits the coastal Kerala and continues until the end of September. A brief pre-monsoon Mango showers occurs sometime during April. Precipitation from the North-East Monsoon sets in during the second half of October through November.

Climate data for Thalassery
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 32.2
Average low °C (°F) 22.9
Rainfall mm (inches) 7.6
Source: WWO[78]


As of 2001 India census,[79] Thalassery has a population of 99,386, making it the 8th largest city of Kerala in terms of population. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Thalassery has an average literacy rate of 86%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 86%, and female literacy is 86%. In Thalassery, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. The Thalassery urban agglomeration is considered as consisting of the Thalassery municipality and panchayaths of Eranholi, Kadirur, Dharmadam, Muzhappilangad, Pinarayi and New Mahe with a present population of around 200,000.

Thalassery Assembly Constituency

The Thalassery assembly constituency consists of Thalassery Municipality and four neighbouring Panchayats namely Eranholi, Kadirur, New Mahe and Chokli. Dharmadam has been excluded from Thalassery recently, becoming a separate constituency.


The regional culture was heavily influenced and by the British, the Christian missionaries, the educational reforms and also due to the migration of a huge number of people, a majority of them was the Royal family, Nair and Namboothiri feudal lords and their associates, to Travancore during Hyder Ali's and Tipu Sultan's invasion was another factor, resulting in lesser social discrepancies between upper and lower casts between 18th century to mid 20th century. This was entirely different from Travancore Cochin area which was not under the Madras Presidency, where there were huge inequality in the society. So British Malabar and Travancore-Cochin had a small difference in culture and society in those days . The economic strength was largely increased to middle-east migration.

Thalassery was a pivotal place of progressive political and literary movements in olden times. In the colonial era itself Thalassery was the centre of learning in north Kerala. The first Malayalam newspapers, novels and short stories in Malayalam were born here. Earlier, the well known romantic poem in Malayalam, "Veenapoovu" (Fallen Flower) of Kumaran Asan was published from Thalassery. It's also the birthplace of the Communist movement in Kerala. Thalassery has a composite cosmopolitan culture. Rajya Samacharam, the first Malayalam newspaper, was published from Thalassery.[80]

Thalassery is one of the oldest pivotal places of the Indian Circus. Vishnu pant chhatre's Great Indian Circus's (Estd 1880 in Bombay, the first circus establishment in India) tour of Thalassery lead to the meeting of Chhatre with Keeleri Kunhikannan a martial arts trainer in the region.[81] Keeleri Kunhikannan established the first dedicated circus school in India in 1901. He is known as "the father of Kerala Circus".[82] A Circus Academy was inaugurated in Thalassery in 2010.[83]

Older houses in Thalassery are mainly built of stone in traditional Kerala architecture rather than using wood. The soil in north Kerala is more stable and has comparably more strength than south Kerala; so stones are the main building components in North Kerala and wood in South Kerala. The region is rich in vegetation and greenery. Religious rituals, cuisines, literature, martial arts, etc. are exclusiveness in culture of the place. The innumerable expatriates from the region are in the Persian Gulf, they are one of the major contributors to the region's economy and has influence in the culture of the region.

The Government of Kerala has included Thalassery in the heritage city project. The project includes the preservation of historial structures in the region. A museum of traditional arts in Thalassery is also envisaged in the project.[84][85]

Thalassery was meant to be the headquarters of the new district that was formed in Kerala after independence. However a consensus was reached with in the regional administrators to make Kannur as the headquarters as Thalassery was already a high population density town and Kannur had more opportunity to develop as there were lot of freely available space in Kannur in that time, as a compromise measure the district court was not relocated from Thalassery.[86]

Thalassery cuisines

Main article: '''Thalassery biriyani'''

Thalassery is also known for the Malabar cuisine, Thalassery biryani (in local dialect it is called biri-yaa-ni)[87] is known for its distinguishing taste. Unlike other biriyani cuisines Thalassery biryani does not use Basmati rice, Normal biriyani preparation else where, uses Basmati Rice while this Thalassery biryani uses a special fragrant rice called Kaima/ Jeerakasala rice ; this along with the speciality in recipes makes it one of the tasty dishes in Malabar.[88] The influence of Arabian/Mughal culture is evident especially in the dishes of Muslim community (However nowadays all communities makes most of these dishes) where innumerable tasty Arabic/Mughal dishes are made. As the preparation requires sealing of the lid with dough (usually old loin cloth or towel or even maida) so it is a variant of dum biriyani.

The Asian Green Mussel (Perna viridis), the natives makes varieties of dishes with the Green Mussels. It is called "Kallu-mma-kaya" (translation – fruit on the stone). These are naturally grown in beaches, on huge stones or rocks in contact with sea. Various dishes like fried mussel, fried paddy-mussel(Arikkadukka), mussel pickels[89] e.t.c.[90] Business is booming in this sector as the dishes are exceptionally tasty, however most of the artificial farming is done in rivers using coir ropes rather than growing green mussels in sea. The artificially farmed one for business purpose is less tasty than the naturally grown ones on stones near sea.[91] Thalassery natives are known for their generous honouring and serving dishes for guests.

Other exclusive Thalassery dish is Koyikkalu- This could be related to a bunch of French fries joined together. Pappadam-Pazham kuzhakkal is another exclusive cuisine found in Thalassery.


Theyyam the ritual art forms[92] are the apt depiction of the cultural heritage of North Malabar especially of ancient Kolathunad. Thalassery is one of the prominent center of Theyyam, it is known as 'Tirayattam' in the region. Theyyam are depiction of Shiva bhutaganas, Kali or her similes and other deities and cultural heroes are also worshiped as Theyyam. The drama is enacted based on ancient stories and the language used is 'Tottam pattu' a primitive form of Malayalam. Theyyam could be a reminiscent of the Buddhist influence in the region centuries ago. Theyyam is usually held from October to May every year. The colour of Theyyam is typically red, the painting on the face of Theyyam is undoubtedly an inexplicable wonder with immense artistic beauty. Velan one of the Theyyam is described in the Sangam literature 1500 years ago. It could have been a tribal ritual art which went to modifications due to the Buddhist and Brahminic revival of Hinduism. This art form is addressed as Kaliyattom North of Pazhayangadi Puzha, Kannur, as Theyyam to South of the river and as Tirayattom in places around Thalassery.[93]

Kalari Payattu

One of the prominent area of the martial art Kalari payattu in Kerala. The English East India Company to establish their authority destroyed the traditional military character of the community of Malabar and Major Dow, the Commissioners of Malabar, took steps for the same.

Mysorean invaders destroyed the feudal set up, traditional institutions, landholding patterns and the supremacy of the local rulers, along with the power and prestige of the militia of Malabar. The disruption and disappearance of the Naduvazhi's and the Nayar gentry from the reign, enabled the Mysore rulers to set up a centralised system of administration in the territories, under their authority. The disappearance of the feudal set up, disrupted the social and political pattern, leading to the decline of the Kalari institution.[94] On 20 February 1804, Robert Richards, the Principal Collector of Malabar, wrote to Lord William Bentinck, President and General-in Council, Fort. St. George, asking permission to take action against persons carrying arms, either imposing death penalty or deportation for life.[95] Lord Bentinck issued an order on 22 April 1804, that those who concealed weapons or disobeyed the orders of the British against carrying arms, would be condemned to deportation for life. At the time of the Pazhassi rebellion, British soldiers raided each and every house of the rebels to confiscate their arms.[96] Thalassery is one of the major centres of vadakkan kalari. Kalari Payattu had a revival after a resurgence of public interest from Thalassery in 1920, the public protest was led by C V Narayanan Nair.[97]

Archiological excavations

Cheraman Perumal-Chera Empire Fort

The sister of the last Cheraman Perumal, Sreedevi resided in Dharmapattanam (the present Dharmadam), near Thalassery.[98][99] The fort was located in a strategic hilly area where a 360 degree view of land and sea tens of kilometres in radius was clearly visible. It is currently the location of Govt. Brennan College.[100] The relics of the Chera Empire fort are seen in that hill near the college premises especially near to the water tank area.[101][102] Perumals nephew, Sreedevi's son, Mabeli is said to be the last known person of the Chera Empire. The legends of Islam in Kerala (Kerala Muslim History by P A Syed Mohammed) narrates that Mabeli was converted to Islam by Malik Bin Dinar and accepted the name Muhammad Ali, who later became the first Sultan Ali Raja of Arakkal (Arakkal Raja), the sole Muslim kingdom in Kerala – Arakkal kingdom. The last Cheraman Perumal, Rama Varma Kulasekhara Perumal, came from Mahodayapuram (the present Kodungallur) to Thalassery, to visit his sister, before leaving to Mecca. The legend behind the etymology of an erstwhile province located in the north of Thalassery(region in between the Kannur and Thalassery taluks governed by Randuthara Achanmar before 1947), named Poyanad i.e. poya-nadu[103] is believed to be place from where Perumal left Kerala.[104][105] There are also arguments that the Cheras kings and royalty may have been converted to Buddhism.

Megalithic Laterite Dome

A laterite dome of the megalithic age was discovered in Kodiyeri, near Thalassery.[106] Kannur University Anthropology Department head S. Gregory, who led the excavation, said similar excavations was done before in the nearby place Sreekandapuram 40 years ago. A rock-cut cave of mostly of megalithic age was found near the Jagannath Temple in Thalassery.[107]

Excavation of cannons

In June 2013 several cannons estimated to be around 250 to 300 years old were unearthed in close vicinity to Thalassery Pier.[108] It was one of the excavation of largest number of cannons in Kerala. This is a solid reminder about the colonial past of Thalassery, where the British established their first trade post in Kerala, which eventually led to the formation of British Malabar and later to the invasion of entire Kerala.[109]
In India the British East India Companyfirst used Cannons in Thalassery, according to Dr. K.K.N Kurup Vice-Chancellor of Calicut University. This was during the local rebellion led by Kurungoth Nair.[110] Later the war in Europe between Britain and France had its repercussions in India too. The Seven Years' War (1754–1763) the great powers of the world in that time; i.e. the European countries went to war between them in around the world in almost all continents. Britain and France fought war all over the world in dispute over their colonial territories, it affected the entire world and was in effectively a world war of that time. In India it was in the form of Carnatic war where French East India Company and the British East India Company fought for Godavari territory. Thalassery administered by the British and the neighbouring Mahe administered by the French had its repurcussions and these cannons discovered, according to Dr. K.K.N Kurup could have also been used as a defence by the British during this time. [110]

Religious places

Sree Jagannath Temple

Sree Gnanodayayogam, the prominent social organisation of North Malabar and the governing body of Sree Jagannath Temple, Thalassery, was consecrated in 1908 by his Holiness Sree Narayana Guru, in light of centennial celebrations. Sree Varadur Kunhi Kannan visited Guru Dev in December 1904 and suggested that Thiyya Community should have a Temple at Thalassery. Sree Narayana Guru Dev allowed Varadur to invite Kumaran Asan as his representative, and to convene meetings with citizens to ascertain the feasibility of a Temple for the community. Kumaran Asan, who was residing in Bangalore, accepted the invitation, and on his arrival the first meeting was convened at 'Parambath House' of Sree Cheruvari Shirastadar on 9 July 1905. The temple is open to people of all casts; during the period where there was huge caste discremination prevalent in the society.

Sree Andaloor Kavu

The presiding deity is Sree Rama; Lakshmana and Hanuman is also worshiped here. Andaloor kavu is well known for the variety of theyyams, the ancient ritual of North-Kerala. It is believed to be the early Buddhist shrine in Kerala. During the festival season the entire Dharmadam village accepts vegetarian diet, they purchase new utensils, clothes and paint their homes. Everyone will be accepted as guests at homes in Dharmadam during the temple feast season, which is also the festival of the village. The guests will be cordially treated with rice flakes and plantains. Villoppikkal (presentation of arrow), meyyalu koodal, kuluthattal etc. are some the rituals performed by the men of the village.[111]

Odathil Palli

In the heart of Thalassery stands the 200-year-old Odathil Palli and the Garden Mosque. The site of the Odathil Palli used to be a sugarcane garden of the Dutch. It changed hands to the British-owned East India Company. Odathil Palli is a destination that tourists and travellers come to see. The highlights of Odathil Palli are that it has the typical Kerala architecture, and it is in the heart of Tellicherry. The crown on the roof is made of gold. The mosque is still in use for worship today.

Thiruvangad Sree Ramaswami Temple

Sree Ramaswami Temple is a temple dedicated to Sree Rama, located in Thiruvangad. It is one of the four important temples dedicated to Sree Rama in Kerala. The other three are at Triprayar, Thiruvilluamala and Kadalur. It is Located on an elevated plot of 2.75 hectares with an adjoining temple tank known as Chira which extends over an area of one hectare. This temple has excellent wood carvings, terracota art work, mural paintings carved on wooden planks in the ceilings.

Kottiyoor Vadakkeshwaram Temple

Main articles: Kottiyoor Temple and Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam

Kottiyoor Mahadeva Temple is located 60 km east of Thalassery. It is located in Thalassery Taluk. Kottiyoor Vysakha Mahotsavam is a huge religious pilgrimage attracting thousands of pilgrims. It is a festival commemorating the Daksha yaga.[112]

Mamanam Shri MahaDevi temple

The Maha Devi(Bhadrakali) shrine is located in Irikkur, near Anjarakkandy. It is 39 km east of Thalassery. There are shrines for Mahadeva, Saptha Mathrukkal and Sasthavu. The shrine is a very revered one among the local community and people from distant places visit here. The shrine had been attacked by the Mysorean army and renovated later. A rare temple with fierce deity where the rites changed from Dakshninachara(Sathvika) to Vamachara(Saktheya) after renovation in 16th century few years later when the British acquired the administration.[113]

Lokanar Kavu

Lokanar Kavu is situated near Vadakara, 22 km south of Thalassery. It was established by ancient Aryan immigrants in the region. The 'Lokambika', deity of the temple is one of the four Durga Peetham of Kerala( the others being Moolambika, Hemambika and Balaambika (Devi Kanya Kumari) ) worshiped by Parashurama. The temple is the family deity of Kalarippayattu martial artists of the region and is mentioned in the folklores.

Other Major Shrines

St. Theresa’s Cathedral, Mahe(7 km from Thalassery), Shri Krishna Temple, Mahe (7 km from Thalassery), Shri Moozhikkara Bhagavati Temple, Chirakkakavu Bhagavathi Temple, Kottayam Shiva Temple, Sri Lakshmi Narasimha Swami Temple, Mariamman Koil and Shri Narayana Velayudhan Koil, Pilackool, Melut Sri Muthappan Madappura, Kaitheri Neelakaringali Amma Temple, Shri Porkali Bhagavathi Temple



The Thalassery Stadium, located close to the sea, hosts the Ranji Trophy cricket matches quite often. Lord Arthur Wellesley is believed to have introduced this game in Kerala in the 18th century for the British soldiers who were garrisoned in the Tellichery Fort.[114] India's first Cricket Club, which was later renamed as the Town Cricket Club, was formed in 1850 at Tellichery. It was due to the initiation of the Duke of Wellington, Arthur Wellesley[114][115][116] The Tellichery Cricket ground was the hub of cricket activities those days. It has been reported that an exhibition match was conducted in this ground to raise funds during the First World War.[114] English cricketer Colin Cowdrey's father was a tea planter in Thalassery where he used to play cricket in the 1890s, and is credited with having laid a decent cricket pitch there, in the early 1900s. Colin Cowdrey played in Thalassery during the British regime.

Thalassery Cricket Ground celebrated its 200th birthday in 2002 by hosting a match between the former cricketers of India and Sri Lanka. In 2008 a new stadium only for cricket was inaugurated in Conor Vayal near Venus Junction in Thalassery, as a project of the Kerala Cricket Association.


Educational Renaissance of Malabar started from Thalassery due to the influence of European Missionaries. Government Brennen College, Thalassery, founded in 1862, one of the oldest educational institutions is in India. The Kannur University campus is located in Palayad, north of Thalassery.[117] The Basel Evangelic Mission Parsi High school is one of the foremost English Medium school(Estd. 1856) in Malabar, Dr. Hermann Gundert was a tutor here. Kaikose Ruderasha, a Parsi donated funds to build the institute with the assistance of German missionaries.[118] Around 1970s' Muslim educational trusts such as MES founded by Dr. Abdul Gafoor, also played a considerable role in educating the Muslim community of the region.[119]

Sports Authority of India Centre, Nettur Technical Training Foundation, Kerala School of Fine Arts, Govt. Brennen College of Teacher Education, IHRD College of Applied Science, BKJM School of Nursing, St Joseph's Higher Secondary School, Sacred Heart Girls High School, Basel Evangelical Mission Parsi High School MES Bava Resedential School, Thiruvangad, Thiruvangad Girls Higher Secondary School, Madrasathul Mubaraka Higher Secondary School, Government Girls Higher Secondary School, Government Brennen Higher Secondary School.


Malabar Cancer Centre, Moozhikkara, Government General Hospital, Co-operative Hospital, Indiragandhi Co-operative Hospital, Josgiri Hospital, Mission Hospital, Santhosh Hospital, Tely Hospital, Kay paral Hospital, Shemi Hospital, Keerthi Hospital.


Trade and Commerce in Thalassery is mainly in retail and whole sale industry. There is no sea port now. There is not much industries surrounding Thalassery except a few like Rubco. The international trade from Thalassery is now only a fraction of the trade that happened in the glorious past during the British.


Railway station

Thalassery Railway Station is one of the major railway stations in Kerala under Palakkad Railway Division. It's a Class 'A' railway station. The path joins the Konkan railway line from Mangalore. There are recent efforts to create Thalassery-Mysore rail link.[120]

Bus station

Thalassery New Bus Stand(Private bus) (estd 1982) is a major bus station. KSRTC bus depot is located in Konor vayal, Near Co-operative Hospital. Passengers to Bangalore, Thiruvanathapuram and Madurai make use of KSRTC bus station. Inter-state buses to Karnataka and Tamil Nadu operate via New bus stand. Buses are available to Kudagu and Wayanad in a frequency of one in an hour and to Mysore in a frequency of one in three hours from New bus stand. Ticket reservation counters of Kerala RTC and Karnataka RTC (Online) are located in New bus stand complex. Private bus reservation centres to Bengaluru, Coimbatore, Mumbai and Ernakulam, also functions at New bus-stand.

How to reach

  • By air: The nearest airport is Kozhikode International Airport, about 93 km south. The works of Kannur International Airport has commenced recently. The new airport will be near Mattanur, a town en route Tellicherry and Coorg around 28 km from the city. The proposed airport can be accessed via Thalassery-Anjarakkandy road, around 20 Kilometers east of Thalassery.[121] Mangalore and Cochin airports could be alternate choices.
  • By road: Kanyakumari-Mumbai NH-66 passes through Thalassery. Kozhikode is 66 km away from Thalassery. Thalassery Coorg Road is a major road linking Kerala to Kudaku(Karnataka State). Interstate buses ply on this route in a frequency of one in an hour.[122]

Tourism destinations

Thalassery is an unexplored nature tourism destination until recent, however with the Thalassery carnival, The Beach fest in Muzhappilangad beach, Dharmadam beach is leveraging the tourism sector to boom.[123] There are 4 rivers (Anjarakkandi, Dharmadam, Koduvally and Mahe) around Thalassery town which is quite rare and 4 beaches (Muzhappilangad, Dharmadam, Thalassery (2 beaches)) and in Kannur area there are also numerous beaches like Payyambalam, Mappilabey, Meenkunnu Beach. The place being an important center of Kalarippayattu, health tourism for uzhichil, tirummal etc. has great significance.[124] It is aplace to know about the folklore art forms known as Theyyam and numerous historical important locations are in and around Thalassery.

Other Places of interests near Thalassery: Arakkal Museum(24 km from Thalassery), Bekal Fort(106 km from Thalassery), Ezhimala(76 km from Thalassery), Kerala Folklore Academy(27.5 km from Thalassery), Madayi Para(46 km from Thalassery), Parassinkkadavu Snake Park(37 km from Thalassery), Payyambalam Beach(23 km from Thalassery), Pythal Mala/Vaithal Mala(86 km from Thalassery), Aralam Wildlife Sanctuary(86 km from Thalassery), Kannur Fort(23 km from Thalassery), Parassinkkadavu Temple(37 km from Thalassery), Kavvayi Backwaters/Valiyaparamba Island(71 km from Thalassery), Meenkunnu Beach(31 km from Thalassery), Kizhunna-Ezhara Beach(32 km from Thalassery), Thottada Beach(14 km from Thalassery)[128]

Notable residents

  • Veera Kerala Varma Pazhassi Raja, (1753–1805) The leader of foremost struggle against British in India. His palace was located in Kottayam (Thalassery). Major General. Wellesley (Who was earlier one among the commander of allied forces during Battle of Waterloo which resulted in the defeated of Napoleon; Later known as, Field Marshal Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington ), came to Thalassery to fight against Pazhassi Raja after defeating Tipu Sultan in the Battle of Srirangapatna.[129][130]
  • Hermann Gundert, (1814–1893) German missionary and scholar, he is author of Keralolpathi (1843), Pazhancholmala (1845), Malayalabhaasha Vyakaranam(1851), Paathamala (1860) the first Malayalam school text book, Kerala pazhama(1868), Malayalabhasha Nighandu, the first Malayalam dictionary (1872), Malayalarajyam(1879)-Geography of Kerala, Rajya Samacharam (1847 June) the first Malayalam news paper, Paschimodayam (1879)-Magazine[131] lived in Thalassery for 20 years. He is the grand father of Nobel laureate Herman Hesse.[132][133]
  • C V Devan Nair, (1923–2005) The third President of Singapore (In office: 23 October 1981-28 March 1985)was a Singapore immigrant who hails from Thalassery.[134]
  • Wing Cmdr. Moorkoth Ramunni IFAS, (1914–2009) the first piolet from Kerala, first chief trainer National Defence Academy, Member of Jawaharlal Nehru's Office, Advisor to the Governor of Nagaland.[135][136][136]
  • William Logan, (1841–1914), was a Scottish historian, his works are considered as reliable historical reference of North Malabar by Government and Universities. He served as the district judge of Thalassery and the author of Malabar Manual, Logan's road in Thalassery is named after him.[1]
  • Captain. Edward Brennan(?-1859), English philanthropist and master attendant at Tellicherry port, established one of the foremost institutions in India to provide English education, The Brennan school establishe in Thalassery in 1862 for all caste and gender.[137][138]
  • M K Vainu Bappu,(1927–1982) was the president of the International Astronomical Union. Bappu helped establish several astronomical institutions in India——including the Vainu Bappu Observatory named after him—and also contributed to the establishment of the modern Indian Institute of Astrophysics. In 1957, he discovered the Wilson-Bappu effect jointly with American astronomer Olin Chaddock Wilson. He is regarded as the Doyen of modern Indian astronomy.[44][147]
  • M.V. Devan, Noted painter Sculpturer, former Chairman of Kerala Lalit Kala Akademi.[148][149]
  • Mambally Bapu, Entrepreneurer, started Kerala's first bakery unit, on a Christmas Day in 1880. [150][151]
  • N Prabhakaran Writer of short story, novel, travelogue, screen play, literary criticism and poetry. Kerala Sahitya Akademi award recipient.[152]
  • C V Narayanan Nair, (1905–1944)[153]the leader of revival movement of Kalari payatu in Kerala. He the founder of C.V.N Kalari, he led the local uprising to revive Kalaripayattu which was abolished by the British. In 1804 the Malabar Collector Robert Richards with permission from Lord William Bentinck had ordered to ban Kalaripayattu. arrest fighters and cease the weapons. He was[94] one of the main leader of the resurgence of public interest in kalari payat which began in the 1920s in Tellicherry.[96]
  • Keeleri Kunhikannan, (1858–1939) a martial arts trainer and gymnast, known as the father of Kerala Circus[81][82][154][155]
  • Ashish Vidyarthi, National film award winner.[156]

See also

The important locations in an around Thalassery

India portal
Kerala portal
History portal



Further reading

  • Thalassery Arivukal K. M. Govi. Thalassery: Sanjayan Samskarika Vedi, 2011

External links

  • The Map of Thalassery Town:Google Maps

Preceded by
Kottayam Province of Chirakkal Kingdom
Tellicherry, Madras Presidency, British India
1 November 1866 according to the Madras Act 10 of 1865
(Amendment of the Improvements in Towns act 1850)
Succeeded by
Kerala, India
(States Reorganisation Act, 1956)


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